Thomas Kirsch – The Jungians

Her [Toni Wolff] major paper was, “Structural Forms of the Feminine Psyche,” published in German in 1951 and translated into English by Paul Watziliwak. Her other papers are now being prepared for publication in English by Robert Hinshaw. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 9

She [Toni] never married, as Jung was the man in her life. There were rumors of other flirtations, but nothing has been verified. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 9

He had had a forty-year relationship with Toni Wolff, an ex-patient. Jung has frequently been presented as a “womanizer” and there have been undocumented rumors of sexual relations with other patients, but none have ever been proven. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 243

What seemed to work for Jung, Emma, and Toni, has not been possible for others. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 5

Emma Jung died on 27 November 1955 from stomach cancer, only weeks after it had first been diagnosed. In a discussion with Franz Jung, the only son, he stated that his mother held the family together, and it was only because of her that Jung was able to accomplish his life’s work.  ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 8

Jung was absolutely devastated when Emma died, and many of his close intimates thought that he would never recover from her death. Fortunately, he did. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 8

Carl Alfred Meier was born on 19 April 1905 in Schaffhausen, the same town where Emma Jung was born. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 9

The two women [Elizabeth Howe – Sheila Moon]  elected to go their own way and in 1955 formed the Guild for Psychological Studies of which Mrs Emma Jung was a founding sponsor. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 76

Professor Gustav Schmaltz and a Professor Koerner, who were Nazis, were made Board members. Schmaltz had analyzed with Emma Jung and had run a study group in Düsseldorf.   ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 128

In 1932 Jung gave a seminar in Paris on “The Collective Unconscious,” and a few years later Emma Jung presented her lecture on “The Animus” at the Club.  ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 157

His mother, Emilie, had had three stillborn children before young Carl’s arrival and had withdrawn into a world of ghosts and spirits. Jung’s father moved from parish to parish but nothing seemed to help her.,  ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 20

When she [Marie-Louise Von Franz was eighteen (1933) and was on class trip from school, she met Jung. She wanted to go into analysis with him, but could not afford it. In exchange for analysis she did translations of Latin and Greek texts which he needed for his research into alchemy. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 11

The person most often associated with carrying on the legacy of C.G. Jung is Marie-Louise von Franz. Marlus, as she was referred to by her close intimates, was born in Munich on 4 January 1915, where her father was a colonel in the military of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 11

For example, in the 1950s she [Von Franz] was not in favor of Fordham’s interpretation of Jung and did not mince words (personal communication). ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 11-12

In the early 1980s von Franz tragically developed Parkinson’s disease, which gradually began to incapacitate her. She refused to take medication to lessen the symptoms, because it would have interfered with the unconscious. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 12

The symptoms [Pakinson’s] gradually became more physically exhausting, but she [Von Franz] continued her work on a Shiite alchemical mystic. This work is still waiting to be published. She died on 17 February 1998. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 12

Under the leadership of Marie-Louise von Franz, most of the lecturers and analysts went on strike and refused to have anything to do with the Institute as long as group therapy was being practiced.  ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 25-26

Erich Neumann died on 5 November 1960 from a rapidly fulminating rare kidney cancer. His wife, Julia, died in 1985 at age eighty-two when she was run over by a car when walking across the street. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 181

She [Aniela Jaffe] married a Swiss, Jean Dreyfuss, and they moved to Geneva. However, the marriage did not work out as they both had strong and independent personalities, which worked in friendship but not in marriage. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 12

In the late 1930s she [Aniela Jaffe] moved to Zurich where she worked as a secretary. These years were filled with many difficulties, both spiritual and physical, but eventually she had an analysis with Liliane Frey. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 12

After finishing her schooling, she married a lawyer, Dr Andor Jacobi, in 1909. As a result of the political situation after World War I they moved to Vienna. They separated when he returned to Budapest in 1922, she remaining in Vienna with their two sons. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 13

When the Nazis annexed Austria in 1938, she [Jolande Jacobi] fled to Zurich where she had a small apartment. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 14

Under great duress and danger she [Jolande Jacobi] was able to take and pass her examinations in Vienna, which then allowed her to practice in Zurich. By that time she had converted to Catholicism. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 14

Her [Jolande Jacobi] particular interest was in picture interpretation, and she formed a research foundation in Zurich which collected the paintings of many analysands from around the world. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 14

His [Franz Rilkin] mother was a cousin of Jung and his father, who was a psychiatrist, worked with Jung during the early phases of analytical psychology. Riklin Sr. and Jung published Studies in Word Association in 1904, where the experimental data on complexes appeared for the first time. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 15

