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On October 26, Morgan told Jung of her intention to leave analysis and Zürich. Earlier on, after a session in which Morgan’s vision was criticized by Jung, she wrote in her diary and read it to Jung:

A strange oppression has been on me in the last two days.

It seems to be overwhelming and sad and awe inspiring.

It is different from pure depression.

It is as though it were breaking of the last shell of consciousness. It is like gazing at something full in the face . . . that I will be eternally alone—looking at these naked things always unprotected . . . veiling them and transforming these things that I see to the needs of each one—while I see them in the raw.

I have a feeling that this may be the real awakening consciousness of woman.

It makes me feel appallingly alone. (Oct. 14, 1926; 1926a)

On October 15 when she read this to Jung, he responded:

Well, so far as I understand you this looks like giving up of an illusion that you are protected from the world.

You say nothing stands between you and the great forces.

Of course I have stood between you and the great forces but now that you are about to leave nothing seems to. (1926a)

The feeling “appallingly alone” might have been a felix culpa perpetrated by Jung, as this may have allowed Morgan to arrive at a second final vision on her own.

The final pages of the Analytical Diaries are empty.

Nothing more is noted from the sessions.

Morgan created a final image on November 1, a day before her departure (see front cover image).

Christiana wrote, “Then I looked at him and saw that he was evil. I shouted at him. Old man evil. You are no wise man.

I put the sleeping woman across their back and leading the horses we descended” (1926a).

Jung’s change of heart, his judgment, his alternatively suggesting her need for an intellectual outlet and for conforming to a collective feminine role, all suggest his ambivalence toward Christiana Morgan and her visions.

This attitude is also detectable in the Visions Seminars.

Early on in the Seminars, Jung speaks to his audience with much enthusiasm about the visions and the one who had them.

First he says: “ . . . she is a saint, but a black saint; she is saintly in her blackness . . . Just in that blackness there is something saintly about this woman; that she is able to do something to the exclusion of all else produces the white light” (Jung 1997, 526–528).

In relation to the vision of the woman rising from the sea Jung says this: “It is the first experience really of the Self, something rising in her.”

“This woman has her own life, she is conscious enough, therefore she can leave the church” (Jung 1997, 587).

23. “The waters parted and from them arose a
woman crowned with light.”
(q 1997 Princeton University Press.)

“She kneels before the stream suffered enough to stand the influence of nature, she is now able to worship nature consciously” (588).

At other times, however, Jung’s tone was quite different, especially when encounters with Goddess symbolism appeared.

Here is one example:

Vision: I looked up in the sky and beheld a star which sent rays down to my forehead, and the crescent moon descended upon my head.

In this image the combined symbols of two Goddess figures, Inanna and Cybele, appear.

In the seminars, Jung identified Cybele with the crescent moon and said of his patient that she is inflated to be identifying with the moon goddess.

It’s just bunk, it is not real.

You would never be a moon goddess, that is mere inflation . . . You know certain people when they are up against their own fear of public opinion, quickly identify with one divinity or another, hoping for help, but it is no help because it is just bunk. (Jung 1997, 455)

On the one hand, Jung used Christiana’s material to substantiate his theory of the collective unconscious and the archetypes, but on the other, he accused her of inflation and identification with divine figures.

He could have amplified the symbol of Cybele as he did with many other

symbols in the visions, but he chose not to. Instead he attacked Morgan.

Cybele in her earliest Phrygian form was a Goddess of the Mountains (we will return to this point when we examine the final visions).

Matar Kubileya in Paleo Phrygian means the Lady of the Mountains (Roller 1999,


Her power was not just an attribute of the divine mountain where her shrines were placed, but a reminder of our entry to death through her doorways.

She was no nurturing mother; her other symbols were predators, felines, and raptor birds.

Some of these also appeared in Morgan’s visions without being analyzed or amplified.

The star is a symbol that links Morgan to Inanna.

She is the Goddess of Heaven and Earth, the color blue, associated with lapis lazuli. Morgan met her first in a vision when she was initiated into her sacred rituals of sexuality.

She was her guiding light, the star in the darkness.

