History of Modern Psychology Lectures Delivered at ETH Zurich, Volume 1, 1933-1934

Although I have often been called a philosopher, I am an empiricist. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 57

I define myself as an empiricist. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page  57

I am an empiricist, with no metaphysical views at all. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page  57

You see, I am not a philosopher. I am not a sociologist—I am a medical man. I deal with facts. This cannot be emphasized too much. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page  57

You criticize me as though I were a philosopher. But you know very well that I am an empiricist. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page  57

[M]y concepts are based on empirical findings . . . I speak of the facts of the living psyche and have no use for philosophical acrobatics. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 57

My business is merely the natural science of the psyche, and my main concern to establish the facts.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page  57

I have always been of the opinion that Hegel is a psychologist in disguise, just as I am a philosopher in disguise.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 58

We psychotherapists ought really to be philosophers or philosophic doctors—or rather . . . we already are so, though we are unwilling to admit it. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 58

This [Helene Preiswerk] was the one great experience which wiped out all my earlier philosophy and made it possible for me to achieve a psychological point of view. I had discovered some objective facts about the human psyche. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 62

There are only a few heaven-inspired minds who understand me. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934 Page 63.

sychology proper appears only with the dawn of the age of Enlightenment at the end of the seventeenth century, and we will follow its development through a long line of philosophers and scientists who made the manifestations of the psyche their field of study.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 107

Still for Descartes (1596–1650), the soul is quite simply thought directed by the will. In his time, the whole of scientific interest was not yet focused on the human soul, but flowed outward to concrete objects.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 107

The age of science coincided with the age of discovery, that is, the discovery of the surface of the world. Thus, science was only interested in what could be touched.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 107

This strange fact—namely, that phenomena of the soul were still contained within the religious sphere—holds true wherever religion is still alive.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 108

The Hypnerotomachia Poliphili is an important document humain, and actually represents the secret psychology of the Renaissance, namely, that which had struggled free from the grip of the symbol.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 109

In earlier days, the healing of the psyche was regarded as Christ’s prerogative, the task belonged to religion, for we suffered then only as part of a collective suffering. It was a new point of view to look upon the individual psyche as something whole that also suffers individually.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 110

Thus, psychology was at first an entirely Protestant affair, then it became the business of the Enlightenment man, the skeptic, and the freethinker. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 110

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716), an encyclopedic genius and a celebrated philosopher in his day, made the first explicit contribution to what we call psychology today.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 110

Johann Nikolaus Tetens (1736–1807) 77 went even a step further. He is the actual founder of experimental, physiological psychology, which later flourished before World War One in the era of Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920).  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 112

This age peaked in the great critical era whose pre-eminent figure was Immanuel Kant (1724–1804). His critique of knowledge also imposed boundaries on psychology.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 113

As a Privatdocent at the University of Zurich, Jung had lectured there from 1905 to 1913. He had resigned consciously, deliberately,” feeling that he had to make a “choice of either continuing my academic career . . . or following the laws of my inner personality.”  ~ ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 113 fn 56

Etienne Bonnot de Condillac (1715–1780), 112 who took holy orders and later became an abbé, was La Mettrie’s contemporary, but survived him by many years. From his love affair with one Mademoiselle Ferrand, Condillac learned that all psychic life originates in sensation. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 130

What I have practiced is simply a comparative phenomenology of the mind, nothing else. . . . There is only one method: the comparative method. ~Carl Jung, C.G. Jung Speaking, Page 220

As a matter of fact it was my intention to write in such a way that fools get scared and only true scholars and seekers can enjoy its reading. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. 1, Page 415

Personally, I am convinced that not only people but also animals have souls. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 141

My personal view is that no religious truth is relative, but that each is true in itself. There is no logical standard of comparison. Experiences exist in their own right. These are true and genuine psychological experiences. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 141

