To Armin Kesser

Dear Herr Kesser, 18 June 1949

I would like to thank you very much for your amiable review of my book Symbolik des Geistes.

You have succeeded in handling this difficult material in a way that gives the reader a real impression of my ideas.

I would only like to draw your attention to one small discrepancy: seen in psychological perspective, the concept of the self cannot be described as a summum bonum.

I have never done so anywhere.

This would be a contradiction in terms, since the self by definition represents the virtual union of all opposites.

It cannot be described as a summum bonum even in the metaphorical sense, because it is not a summum desideratum but rather a dira necessitas which is characterized by all the corresponding unpleasant qualities.

Individuation is as much a fatality as a fulfillment.

The psychology of the self is not philosophy but an empirical process which, being a natural process, could run its course smoothly if it did not take a tragic turn in man by colliding with his consciousness.

Yours sincerely,

C.G. Jung ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. I, Page 529

Carl Jung across the web:

Blog: http:


Facebook: Group:


Facebook Page:


Red Book:




Great Sites to visit:
1. Jenna Lilla’s Path of the Soul
2. Steve Jung-Hearted Parker’s Jung Currents
3. Frith Luton’s Jungian Dream Analysis and Psychotherapy: