Psychological Types (The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 6) (Bollingen Series XX)

The Quotable Jung

The Portable Jung

A Concordance by Thornton Ladd ARAS

The more “eternal” a truth, the more lifeless it is and worthless; it says nothing more to us because it is self-evident. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 87

Before [individuation] can be taken as a goal, the educational aim of adaptation to the necessary minimum of collective norms must first be attained. If a plant is to unfold its specific nature to the full, it must first be able to grow in the soil in which it is planted. ~Carl Jung; CW 6, par. 761.

As a rule, whenever such a falsification of type takes place . . . the individual becomes neurotic later, and can be cured only by developing the attitude consonant with his nature. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 560.

. . . poets . . . create from the very depths of the collective unconscious, voicing aloud what others only dream. ~Carl Jung; CW 6, Page 323.

The will is a psychological phenomenon that owes its existence to culture and moral education, but is largely lacking in the primitive mentality. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, para 844.

We find in Gnosticism what was lacking in the centuries that followed: a belief in the efficacy of individual revelation and individual knowledge. This belief was rooted in the proud feeling of man’s affinity with the gods. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Page 242.

Like any archetype, the essential nature of the self is unknowable, but its manifestations are the content of myth and legend. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 790.

The creation of something new is not accomplished by the intellect, creative mind plays with the object it loves. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 197.

Before [individuation] can be taken as a goal, the educational aim of adaptation to the necessary minimum of collective norms must first be attained. ~Carl Jung, “Definitions,” CW 6, par. 761.

Everyone whose attitude is introverted thinks, feels, and acts in a way that clearly demonstrates that the subject is the prime motivating factor and that the object is of secondary importance. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Par 769.

By psyche I understand the totality of all psychic processes, conscious as well as unconscious. By soul, on the other hand, I understand a clearly demarcated functional complex that can best be described as a “personality.” ~Carl Jung; CW 6, par. 797

Intuition is not mere perception, or vision, but an active, creative process that puts into the object just as much as it takes out. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, para 610.

The psyche creates reality every day, the only expression I can use for this activity is fantasy. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 78.

Passive fantasy […] is always in need of conscious criticism […] whereas active fantasy [,,,] does not require criticism so much as understanding. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Par. 714.

If he is intent only on the outer reality, he must live his myth; if he is turned only towards the inner reality, he must dream his outer, so-called real life. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 280

The psychology of an individual can never be exhaustively explained from himself alone: a clear recognition is needed of the way it is also conditioned by historical and environmental circumstances. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 717

Again, no psychological fact can ever be exhaustively explained in terms of causality alone; as a living phenomenon, it is always indissolubly bound up with the continuity of the vital process, so that it is not only something evolved but also continually evolving and creative. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 717

Complexes are focal or nodal points of psychic life which we would not wish to do without; indeed, they should not be missing, for otherwise psychic activity would come to a fatal standstill. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 925

This function of mediation between the opposites I have termed the transcendent function, by which I mean nothing mysterious, but merely a combined function of conscious and unconscious elements, or, as in mathematics, a common function of real and imaginary qualities. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 184

Symbol-formation, therefore, must obviously be an extremely important biological function. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 402

The symbol is the middle way along which the opposites flow together in a new movement, like a watercourse bringing fertility after a long drought. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 443.

Childlikeness or lack of prior assumptions is of the very essence of the symbol and its function. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 442

If the old were not ripe for death, nothing new would appear; and if the old were not injuriously blocking the way for the new; it could not and need not be rooted out. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 446.

The creation of a symbol is not a rational process, for a rational process could never produce an image that represents a content which is at bottom incomprehensible. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 425

The Symbol always says; in some such form as this a new manifestation of life will become possible, a release from bondage and world-weariness. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 425.

The redeeming symbol is a highway, a way upon which life can move forward without torment and compulsion. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 445.