Esther Harding was born in 1888 in Shropshire, England, the daughter of a dental surgeon, and the fourth of six sisters. She was taught at home by a governess until the age of eleven and was an avid reader. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 61

She [Esther Harding] graduated in 1914 and began working in a hospital for infectious diseases. There she wrote her first book, The Circulatory Failure of Diphtheria; she also contracted the disease.  ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 61

She had [Frances Wilkes] begun as a schoolteacher, and had no professional training as a psychologist. As a widow with no living children (her son had died at a young age in a drowning accident), and someone who lived well into her nineties, she amassed a considerable fortune. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 63

Before the Mellons were able to return to Zurich and finalize the negotiations, Mary Mellon died tragically in status asthmaticus in the spring of 1946. In her memory, Paul Mellon created the Bollingen Foundation, named after Jung’s tower in Bollingen. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 66

The estates of Eleanor Bertine and Esther Harding, who died in 1970 and 1971 respectively, provided an endowment for the Foundation which enabled them finally to buy a five-story brownstone house in midtown Manhattan which is its present home. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 68

Edinger, a medical doctor from Yale, had his analysis with Esther Harding, which he described in most positive terms; he became a member of the New York professional association in 1956.  ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 71

[Christopher Whitmont] was born into a Viennese Jewish family and raised in the shadow of Freud…. After World War II he returned to Germany and had analysis with Gustav Heyer, a known member of the Nazi party. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page  72

He [Joe Henderson] encountered great difficulties as a college student at Harvard and left after three years, but not before meeting his wife-to-be, Jane Hollister, who was a student at Bryn Mawr. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 78

…Jo and Jane, along with Horace Gray, MD, an internist who became a Jungian analyst, created a test for psychological types, called the Gray–Wheelwright type test, which is used by many institutions to delineate individual differences in personality.  ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 78

During his long and productive professional career Jo Wheelwright spent, according to his own calculations, 70 percent of his time with Freudians. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 79

In the 1960s Jo [Henderson] was the editor of a book entitled Sex and the College Student, which was quite popular at the time. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 79

In 1989 the Wheelwrights retired to live full-time on a portion of the Hollister ranch near Santa Barbara where Jane grew up. The ranch is extremely remote, and they did not have a regularly functioning telephone. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 79

Jo [Henderson] developed blindness in old age. In the spring of 1999 Jane had a small stroke, and the Wheelwrights moved to a retirement facility in Santa Barbara. Jo died suddenly on 22 June 1999. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 79

As a result of an eye infection suffered at birth, his [Joseph Henderson] outward vision has been limited to one eye; this injury, though, may have accentuated his natural introversion, turning one eye perpetually to his inn er experience. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 79-80

In 1929 Joe [Henderson] spent a year in Zurich in analysis with Jung and Toni Wolff. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 80

In 1934 he [Joe Henderson] married Helena Darwin Cornford, great granddaughter of Charles Darwin and the daughter of Francis Cornford, the noted Cambridge don, author of From Religion to Philosophy, and translations of Plato. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 80

Over the years he [John Perry] became sexually involved with female analysands. In the early 1970s he was put on probation by the California State Medical Board, but, in spite of the warning, continued his practice of having sexual relations with female clients. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 85

In 1979 John Beebe, after graduating as an analyst, decided to start a book review journal called The San Francisco Library Journal. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 89

He [James Kirsch] was born in Guatemala on 21 July 1901, the son of a German-Jewish merchant, who sent the family back to Berlin in 1906 so that young James could have a good European education.  ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 93

He [James Kirsch] was a founding member of the C.G. Jung Society of Berlin. When the Nazis came to power in 1933, James immediately left for Palestine. Based upon a dream in which he foresaw brown-shirted hordes, he strongly urged all his relatives, friends, and patients to do likewise. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 93

As soon as post-war travel was possible in 1947, Kirsch returned every year to Switzerland for two months to continue his analysis with Jung and Toni Wolff, and, after their deaths, with Dr Liliane Frey and Professor C.A. Meier.  ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 94

She [Hilde Kirsch] was a nursing mother in 1937 when Jung sent her an analysand, Michael Fordham, without forewarning her of Fordham’s call. She had no intention of becoming an analyst at that time, but Fordham’s arrival on the scene changed that forever.  ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 95

While waiting to emigrate to the United States, [Max] Zeller was interned in a concentration camp outside of Berlin in 1938, and was extremely fortunate to be released after five and a half weeks.  ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 96