She was guiding Morgan’s destiny and Morgan accepted this.

“My star rose far into the sky. I was utterly alone.” (from Manuscript v.3, Christiana Morgan.)

When the same star first appeared in a vision, Jung called it her individual fate, not “bunk.”

Inanna and Cybele were not amplified, however.

When there was opportunity, Jung did attend the Christ imago.

Was it Jung’s commitment to the renewal of the father imago in Christianity by inclusion of the dark shadow that repudiated and disallowed space for pagan goddesses in his psyche?

He admitted that “one understands nothing psychological unless one has experienced it oneself” (Jung 1925/1954, {343).

Morgan, on the other hand, often referred to herself as Pagana Morgana in her diary, fully acknowledging her acceptance of the pre-Christian era when the divine imago was invested in the Great Mother and other goddess figures.

Jung acknowledged the same intellectually, but not being a woman and often suspicious of the anima, he could not quite feel the power of the return and reactivation of the Goddess.

It was Erich Neumann, a late participant at the Visions Seminars, who began to explore this territory.

He spoke of his anima figure being black and earthy.

His work on the Great Mother was an exploration of the Goddess.

Neumann’s writings, The Great Mother, The Fear of the Feminine, and Amor and Psyche, are all explorations of the region of the goddesses.

After leaving Jung, Morgan defiantly continued with her visions post-analysis. Like a modern day Inanna, she continued her descent from the Great Above to the wisdom of the Great Below, the terrain of her shadow sister, Ereshkigal. It is the realm of the great Cybele as well.

Morgan journeyed to the dead in several visions.

At the Gate of Dark Will, she met with a woman who had returned from the underworld where she was taken by a Hades-like figure.

She spoke to her.

I said to her—Oh tell me what all this is. Where have you been?

made answer—I have been to a place where there is darkness in heaven.

The place where man and animal are one. The gate is the gate of Dark Will.

There is great suffering. I knelt at her feet.

I saw that in the flesh of her feet were delicate veins of gold. I said—Show me the way.

She took my hands saying Now you will suffer.

Then she took my hands and whirling me around flung me on the gate which had arisen anew.

Like the woman I was pierced by five spikes.

The smoke from my burning flesh rose and formed a black cloud above me.

The light from the star on my breast pierced the cloud of smoke.

I looked up and saw a flaming spiral.

I looked through the spiral far up into the sky and saw the woman in Blue.

She was in a red womb.

She raised her hands above her head and her hands made a tiny opening in the womb through which light entered.

I wept in agony.

My tears fell upon the red-hot gate and the gate crumbled to the ground.

I rose weary and faint.

I saw that I was surrounded by a dark red womb.

I lifted my hands to the woman in the sky and stood as she had stood.

The womb which surrounded opened in a tiny crack.

I looked up and saw the sun in the sky. Then I saw my star around the very sun.

A ray of light touched me. I was healed. The womb fell away. (Morgan 1926–27,MS Am 1820, Houghton Library, Harvard University)

In March 1927, she began to move toward her ascent:

I felt sick and afraid.

I knew that I must stand in her place and that as a ghost she would enter me and destroy me.

Tears of blood came from my eyes.

At last I saw that I was no longer black. The two women rose.

I said “Come with me to the gate through which I pass toward the mountain.” (Morgan 1926–27, MS Am 1820, Houghton Library, Harvard University)

In April, just before the previously discussed final visions, she saw the following one:

I began to ascend the stairs in the tower. At first they were stone.

As I went up they changed to marble, then to crystal.

When I came to the top I saw that this wider part of the tower which had obscured the mountain from my sight, was not made of stone, only papier-mâché.

Putting up both my hands I pierced the top of the tower.

I thought “It will split in two, and I will be cast again into the chasm.”

But it split into four. The part on which I stood fell forward to the mountainside of the chasm, and I

was thrown upon some green grass, at the foot of the mountain. (Morgan 1926–27, MS Am 1820, Hough on Library, Harvard University)

Now we arrive at the two final visions of the opus that I referred to earlier.

The first one, as I mentioned, is recorded as the final image in Volume Three of the manuscripts.