The vision of the symbol is a pointer to the onward course of life, beckoning with the libido towards a still distant goal—but a goal that henceforth will burn unquenchably within him, so that his life, kindled as by a flame, moves steadily towards the far-off beacon. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 202

For as the son of his father, he must, as if often the case with children, re-enact under unconscious compulsion the unlived lives of his parents. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 307

It is not the purpose of a psychological typology to classify human beings into categories—this in itself would be pretty pointless. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 986

Hence a man’s greater liability to total despair, while a woman can always find comfort and hope; accordingly a man is more likely to put an end to himself than a woman. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 805

As the individual is not just a single, separate being, but by his very existence presupposes a collective relationship, it follows that the process of individuation must lead to more intense and broader collective relationships and not to isolation. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 758

Christianity, like every closed system of religion, has an undoubted tendency to suppress the unconscious in the individual as much as possible, thus paralyzing his fantasy activity. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 80

Wherever we can observe a religion being born, we see how the doctrinal figures flow into the founder himself as revelations, in other words, as concretizations of his unconscious fantasy. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 80

The renewed God signifies a regenerated attitude, a renewed possibility of life, a recovery of vitality, because, psychologically speaking, God always denotes the highest value, the maximum sum of libido, the fullest intensity of life, the optimum of psychological vitality. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 301

We should not pretend to understand the world only by the intellect; we apprehend it just as much by feeling. Therefore the judgment of the intellect is, at best, only a half-truth, and must, if it be honest, also admit its inadequacy. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 856

Doubtless there are exceptional people who are able to sacrifice their entire life to a particular formula; but for most of us such exclusiveness is impossible in the long run. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 587

If the old were not ripe for death, nothing new would appear; and if the old were not blocking the way for the new, it could not and need not be rooted out. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 446

Everything old in our unconscious hints at something coming. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 630

The psyche creates reality every day. The only expression I can use for this activity is fantasy. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 78

Nothing is so apt to challenge our self-awareness and alertness as being at war with oneself. ~Carl Jung; CW 6; P. 964.

The soul gives birth to images that from the rational standpoint of consciousness are assumed to be worthless. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 426

To be effective, a symbol must be by its very nature unassailable. ~Carl Jung CW 6, Para 401

The primordial image is thus a condensation of the living process. ~Carl Jung, CW6, Para 748

A man’s hatred is always concentrated on the thing that makes him conscious of his bad qualities. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 453

A fact never exists only as it is in itself, but also as we see it. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 510

Not the artist alone, but every creative individual whatsoever owes all that is greatest in his life to fantasy. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 93

It must not be forgotten that it is just in the imagination that a man’s highest value may lie. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 93

Purposively interpreted, it seems like a symbol, seeking to characterize a definite goal with the help of the material at hand, or trace out a line of future psychological development. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 758

The idea wants changelessness and eternity. Whoever lives under the supremacy of the idea strives for permanence; hence everything that pushes towards change must be opposed to the idea. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 153

The demand that he should see only objectively is quite out of the question, for it is impossible. We must be satisfied if he does not see too subjectively. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 9

It should not be forgotten that science is not the summa of life, that it is actually only one of the psychological attitudes, only one of the forms of human thought. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 60

In any age the vast majority of men are called upon to preserve and praise the status quo, thus helping to bring about the disastrous consequences which the prescience of the creative spirit had sought to avert. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 434

The symbol is the middle way along which the opposites flow together in a new movement, like a watercourse bringing fertility after a long drought. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 443

To be adapted is certainly an ideal, but adaptation is not always possible. There are situations in which the only adaptation is patient endurance. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 427

It is, pre-eminently, the creative activity from which the answers to all answerable questions come; it is the mother of all possibilities, where, like all psychological opposites, the inner and outer worlds are joined together in living union. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 78

It should be someone already has a much clouded vision or view of a very hazy distance, the human society, if he thinks that by uniform regulation of life an equal distribution of happiness could be achieved. ~Carl Jung; CW 6.

The concept of the unconscious is for me an exclusively psychological concept, and not a philosophical concept of a metaphysical nature. In my view the unconscious is a psychological borderline concept, which covers all psychic contents or processes that are not conscious, i.e., not related to the ego in any perceptible way. My justification for speaking of the existence of unconscious processes at all is derived simply and solely from experience. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, para 837.

It should not be forgotten that science is not the summa of life, that it is actually only one of the psychological attitudes, only one of the forms of human thought. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 60

Science must prove her value for life; it is not enough that she be the mistress, she must also be the maid. By so serving she in no way dishonors herself. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 84

But what great thing ever came into existence that was not first fantasy? ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 86

Actually it is the parents’ lives that educate the child—what they add by word and gesture at best serves only to confuse him. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 665.