For the primitives that I encountered the rising of the sun was a religious experience. Were I to criticize these matters, I would be guilty of incredible stupidity from the outset!  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 141-142

Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776–1841), for instance, followed the work of the English psychologists Hume and Hartley, and, like these, developed a psychology of association.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 142

Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801–1887) is the founder of a new psychological point of view, namely so-called psychophysics, which played an essential role in the development of psychology.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 142

Fechner’s great achievement is his distinction between an empirical inner world and an empirical outer world. He speculates even further in assuming that not only the human body but also all living bodies, or any body per se, possess an “interior,” that is to say, “self-appearance.”  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 143

For instance, Mother Earth is animated and possesses a soul, which is a by far more comprehensive being than the human soul. She conducts herself like the soul of an angel that embraces all human souls. The totality of human brains thus constitutes the brain of the Earth soul. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 143

The highest, omniscient essence of the Godhead is the soul of the universe.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 143

Carus [1789-1869[ was the first to speak of the “unconscious,” and his writings comprise highly modern points of view on it. For instance, he observed that the “key to the knowledge of the nature of the conscious life of the soul lies in the region of the unconscious.” ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 143

Carus regards the unconscious as human will and intelligence assuming a cosmic extent. It is a cosmic will, a cosmic intelligence, which creates things and produces consciousness through the individual’s unconscious.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 144

The next link in the chain is Arthur Schopenhauer (1788–1860), who is a great phenomenon, and whose message for the world is of utmost significance. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 144

But the genius of Schopenhauer brought the world an answer, for which thousands had groped in vain in the dark, and which remains unaddressed in all these empirical philosophies: the voice of suffering. He is the first to   that the human psyche means suffering, and not only order and purpose. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 145

In this hour of upheaval and destruction, however, the human instinct achieved a compensatory feat: a Frenchman, Anquetil Duperron (1731–1805), went to the East in order to seek the truth there. It was as if Europe had been a psychological being that looked for a new hope in place of the one it had lost. Duperron became a Buddhist monk and translated the Upanishads into Latin.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 146

The first rays of Eastern light poured into the cracks made by the French Revolution, and, as France had destroyed, so it was France who first brought something new and living to broken hopes.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 146

One such account is Justinus Kerner’s (1786–1862) Die Seherin von Prevorst (1829) [The Seeress of Prevorst]. This is not a work of literature,

but actually a case history, that is to say, an account of a curious and remarkable “psychic” personality. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 147

Justinus Kerneer’s The Seeress of Prevorst is not a case history in a modern sense, but as it were a dubious account of one of the peculiar and romantic lives that were quite common at the time. Kerner belonged to the school of Romanticists. He was not a scientist, ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 154

You are simply unaware that your own case exhibits all these basic facts, too, only they lie concealed in the dark background of your psyche. . . . The ideas that I have set forth in my lectures on the basis of this case have already been published, and I am not to blame if these are not more widely known! ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 65

It is extremely rare that someone is willing to abandon the present position of his consciousness. Once consciousness has claimed a certain resting point, it can barely be shifted from its localization. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 67

The Seeress was a normal, healthy, and happy child. Soon, however, it was noticed that she had a great number of colorful and graphic dreams. What struck people was that these dreams often came true.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 154

The child [Seeress] began to play with hazel rods and soon proved to be a good diviner. Divination was popular among farmers at the time, and she had probably observed some of them looking for the location of water veins. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 155

It happened to me that I attended the palaver of some highly respectable Negroes. Naively I asked them whether they had ever seen a ghost. They all averted their gaze and looked as if I myself had just conjured up the most frightful specter. One should not mention ghosts, for they are the unspeakables.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 156

It will be proved . . . that the human soul also in this life forms an indissoluble communion with all immaterial natures of the spirit world, that, alternately, it acts upon and receives impressions from that world of which nevertheless it is not conscious while it is still man and as long as everything is in proper condition. ~Emmanuel Kant, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 157