In it, the Old Man was instrumental in her release.

In her diaries, Morgan often referred to Jung as the Old Man.

Jung called the Old Man the acquired wisdom of the ages.

He may also have been a symbol for God the Father (see the image on page 13).


I lay at the foot of the mountain.

The halo of light on top of the mountain sent down white rays which pierced my breast and seemed to hold me to the earth.

I lay upon the ground with my arms outstretched. At my feet appeared the old man. I could dimly see him through the white rays of light.

Suddenly a man sprang forth from each of my hands.

A child sprang forth from my head.

The child rose into the sky and changed to a blue flame.

The blue flame changed to a wheel of blue fire which rotated swiftly and hung in the sky above me.

From my head came a blue light, from each hand yellow light, and from my feet come red light.

The old man approached me. He looked fierce and strong.

His white hair stood out about his face like a lion’s mane. He took hold of my hands. I cried out in pain saying that my hands were suffering.

He said: “Rise up”

I answered—I cannot, the white light from the mountain holds me to the ground.

The old man stood beside me, and raising his eyes to the mountain he called out in a loud voice.—Oh Mountain, withdraw your light from this woman that she may rise.”

The light which had pierced my breast was withdrawn. It formed into a circle of white light around me. It touched my outstretched hands and healed them.

I arose and began to ascend the mountain. (April 7, 1927; Morgan 1926–27, Manuscript v.3, MS Am 1820, Houghton Library, Harvard University)

The second vision was not sent to Jung but is in Morgan’s diary and is known from Claire Douglas’s biography of Morgan.

Its exact date is not given, but its inner logic followed the previous vision.

She is on the mountain. I ascended the mountain.

Rain fell upon me, and grass and flowers grew at my feet.

I looked up toward the radiant light on top of the mountain which shone down upon me.

Suddenly the light was obscured by a figure of a great black man standing in front of me.

He stood silent and still like a statue, his arms crossed. I approached him.

When I came near to him he tore the skin of his breast open, and stood with his arm outstretched holding the skin of his own body so that the bone and muscles and tendons of his body were exposed. Upon his chest was a mirror.

I looked in the mirror and saw my own reflection.

Above my head was the tiny winged child of gold with outstretched arms.

Around it was a golden light.

The man alternately hid and exposed the mirror. At last I said, “Cease this. I will crack your mirror.”

I smashed the mirror and placed my right hand in the breast of the man where the mirror had been.

The man closed his skin over my hand. I could not free it.

I struck at him with my other hand but I could not free myself.

Then I said, “Well, I will wait.” I

 looked at the man again. Suddenly I saw that he was transparent, that the light from the mountain pierced through him.

I cried out. “Why, you no longer stand between me and the light. You are transparent.”

The man said: “You have freed yourself.”

He disappeared. I ascended the mountain. (Private Diary cited by Douglas 1993, 172)

Claire Douglas rightly points out that in this final vision Morgan knows that “she has to free herself.”

As the great black man, the dark Dionysian principle became transparent.

We are reminded of his role as Jung defined it in the seminars, “He is the opener of the way, the psychopompos” (1997, 426).

He is the black man depicted in the drawing to whom she is wedded.

17. “I behold a Negro lying beneath a tree.”
(q 1997 Princeton University Press.)

Now that the psychopomp served its purpose and became transparent, he no longer stood between Christiana and the numinous blue mountain of the Goddess.

The blue of Inanna combined with the Divine Mountain Goddess Cybele was an entirely new symbol in Morgan’s vision.

When Morgan ascended the mountain of the Goddess, a new spirit, a new symbol

of the feminine in matter was imaged.

Jung told Morgan:

“You always have a brilliant blue background for the picture of the Mother because the Mother is Cosmos-Spirit—heaven and earth.”

Jung’s brilliant intuition and recognition of the significance of Morgan’s visions is to his credit.

He expressed this in the seminars:

. . . the fact [is] that the spirit of man is not masculine, [but] it belongs to the kingdom of the mother, to the unconscious female side. Man wishes that were not

true, and therefore he always tries to make something intellectual and masculine of the spirit. But the spirit in its original form is always female, it comes from the

Great Mother. (1997, 518)

Jung acknowledged that “the Demeter-Kore myth is far too feminine to have been merely the result of anima projection . . . Demeter-Kore exists on the plane of mother-daughter experience, which is alien to man and shuts him out” (Jung 1959b, 383).