The consequence of increasing Mariolatry was the witch hunt, that indelible blot on the later Middle Ages. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 399

And just as the eye bears witness to the peculiar and spontaneous creative activity of living matter, the primordial image expresses the intrinsic and unconditioned creative power of the psyche. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 748

The more “eternal” a truth, the more lifeless it is and worthless; it says nothing more to us because it is self-evident. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 87

It is just the beam in one’s own eye that enables one to detect the mote in one’s brother’s eye. The beam in one’s own eye does not prove that one’s brother has no mote in his. But the impairment of one’s own vision might easily give rise to a general theory that all motes are beams. The recognition and taking to heart of the subjective determination of knowledge in general, and of psychological knowledge in particular, are basic conditions for the scientific and impartial evaluation of a psyche different from that of the observing subject. These conditions are fulfilled only when the observer is sufficiently informed about the nature and scope of his own personality. He can, however, be sufficiently informed only when he has in large measure freed himself from the levelling influence of collective opinions and thereby arrived at a clear conception of his own individuality. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 10

Reason can give a man equilibrium only if his reason is already an equilibrating organ. But for how many individuals and at what periods in history has it been that? As a rule, a man needs the opposite of his actual situation to force him to find his place in the middle. For the sake of mere reason he can never forgo life’s riches and the sensuous appeal of the immediate situation. Against the power and delight of the temporal he must set the joy of the eternal, and against the passion of the sensual the ecstasy of the spiritual. The undeniable reality of the one must be matched by the compelling power of the other. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 386

SOUL. [psyche, personality, persona, anima,] I have been compelled, in my investigations into the structure of the unconscious, to make a conceptual distinction between soul and psyche. By psyche I understand the totality of all psychic processes, conscious as well as unconscious. By soul, on the other hand, I understand a clearly demarcated functional complex that can best be described as a “personality.” In order to make clear what I mean by this, I must introduce some further points of view. It is, in particular, the phenomena of somnambulism, double consciousness, split personality, etc., whose investigation we owe primarily to the French school, that have enabled us to accept the possibility of a plurality of personalities in one and the same individual. ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 797
The symbol is always a product of an extremely complex nature, since data from every psychic function have gone into its making. It is, therefore, neither rational nor irrational (qq.v.). It certainly has a side that accords with reason but it has another side that does not; for it is composed not ‘only of rational but also of irrational data supplied by pure inner and outer perception. The profundity and pregnant significance of the symbol appeal just as strongly to thinking as to feeling (qq.v.), while its peculiar plastic imagery, when shaped into sensuous form, stimulates sensation as much as intuition (qq.v.). The living symbol cannot come to birth in a dull or poorly developed mind, for such a mind will be content with the already existing symbols offered by established tradition. Only the passionate yearning of a highly developed mind, for which the traditional symbol is no longer the unified expression of the rational and the irrational, of the highest and the lowest, can create a new symbol. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 825

The birth of a saviour is equivalent to a great catastrophe, because a new and powerful life springs up just where there had seemed to be no life and no power and no possibility of further development. It comes streaming out of the unconscious, from that unknown part of the psyche which is treated as nothing by all rationalists. From this discredited and rejected region comes the new afflux of energy, the renewal of life. But what is this discredited and rejected source of vitality? It consists of all those psychic contents that were repressed because of their incompatibility with conscious values—everything hateful, immoral, wrong, unsuitable, useless, etc., which means everything that at one time or another appeared so to the individual concerned. The danger is that when these things reappear in a new and wonderful guise, they may make such an impact on him that he will forget or repudiate all his former values. What he once despised now becomes the supreme principle, and what was once truth now becomes error. This reversal of values amounts to the destruction of the old ones and is similar to the devastation of a country by floods. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 449

The ways and customs of childhood, once so sublimely good, can hardly be laid aside even when their harmful-ness has long since been proved. The same, only on a gigantic scale, is true of historical changes of attitude. A collective attitude is equivalent to a religion, and changes of religion constitute one of the most painful chapters in the world’s history. In this respect our age is afflicted with a blindness that has no parallel. We think we have only to declare an accepted article of faith incorrect and invalid, and we shall be psychologically rid of all the traditional effects of Christianity or Judaism. We believe in enlightenment, as if an intellectual change somehow had a profounder influence on the emotional processes or even on the unconscious. We entirely forget that the religion of the last two thousand years is a psychological attitude, a definite form and manner of adaptation to the world without and within, that lays down a definite cultural pattern and creates an atmosphere which remains wholly uninfluenced by any intellectual denials. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 313