In California she [June Singer] became an active member of the San Francisco Institute as well as being involved with the Gnostic church in Palo Alto. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 112

It[Inner City Books] had the sole purpose of publishing books by Jungian analyst authors. Marie-Louise von Franz supported the idea and became the patron of the publishing venture.  ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 114

Her [Marion Woodman] brother, Frazier, went on to make a documentary on dreams, using Jung’s theories, and having Marie-Louise von Franz interpret the dreams. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 115

Max Zeller, one of the later cofounders of the Jungian Society in Los Angeles, was in analysis with Heyer [A Nazi] in 1938, just before being interned in a concentration camp. Zeller, a Jew, prohibited by law to practice in Germany, was given a letter of recommendation by Heyer allowing him to practice in another country.  ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 125

After the war Jung denounced [Gustav] Heyer for his Nazi affiliation. Heyer attempted to speak to Jung about this, but Jung would never meet with him again. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 126

…in November 1945 Jung wrote to Friedrich Seifert in Munich that he would have nothing further to do with [Gustav] Heyer because of his Nazi affiliation (unpublished letter from Jung to Seifert, dated 21 November 1945).  Wolff wrote in a similar vein to Seifert about Heyer. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 126

[Kaethe] Buegler  [who was half Jewish] had a long-standing love relationship with Heyer, who was able to protect her throughout the Nazi period. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 127

In 1942, as a businessman and a politician, [Wilhelm] Bitter attempted to broker a peace between the Nazis and the Allies, which failed, and as a consequence he had to leave the country. He fled to Switzerland with the help of some influential connections. In Zurich he had a Jungian analysis and a chance to study with Jung. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 139

Having lived outside Germany for many years, and being political by nature, Bitter recognized the dangers of National Socialism early on. He was never drawn to it and tried unsuccessfully to speak with former Nazis like Heyer about their views. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 140

In November 1945 Jung wrote to him [Wilhelm Bitter] asking him about the activities of other German Jungians during the war, soliciting his opinion about them (Jung–Seifert, unpublished letter, dated 21 November 1945).  ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 142

Manuela Jäger met Jung in Munich at a conference where he noticed her and invited her to sit beside him at the dinner. As a result of this meeting she began an analysis with Jung, and he eventually transferred her to Toni Wolff. The analysis with Toni Wolff did not work, and Manuela Jäger returned to Munich. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 142-143

Aldo Carotenuto has been influential in the overall publishing of Jungian writings in Italy and  was instrumental in having the Collected Works translated into Italian. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 154

Roland Cahen, a French Jew, was one of the original members of Le Club du Gros Caillou. In the late 1930s he studied philosophy, with a special interest in Nietzsche, which brought him in contact with Jung. When the Nazis overran France in May 1940 he was a soldier on the Maginot Line, and then fled to Switzerland where he lived for the remainder of the war. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 157

[Elie] Humbert was probably Jung’s last regular analysand. When Jung’s health began to fail in 1960, he transferred Humbert to Marie-Louise von Franz to complete the analysis. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 158

The first accredited Jungian to practice in Austria was Ellen Sheire, an American from the Midwest, who married an Austrian and lived and practiced in Vienna from 1975 through 1986.  ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 165

His [Christian Gaillard] book, entitled Jung (1995), is part of a well-known French series on famous personalities, and his recent publication, Le Musée imaginaire de Carl Gustav Jung (1998), combines his interest in art and psychology. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 161

In 1996 Patricia Skar, an American and Zurich graduate, and Rita McCarthy, a graduate of the AJA in London, took the initiative to form a professional association, now called the Irish Analytical Psychology Association (IAPA). ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 173

Erich Neumann was born in 1905 and grew up in Berlin, Germany. He met Julia, his wife to be, at age fifteen, but they spent several years apart before they married when both were in their early twenties. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 179

After World War I, as a student, Neumann was deeply interested in questions of philosophy, psychology, the Jewish identity, poetry, and art. Neumann’s first creative work was a long novel entitled Der Anfang (The Beginning). ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 179

According to Gerhard Adler, Neumann had his deepest roots in the Jewish heritage without being in any way orthodox. He was most drawn to the mystical side of Judaism and in this was influenced by Hasidism. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 179

A son, Micha [Neumann], became a psychiatrist, president of the Israel Psychiatric Society, and a Freudian psychoanalyst, whereas the daughter, Rali, studied psychology in Switzerland and has had a psychotherapeutic practice with a Jungian orientation in Jerusalem for many years. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 179