Paradoxically, Jung both brought the depth and imagery of Christiana Morgan’s visions to the world and also stepped away fromthem.

Heboth upheld her as a conduit for the archetypal feminine’s emergence and diminished her as being inflated by an identification with numinous energy.

Yet, it also belongs to Jung, the all-too-human failure of a man who could not fully embrace

the woman, Christiana Morgan, and the return of the archetype of the Goddess in her visions.

To move forward, it falls to those of us who follow to examine carefully the visions and material surrounding them.

In conclusion, I’d like to emphasize the importance of exploring Morgan’s visions in their completeness.

The inclusion of the feminine, symbolically referred to as Goddess, is the task

of our time.

If we expand our consciousness a bit, we begin to see that our attitude to the Earth, to nature, and to our own bodies is radically shifting.

In the dire consequences arising from the well-documented abuse of Earth, nature, and our bodies, we begin to see that they will no longer tolerate the tyranny of our


They will no longer submit to the slavery to which we try to subject them. The Goddess is the life force in matter.

She has laws that have now to be learned and obeyed.

Her indwelling presence is the sacred energy, energy on which our egos have no legitimate claim. (Woodman 1997, 3)

To draw on Jung’s wisdom, if we do not revere her consciously as earth and earthiness in all her forms, we will experience her as fate.


References to The Collected Works of C. G. Jung are cited in the text as CW, volume number, and paragraph number. The Collected Works are published in English by Routledge (UK) and Princeton University Press (USA).


Douglas, Claire. 1993. Translate this darkness: The veiled woman in Jung’s circle. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Jung, C. G. 1911–12/1952/1967. Symbols of transformation. CW 5.

———. 1925/1954. Marriage as a psychological relationship. The development of personality. CW 17 . New York: Pantheon Books.

———. 1959a. Concerning mandala symbolism. The archetypes and the collective unconscious. New York: Pantheon Books.

———. 1959b. The psychological aspects of the Kore. New York: Pantheon Books.

———. 1997. The Visions Seminars: Notes on the seminars given in 1930–1934. Ed. Claire Douglas. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

———. 2009. The red book: Liber novus. Ed. S. Shamdasani. New York: W. W. Norton & Co.

Morgan, Christiana D. 1926a. Analytical diaries. Francis Countway Library of Medicine, Harvard University.

———. 1926b. Visions manuscript, Vol. Two (v.2). By courtesy of Christiana Morgan’s heirs.

———. 1926–27. Visions manuscripts, Vol. One and Vol. Three (v.3). MS Am 1820, Harvard Archives, Houghton Library of Manuscripts.

Nietzsche, Friedrich. 2006. Thus spoke Zarathustra. Trans. A. Del Caro and R. Pippin. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Perera, Sylvia B. 1981. Descent to the goddess: A way of initiation for women. Toronto: Inner City Books.

Roller, Lynn E. 1999. In search of god the mother: The cult of the Anatolian Cybele. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Woodman, Marion, and Elinor Dickson. 1997. Dancing in the flames. The dark goddess and the transformation of consciousness. Boston: Shambhala.

ILONA MELKER, MSW, is a Jungian psychoanalyst and certified sandplay therapist. She is a training analyst and

on the faculty of the C. G. Jung Institute of New York. She maintains private practices in New York, New York, and Princeton, New Jersey. Correspondence: imelker@gmail.com. Ilona Melker, Christiana Morgan’s Final Visions 29



Christiana Morgan analyzed with Jung in 1926. During that time through active imagination, she induced over 100 visions and painted from those inner images, both during the nine-month period she saw Jung and after the analysis.

Morgan kept Analytical Diaries, which included three volumes of notes and paintings.

Jung’s Visions Seminars are based on the first volume and part of the third volume. This article discusses the nature of the visions that were not included by Jung and raises questions about why he chose not to include visions from the second volume.