Between the religion of a people and its actual mode of life there is always a compensatory relation, otherwise religion would have no practical significance at all. Beginning with the highly moral religion of the Persians and the notorious dubiousness—even in antiquity—of Persian habits of life, right down to our “Christian” epoch, when the religion of love assisted at the greatest blood-bath in the world’s history—wherever we turn this rule holds true. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 229

In the same measure as the conscious attitude may pride itself on a certain godlikeness by reason of its lofty and absolute standpoint, an unconscious attitude develops with a godlikeness oriented downwards to an archaic god whose nature is sensual and brutal. The enantiodromia of Heraclitus ensures that the time will come when this deus ahsconditus shall rise to the surface and press the God of our ideals to the wall. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 150

Reason must always seek the solution in some rational, consistent, logical way, which is certainly justifiable enough in all normal situations but is entirely inadequate when it comes to the really great and decisive questions. It is incapable of creating the symbol because the symbol is irrational. When the rational way proves to be a cul de sac—as it always does after a time—the solution comes from the side it was least expected. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 438

Faced with the bewildering profusion of animated objects, we create an abstraction, an abstract universal image which conjures the welter of impressions into a fixed form. This image has the magical significance of a defence against the chaotic flux of experience. The abstracting type becomes so lost and submerged in this image that finally its abstract truth is set above the reality of life; and because life might disturb the enjoyment of abstract beauty, it gets completely suppressed. He turns himself into an abstraction, he identifies with the eternal validity of the image and petrifies in it, because for him it has become a redeeming formula. He divests himself of his real self and puts his whole life into his abstraction, in which he is, so to speak, crystallized. The empathetic type suffers a similar fate. Since his activity, his life is empathized into the object, he himself gets into the object because the empathized content is an essential part of himself. He becomes the object, he identifies with it and in this way gets outside himself. By turning himself into an object he desubjectifies himself. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 499

Just as the unconscious world of mythological images speaks indirectly, through the experience of external things, to the man who surrenders himself wholly to the outer world, so the real world and its demands find their way indirectly to the man who has surrendered himself wholly to the soul; for no man can escape both realities. If he is intent only on the outer reality, he must live his myth; if he is turned only towards the inner reality, he must dream his outer, so-called real life. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 280

The tasks of every age differ, and it is only in retrospect that we can discern with certainty what had to be and what should not have been. In the momentary present the conflict of opinions will always rage, for “war is the father of all.” History alone decides the issue. Truth is not eternal —it is a programme to be fulfilled. The more “eternal” a truth, the more lifeless it is and worthless; it says nothing more to us because it is self-evident. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 87

The world exists not merely in itself but also as it appears to me. Indeed, at bottom, we have absolutely no criterion that could help us to form a judgment of a world which was unassimilable by the subject. If we were to ignore the subjective factor, it would be a complete denial of the great doubt as to the possibility of absolute cognition. And this would mean a relapse into the stale and hollow positivism that marred the turn of the century—an attitude of intellectual arrogance accompanied by crudeness of feeling, a violation of life as stupid as it is presumptuous. By overvaluing our capacity for objective cognition we repress the importance of the subjective factor, which simply means a denial of the subject. But what is the subject. The subject is manhimself—we are the subject. Only a sick mind could forget that cognition must have a subject, and that there is no knowledge whatever and no world at all unless “I know” has been said, though with this statement one has already expressed the subjective limitation of all knowledge. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 621

Man is not a machine that can be remodeled for quite other purposes as occasion demands, in the hope that it will go on functioning as regularly as before but in a quite different way. He carries his whole history with him; in his very structure is written the history of mankind. The historical element in man represents a vital need to which a wise psychic economy must respond. Somehow the past must come alive and participate in the present. Total assimilation to the object will always arouse the protest of the suppressed minority of those elements that belong to the past and have existed from the very beginning. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 570

Certainly strife and misunderstanding will always be among the props of the tragi-comedy of human existence, but it is none the less undeniable that the advance of civilization has led from the law of the jungle to the establishment of courts of justice and standards of right and wrong which are above the contending parties. It is my conviction that a basis for the settlement of conflicting views would be found in the recognition of different types of attitude — a recognition not only of the existence of such types, but also of the fact that every man is so imprisoned in his type that he is simply incapable of fully understanding another standpoint. Failing a recognition of this exacting demand, a violation of the other standpoint is practically inevitable. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 847