In my opinion, “second sight” is not an illness, but a gift that is not as such pathological—otherwise every other gift would be pathological, too, and we would be obliged to speak of an “intelligence disease,” an “art disease,” and so forth. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 157

The particular fate of the Seeress became apparent from then on. The death of the old priest was the experience that made clear to her that she would live more with the dead than with the living.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 159

I have chosen this particular case, and am treating it in detail, in order to show you the immense reality of the inner world. There are a considerable number of people whose psychology is somewhat similar, in that from the outset the outer world means less to them than this “back-world.”  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 159

I have known cases where people became as it were somnambulists and disappeared into the unconscious. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 59

But behind our consciousness there stands a perceiving subject, and this is no tabula rasa. This subject is not simply another exterior, but instead it comes endowed with a background, with whose help it is able to interpret perceptions in the first place. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 160

There is no escape from this psychic background with which we enter life, it can only be accepted. Endowed with it, however, we must comprehend the world according to this disposition.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 160

Clairvoyance more or less bears out this point: as if those people were able to see around the corner; or they hear things other people don’t. Something somehow reveals itself from within—or from “behind”; it does not come from the frontside, not from the clear world of consciousness, and it is not perceived by the sensory organs. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 166

This “I”—what a peculiar matter it is! First of all, it is something subjective. Nothing seems to be behind it, and yet you are able to think about the “I.” We can objectify it and make it the subject matter of our thinking.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 168

There are a great number of cases, however, in which this “vision” corresponds to nothing in reality. In these cases a subjective factor is at play, a dark point that lies behind us. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 169

Manichaeism explains the waxing and waning of the moon each month as its filling with the souls of the deceased until it is filled completely, turns towards the sun, gives the souls to it and thus is on the wane again. Then a new circle begins. This idea was brought from Beijing to southern France through the heretic teachings of the Albigenses. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 179

Behind lurks a dark superstition, and yet our entire scientific world has emerged from precisely such a dark superstition, from a world of magic. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 192

The second correspondent enquires whether human consciousness is identical to the sum of knowledge about psychic processes? In response, I would maintain that knowledge is self-evidently consciousness. Everything associated with the I is, of course, conscious. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 185

We can no longer ascertain the facts in the preceding case, but I have observed countless times that dreams and premonitions presaging the future do exist.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 197

Children and adolescents must forget the background. A child who remembers the background for too long would become inept at entering the world. Young people must erect many walls between the background and the subject so that they can believe in the world.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 216

Space is a necessary representation, a priori, that is the ground of all outer intuitions. One can never represent that there is no space, though one can very well think that there are no objects to be encountered in it.  ~Emmanuel Kant, Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 198

If time and space are relative dimensions, they cannot have absolute validity. Consequently, we must assume that an absolute reality has different properties from our spatial-temporal reality: in other words, there exists a space that is unlike our space, and a time that is unlike our time. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 198

Another case is Professor Heim, who once fell down a mountain and revisited his entire life during the fall. Such cases seem to suggest that in certain circumstances the psyche needs only an unimaginably small amount of time. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 199

The actual soul, the objectively psychic, thus possesses qualities that border on nonspatiality and atemporality.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 200

The ancients understood this far better than we do; they did not speak, therefore, of being in love, but of being possessed or hit by a God. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 201

It is well established, however, that very “normal” people are compensated madmen. Normality is always slightly suspicious. I’m not just joking, but this has been the bitterest experience of my life.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 202

The truly normal person has no need to be always correct, or to stress his normality. He is full of mistakes, commits follies, lacks modesty, and does not hold normal views.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 202

The oldest depictions of circles, so-called sun wheels, date to the Paleolithic period. Please note that wheels did not yet exist at the time; the first wheels appeared in the “Wooden Age.” ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 204

The notion that souls wander from the moon to the stars is not new, either: stars have been associated with birth and death since time immemorial. Meteors are souls. Or when a Roman Caesar died the astronomers had to find a new star in the sky to account for his soul.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 179