After receiving his medical degree both Neumanns spent a year in Zurich in analysis: Erich with Jung and Julia with Toni Wolff. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 179

Julia Neumann had previously studied psychochirology (hand analysis) with Julius Spier, and she continued to practice it in addition to doing analysis. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 179

These case conferences for child therapists lasted for over ten years, and the discussions formed the basis for his [Erich Neumann book The Child, published posthumously in 1973.] ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 180

Erich Neumann did not return to Europe until 1947 when he and his wife spent a summer holiday with the Adlers in Ascona. There Erich Neumann was introduced to Olga Froebe-Kapteyn, the founder of the yearly Eranos conference. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 180

In Jung’s introduction he praises the book and states, “It begins just where I, too, if I were granted a second lease on life, would start to gather up the disjecta membra of my own writings, to sift out all those ‘beginnings without continuations’ and knead them into a whole.”  ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 181

Although Jung did not completely agree with Neumann’s interpretations, he encouraged him to follow his own path, not wanting to stifle Neumann’s creativity. Neumann was made a patron of the Jung Institute in Zurich in the early 1950s. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 181

Geula Gat was a member of the original child analysis supervision group with Erich Neumann. She was born a Christian in Prussian Germany who, as a teenager, was strongly anti-Nazi, and she and a Jewish girlfriend went to Palestine. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 183

Dvorah Kutzinski followed another path to Israel. She was born into an academic family in Prague and during the Nazi occupation ended up spending four of her teenage years in Auschwitz. Having survived this ordeal, she emigrated to Palestine in 1946. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 183

(The Figure of Satan in the Old Testament) made a great impression on Jung. He decided to have it published as part of one of his own works, Symbolik des Geistes in 1948. Having her work published in a book of Jung’s brought Rivkah immediate prominence as one of the leading figures around Jung.  ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 184

Yechezkel Kluger was a New York Jew who was an optometrist in Los Angeles and had entered Jungian analysis. Through his analysis he decided to study in Zurich in order to become an analytical psychologist. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 184

The first person to practice Jungian analysis in Brazil was Léon Bonaventure, a Belgian and former priest, who came to São Paulo around 1968. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 195

Dr Nise de Silveira was the only woman in a class of 157 men in the School of Medicine in Salvador, Bahia.  ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 196

Pethö Sandor was a Hungarian gynecologist who came to Brazil in 1949. A highly intuitive and introverted man, he taught at the Catholic University in São Paulo, where he made private translations of Jung’s “Vision Seminars,” and led discussions on the Collected Works of Jung.  ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 197

The first person to begin a Jungian group was Maria Abac-Klemm, a Mexican who graduated from the Jung Institute in Zurich in the 1980s. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 200

Two figures were central to the development of analytical psychology in South Africa: Sir Laurens van der Post and Dr Vera Bührmann. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 201

Spielrein was one of very few people who continued to correspond with both Freud and Jung after their split. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 206

At the conclusion of World War I Freud suggested to Spielrein that she return to Russia, where she could be part of the newly emerging psychoanalytic movement. Under Stalin the psychoanalytic movement was erased, and after 1931 she had no further contact with the West. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 206

He [Emilii Medtner] saw .Jung’s writings as the answer to the sickness of the soul overcoming Russia. Through his friendship with Edith Rockefeller McCormick, he was able to persuade her to finance the translations and publications of Jung’s works into Russian. 206-207

Two Americans, Robert Bosnak and Laura Dodson, independently made contact with people interested in nuclear disarmament and analytical psychology inside the Soviet Union. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 207

The first Hungarian interested in Jung was a protestant minister, Endre Gyökössy, whose wife was Swiss. Gyökössy had studied in Basle, Switzerland and heard Jung lecture many times. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 212

When the Eastern European countries opened to the West, individuals in Lithuania were among the first to express an interest in analytical psychology. Tom Kapacinskas from Chicago, whose family came from Lithuania, made contact with a group of interested individuals.  ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 214

As part of Jung’s interest in the Far East, he was acquainted with the writings of D.T. Suzuki, the man most responsible for introducing Japanese Zen Buddhism to the West. In 1939 Jung wrote an introduction to Suzuki’s Introduction to Zen Buddhism, when it was published in German, ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 217

Perhaps it will come as a surprise to many that there has been an active Jungian group in South Korea since the mid-1960s. In 1962 a young psychiatrist, Bhou-Yong Rhi, traveled to Zurich for analysis with Marie- Louise von Franz and began training at the Jung Institute. ~Thomas Kirsch, The Jungians, Page 218-219

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