Because we are still such barbarians, any trust in the laws of human nature seems to us a dangerous and unethical naturalism. Why is this? Because under the barbarian’s thin veneer of culture the wild beast lurks in readiness, amply justifying his fear. But the beast is not tamed by locking it up in a cage. There is no morality without freedom. When the barbarian lets loose the beast within him, that is not freedom but bondage. Barbarism must first be vanquished before freedom can be won. This happens, in principle, when the basic root and driving force of morality are felt by the individual as constituents of his own nature and not as external restrictions. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 357

Science as an end in itself is assuredly a high ideal, yet its consistent fulfilment brings about as many “ends in themselves” as there are sciences and arts. Naturally this leads to a high differentiation and specialization of the particular functions concerned, but also to their detachment from the world and from life, as well as to a multiplication of specialized fields which gradually lose all connection with one another. The result is an impoverishment and desiccation not merely in the specialized fields but also in the psyche of every man who has differentiated himself up or sunk down to the specialist level. Science must prove her value for life; it is not enough that she be the mistress, she must also be the maid. By so serving she in no way dishonors herself. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 84

If psychology remains for us only a science, we do not penetrate into life—we merely serve the absolute aim of science. It leads us, certainly, to a knowledge of the objective situation, but it always opposes every other aim but its own. The intellect remains imprisoned in itself just so long as it does not willingly sacrifice its supremacy by acknowledging the value of other aims. It shrinks from the step which takes it out of itself and which denies its universal validity, since from the standpoint of the intellect everything else is nothing but fantasy. But what great thing ever came into existence that was not first fantasy? ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 86

We know that every good idea and all creative work are the offspring of the imagination, and have their source in what one is pleased to call infantile fantasy. Not the artist alone but every creative individual whatsoever owes all that is greatest in his life to fantasy. The dynamic principle of fantasy is play, a characteristic also of the child, and as such it appears inconsistent with the principle of serious work. But without this playing with fantasy no creative work has ever yet come to birth. The debt we owe to the play of imagination is incalculable. It is therefore shortsighted to treat fantasy, on account of its daring or objectionable nature, as a thing of little worth. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 93

A child certainly allows himself to be impressed by the grand talk of his parents, but do they really imagine he is educated by it? Actually it is the parents’ lives that educate the child—what they add by word and gesture at best serves only to confuse him. The same holds good for the teacher. But we have such a belief in method that, if only the method be good, the practice of it seems to sanctify the teacher. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 665

An inferior man is never a good teacher. But he can conceal his pernicious inferiority, which secretly poisons the pupil, behind an excellent method or an equally brilliant gift of gab. Naturally the pupil of riper years desires nothing better than the knowledge of useful methods, because he is already defeated by the general attitude, which believes in the all-conquering method. He has learnt that the emptiest head, correctly echoing a method, is the best pupil. His whole environment is an optical demonstration that all success and all happiness are outside, and that only the right method is needed to attain the haven of one’s desires. Or does, perchance, the life of his religious instructor demonstrate the happiness which radiates from the treasure of the inner vision? ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 665

Aestheticism is not fitted to solve the exceedingly serious and difficult task of educating man, for it always presupposes the very thing it should create—the capacity to love beauty. It actually hinders a deeper investigation of the problem, because it always averts its face from anything evil, ugly, and difficult, and aims at pleasure, even though it be of an edifying kind. Aestheticism therefore lacks all moral force, because au fond it is still only a refined hedonism. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 194

Both these necessities exist in ourselves nature and culture. We cannot only be ourselves, we must also be related to others. Hence a way must be found that is not a mere rational compromise; it must be a state or process that is wholly consonant with the living being, “a highway and a holy way,” as the prophet says, “a straight way, so that fools shall not err therein” (Isaiah 35:8). ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 135

Conscious capacity for one-sidedness is a sign of the highest culture, but involuntary one-sidedness, i.e., inability to be anything but one-sided, is a sign of barbarism. Hence the most one-sided differentiations are found among semi-barbarians—for instance, certain aspects of Christian asceticism that are an affront to good taste, and parallel phenomena among the yogis and Tibetan Buddhists. For the barbarian, this tendency to fall a victim to one-sidedness in one way or another, thus losing sight of his total personality, is a great and constant danger. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 346