We are also blessed with ideas or, if you want to put it more nobly, with inspirations. The Americans have a good word in this respect: to have a hunch,  that is, a humped or crooked position. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 226

The primitive has a better realization of the autonomy of this inner side than we have. He does not speak of having a mood, but of being possessed by one. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 227

Like the people in the outer world, ghosts form groups, too. For example, the Church organizes its angels in a celestial hierarchy of nine orders and three groups, this hierarchy reaching its zenith in the Godhead. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 227

Primitives are unaware of their own “I.” There are many people among us, however, who are also unaware of their own I. Many neurotics have no consciousness of their I at all and are completely identified with their environment.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 229-230

Octagonal light is a symbol of the unconscious symbolic source of light. One therefore speaks of il-lumination, a frequent occurrence in mysticism.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 234

Thereafter, Hélène also had visions at home. The man who haunted her regularly now appeared in a white coat and a turban.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 238

Her [[Helene] protective spirit or “control” could be induced to speak through her if one addressed the right-hand side of her body; she would respond by tapping her left hand. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 238

Being an enlightened man, our scholar had already heard about these “imaginations,” and said to the chief: “It is not really like that; you just imagined it!” Whereupon the Indian replied: “Well, but who imagined it in me?  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 240

If you dissect a salmon in a laboratory, you are not studying one salmon in particular, but simply the salmon. So these experiences lie more or less hidden in the unconscious of ordinary people. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 244

My psychology comprises, after all, quite a number of concepts that are underpinned by experiences that are not generally accessible.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Pages 245-246

A colleague drew his attention to the fact that “Léopold” contains three consonants, LPD, and that the same three letters represented the initials of the motto of the Illuminati, a secret society: lilia pedibus destrue, “destroy the lilies with your feet.”  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 246

The gathering is antedated, since the order of the Illuminati was not in actual fact founded until 1 May 1776—namely, by Adam Weishaupt, a former Jesuit who later became a Freemason.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 246

What we  lack is never what we think it is, just as neurotic inferiority feelings never spring from where we claim they come from, but from real inferiority.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 250

When the field of consciousness is limited, the body plays a great role. People who are enamored by themselves are extremely conscious of their bodies, they attach tremendous importance to how they have eaten, slept, digested, and what impression they have made on others.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 250

In the fourth stage, absolute objectivation occurs. In parapsychology, this is to be taken literally. The figures detach themselves and act autonomously, like persons that exist outside of us. These figures have their own will and intentions, and strike us as strange.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 251

At the fifth stage, the reality of being one’s self ceases to exist; it is the stage of absolute reality, of absolute ecstasy. One has changed into something completely different, and the person becomes completely absorbed into a certain absolute existence.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 251

As we move through the sections, the body becomes less and less important. In section IV, the reality of the body, its mass, gravity, and undeniable existence, have already become transferred into the object.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 256

Everybody who has ever had a complex knows: Something comes to mind although you do not want to think of it, or at night, when you wish to sleep, you are unable to, because the complex is sitting right next to you.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 256

Such archetypes can appear in a broad variety of ways. For instance, they can also be equivalents of ideas. Ideas can take possession of us as if they were ghosts.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 258

As long as you can make yourself understood to  single person, you are not yet mad. And even if you find no such person, you should consult some old books, and perhaps there you will find something that seems familiar to you. Only when you can no longer make yourself understood will you be mad and excluded.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 271

We have also seen that her ghosts had nothing in common with those seen by the “Seeress of Prevorst.” Hers are all relative and very subjective in character; they are relative objectivations of complexes. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 273

The two women will also offer quite different stories. The Seeress will tell the whole world about her ghosts. Hélène Smith, however, will talk, behind her mask, of very tangible realities. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 273

I could take a deep look into his [J.D. Rockefeller] personality, which is very complicated indeed. Rockefeller is really just a mountain of gold, and you might be wondering whether I asked him how he managed to amass such riches. But I am no longer curious about this, for I have seen that such gold is bought too dearly.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 275

The poor old gentleman [J.D. Rockefeller] is a terrible hypochondriac, and is exclusively interested in his health. He frets all day over his physical well-being, thinking of different medicines, if he should he go to the baths and, if so, to which one, thinking of trying out different diets—or also doctors! ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 275

Plainly, he [J.D. Rockefeller] has a bad conscience. His secretary told me that he always carries dimes in his pockets, so that he can tip the boys who collect the balls on golf courses, or for that matter any child he chances to meet, so that it will look sweetly at him. Because he is terribly lonely.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 275

Let as have a look at the average curve of the “normal” person. You would be ashamed to be a normal person! Schopenhauer maintains that his egotism is so great that he would even strike dead his own brother in order to grease his boots with the latter’s fat. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 278

Thus, the normal person is firstly very selfish and obstinate, and secondly primitive. It is a fact that the ancient cave men are still among us; you will meet them on the tram! Likewise, Neolithic men and pile dwellers. Today, we might call them imbeciles, and so on. It takes very little, and out comes the barbarian in us again. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 278

At least 70, if not 80 percent of the population still belong to the Middle Ages, so that in fact very few people are truly adjusted to the year 1934. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 278

It is extremely rare that someone is willing to abandon the present position of his consciousness. Once consciousness has claimed a certain resting point, it can barely be removed from its place. It creates convictions, and people get so stuck in them that anything different is just seen as bad. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 282

An intuitive type, it is true, sees dozens of possibilities in other spheres, but he does not actually go there to experience them.  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 283

The real, bright day and the people lie for me outside of the great ring, and I see more or fewer of them in the various sections. I prefer to represent these people as checkmarks. I feel the spirit of all people with whom I associated, but I do not feel or know anything of their body, their name, etc. Likewise (she said to me), I cannot think of you as a man or as a body, of you least of all. I always feel you as a blue flame going around and around the outer ring . . . , together with your wife in the same ring. But she is in human form, and more to the outside. . . .  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 186 Seeress

“An intuitive type, it is true, sees dozens of possibilities in other spheres, but he does not actually go there to   them. For example, he sees a person living in Right IV as he appears to him from his vantage point in Left III. Consequently, the intuitive may see a great deal of which the man in Right IV is not aware, but what he says is unintelligible to the man himself because he does not know that Left III exists at all.”  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 67

Psychological Types (1921) had a long gestation time, of nearly a decade. In the wake of the original publication of Transformations (1911/1912), Jung tried to come to terms, not only with “the countless impressions and experiences of a psychiatrist,” his “personal dealings with friend and foe alike,” and the “critique of [his] own psychological peculiarity” ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 67

I have intuitions about the subjective factor, the inner world. That is very difficult to understand because what I see are most uncommon things, and I don’t like to talk about them because I am not a fool. I would spoil my own game by telling what I see, because people won’t understand it. . . . So you see, if I were to speak of what I really  perceive, practically no one would understand me. I have learned to keep things to myself, and you will hardly ever hear me talking of these things. That is a great disadvantage, but it is an enormous advantage in another way, not to speak of the experiences I have in that respect and also in my human relations. For instance, I come into the presence of somebody I don’t know, and suddenly I have inner images, and these images give me more or less complete information about the psychology of the partner. It can also happen that I come into the presence of somebody I don’t know at all, not from Adam, and I know an important piece out of the biography of that person, and am not aware of it, and I tell the story, and then the fat is in the fire. So I have in a way a very difficult life, although one of the most  interesting lives, but it is often difficult to get into my confidence. [Interviewer:] Yes, because you say you are afraid people will think you are sick.] [Jung:] The things that are interesting to me, or are vital to me, are utterly strange to the ordinary individual. ~Carl Jung, C.G. Jung Speaking, Page 310