No culture is ever really complete, for it always swings more towards one side or the other. Sometimes the cultural idea is extraverted, and then the chief value lies with the object and man’s relation to it; sometimes it is introverted, and then the chief value lies with the subject and his relation to the idea. In the former case, culture takes on a collective character, in the latter an individual one. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 110

We obviously need both civilization and culture. . . . We cannot create one without the other, and we must admit, unfortunately, that modern humanity lacks both. Where there is too much of the one there is too little of the other, if we want to put it more cautiously. The continual harping on progress has by now become rather suspect. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 477

Mistakes are, after all, the foundations of truth, and if a man does not know what a thing is, it is at least an increase in knowledge if he knows what it is not. ~Carl Jung, CW 9ii, Para 429

The ideal and aim of science do not consist in giving the most exact possible description of the facts—science cannot compete as a recording instrument with the camera and the gramophone—but in establishing certain laws, which are merely abbreviated expressions for many diverse processes that are yet conceived to be somehow correlated. This aim goes beyond the purely empirical realm by means of the concept, which, though it may have general and proved validity, will always be a product of the subjective psychological constellation of the investigator. In the making of scientific theories and concepts many personal and accidental factors are involved. There is also a personal equation that is psychological and not merely psychophysical. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 9

Since [in the Middle Ages] the psychic relation to woman was expressed in the collective worship of Mary, the image of woman lost a value to which human beings had a natural right. This value could find its natural expression only through individual choice, and it sank into the unconscious when the individual form of expression was replaced by a collective one. In the unconscious the image of woman received an energy charge that activated the archaic and infantile dominants. And since all unconscious contents, when activated by dissociated libido, are projected upon the external object, the devaluation of the real woman was compensated by daemonic features. She no longer appeared as an object of love, but as a persecutor or witch. The consequence of increasing Mariolatry was the witch hunt, that indelible blot on the later Middle Ages. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 399

Whereas logic and objectivity are usually the predominant features of a man’s outer attitude, or are at least regarded as ideals, in the case of a woman it is feeling. But in the soul it is the other way round inwardly it is the man who feels, and the woman who reflects. Hence a man’s greater liability to total despair, while a woman can always find comfort and hope; accordingly a man is more likely to put an end to himself than a woman. However much a victim of social circumstances a woman may be, as a prostitute for instance, a man is no less a victim of impulses from the unconscious, taking the form of alcoholism and other vices. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 805

Again, no psychological fact can ever be exhaustively explained in terms of causality alone; as a living phenomenon, it is always indissolubly bound up with the continuity of the vital process, so that it is not only something evolved but also continually evolving and creative. Anything psychic is Janus-faced it looks both backwards and forwards. Because it is evolving, it is also preparing the future. Were this not so, intentions, aims, plans, calculations, predictions, and premonitions would be psychological impossibilities. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 718

The psychological investigator is always finding himself obliged to make extensive use of an indirect method of description in order to present the reality he has observed. Only in so far as elementary facts are communicated which are amenable to quantitative measurement can there be any question of a direct presentation. But how much of the actual psychology of man can be experienced and observed as quantitatively measurable facts? ~Carl Jung, CW 6; Para 672

Reverence for the great mysteries of nature, which the language of religion seeks to express in symbols hallowed by their antiquity, profound significance, and beauty, will not suffer from the extension of psychology to this domain, to which science has hitherto found no access. We only shift the symbols back a little, shedding a little light on their darker reaches, but without succumbing to the erroneous notion that we have created more than merely a new symbol for the same enigma that perplexed all ages before us. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 428

A symbol loses its magical or, if you prefer, its redeeming power as soon as its liability to dissolve is recognized. To be effective, a symbol must be by its very nature unassailable. It must be the best possible expression of the prevailing worldview, an unsurpassed container of meaning; it must also be sufficiently remote from comprehension to resist all attempts of the critical intellect to break it down; and finally, its aesthetic form must appeal so convincingly to our feelings that no arguments can be raised against it on that score. ~Carl Jung CW 6, Para 401