There is “a particular current of thought,” he had written, which can be traced back to the Reformation. Gradually it freed itself from innumerable veils and disguises, and it is now turning into the kind of psychology which Nietzsche foresaw with prophetic insight—the discovery of the psyche as a new fact. Some day we shall be able to see by what tortuous paths modern psychology has made its way from the dingy laboratories of the alchemists, via mesmerism and magnetism (Kerner, Ennemoser, Eschenmayer, Passavant, and others), to the philosophical anticipations of Schopenhauer, Carus, and von Hartmann; and how, from the native soil of everyday experience in Liébeault and, still earlier, in Quimby (the spiritual father of Christian Science), it finally reached Freud through the teachings of the French hypnotists. This current of ideas flowed together from many obscure sources, gaining rapidly in strength in the nineteenth century and winning many adherents, amongst whom Freud is not an isolated figure (1930a, § 748).  ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 51-52

“modern” psychology, that is, to psychology “as a conscious science,” as he puts it in these lectures. As he wrote elsewhere, the projections falling back into the human soul caused such a terrific activation of the unconscious that in modern times man was compelled to postulate the existence of an unconscious psyche. The first beginnings of this can be seen in Leibniz and Kant, and then, with mounting intensity, in Schelling, Carus, and von Hartmann, until finally modern psychology discarded the last metaphysical claims of the philosopher-psychologists and restricted the idea of the psyche’s existence to the psychological statement, in other words, to its phenomenology (1941, § 375). ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 51

I fancied I was working along the best scientific lines, establishing facts, observing, classifying, describing causal and functional relations, only to discover in the end that I had involved myself in a net of reflections which extend far beyond natural science and ramify into the fields of philosophy, theology, comparative religion, and the humane sciences in general. This transgression, as inevitable as it was suspect, has caused me no little worry. . . . [I]t seemed to me that my reflections were suspect also in principle. . . . There is no medium for psychology to reflect itself in: it can only portray itself in itself, and describe itself. That, logically, is also the principle of my own method: it is, at bottom, a purely experiential process. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page  58-59

Goethe’s Faust was like a revelation: “Faust . . . pierced me through in a way that I could not but regard as personal. . . . Faust, the inept, purblind philosopher, encounters the dark side of his being, his sinister shadow, Mephistopheles, who in spite of his negative disposition represents the true spirit of life. . . . My own inner contradictions appeared here in dramatised form. . . . The dichotomy of Faust–Mephistopheles came together within myself into a single person . . . I was directly struck, and recognised that this was my fate.”   ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 62

Even in self-consciousness, the I is not absolutely simple, but consists of a knower (intellect) and a known (will); the former is not known and the latter is not knowing, although the two flow together into the consciousness of an I. But on this very account, this I is not intimate with itself through and through, does not shine through so to speak, but is opaque, and therefore remains a riddle to itself. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 59

Christian August Wolff (1679–1754) 72 initiated another line of thinking. Wolff limited his discussion entirely to consciousness, and divided his psychology into two parts: firstly, empirical psychology, which considers in particular the cognitive faculty and the activity of consciousness; and secondly, rational or speculative psychology, which centers on desire and the interrelations between body and soul. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 112

The Mayan “Temple of the Warriors” was excavated a few years ago. Beneath the altar a mandala, consisting entirely of cut turquoises, was found encased in a limestone cylinder. It was bedecked with 3,000 turquoises. It is kept at the Museum of Mexico City. In the four main points comes the feathered serpent 288 and opens its mouth inward. This serpent adorns the robes worn by priests to this day, and it has a spellbinding effect in that whoever looks at it is enchanted. [It is] The object of concentration. Whoever succeeds in placing themselves in this circle is protected against evil spirits. ~Carl Jung, ETH Lectures 1933-1934, Page 205

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