Do we ever understand what we think? We only understand that kind of thinking which is a mere equation, from which nothing comes out but what we have put in. That is the working of the intellect. But besides that there is a thinking in primordial images, in symbols which are older than the historical man, which are inborn in him from the earliest times, and, eternally living, outlasting all generations, still make up the groundwork of the human psyche. As we can see from the example of Faust, the vision of the symbol is a pointer to the onward course of life, beckoning the libido towards a still distant goal—but a goal that henceforth will burn unquenchably within him, so that his life, kindled as by a flame, moves steadily towards the far off beacon. This is the specific life-promoting significance of the symbol, and such, too, is the meaning and value of religious symbols. I am speaking, of course, not of symbols that are dead and stiffened by dogma, but of living symbols that rise up from the creative unconscious of the living man. The immense significance of such symbols can be denied only by those for whom the history of the world begins with the present day. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 202

There is a deep gulf between what a man is and what he represents, between what he is as an individual and what he is as a collective being. His function is developed at the expense of the individuality. Should he excel, he is merely identical with his collective function; but should he not, then, though he may be highly esteemed as a function in society, his individuality is wholly on the level of his inferior, undeveloped functions, and he is simply a barbarian, while in the former case he has happily deceived himself as to his actual barbarism. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 111

No social legislation will ever be able to overcome the psychological differences between men, this most necessary factor for generating the vital energy of a human society. It may serve a useful purpose, therefore, to speak of the heterogeneity of men. These differences involve such different requirements for happiness that no legislation, however perfect, could afford them even approximate satisfaction. No outward form of life could be devised, however equitable and just it might appear, that would not involve injustice for one or the other human type. That, in spite of this, every kind of enthusiast—political, social, philosophical, and religious—is busily endeavouring to find those uniform external conditions which would bring with them greater opportunities for the happiness of all seems to me connected with a general attitude to life too exclusively. Although it is certainly a fine thing that every man should stand equal before the law, that every man should have his political vote, and that no man, through hereditary social position and privilege, should have unjust advantage over his brother, it is distinctly less fine when the idea of equality is extended to other walks of life. A man must have a very clouded vision, or view human society from a very misty distance, to cherish the notion that the uniform regulation of life would automatically ensure a uniform distribution of happiness. He must be pretty far gone in delusion if he imagines that equality of income, or equal opportunities for all, would have approximately the same value for everyone. But, if he were a legislator, what would he do about all those people whose greatest opportunities lie not without, but within? If he were just, he would have to give at least twice as much money to the one as to the other, since to the one it means much, to the other little. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, CW 845

When a problem that is at bottom personal, and therefore apparently subjective, coincides with external events that contain the same psychological elements as the personal conflict, it is suddenly transformed into a general question embracing the whole of society. In this way the personal problem acquires a dignity it lacked hitherto, since a state of inner discord always has something humiliating and degrading about it, so that one sinks into an ignominious condition both without and within, like a state dishonoured by civil war. It is this that makes one shrink from displaying before the public a purely personal conflict, provided of course that one does not suffer from an overdose of self-esteem. But if the connection between the personal problem and the larger contemporary events is discerned and understood, it brings release from the loneliness of the purely personal, and the subjective problem is magnified into a general question of our society. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 119

To establish a really mature attitude, he has to see the subjective value of all these images which seem to create trouble for him. He has to assimilate them into his own psychology; he has to find out in what way they are part of himself; how he attributes for instance a positive value to an object, when as a matter of fact it is he who could and should develop this value. And in the same way, when he projects negative qualities and therefore hates and loathes the object, he has to discover that he is projecting his own inferior side, his shadow, as it were, because he prefers to have an optimistic and one-sided image of himself. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 813.

Abstraction is an activity pertaining to the psychological functions in general. There is an abstract thinking, just as there is abstract feeling, sensation, and intuition. Abstract thinking singles out the rational, logical qualities of a given content from its intellectually irrelevant components. Abstract feeling does the same with a content characterized by its feeling-values . . . . Abstract sensation would be aesthetic as opposed to sensuous sensation, and abstract intuition would be symbolic as opposed to fantastic intuition. ~Carl Jung; CW 6, par. 678.

Opposites can be united only in the form of compromise, or irrationally, some new thing arising between them which, though different from both, yet has the power totake up their energies in equal measure as an expression of both and of neither. Such an expression cannot be contrived by reason, it can only be created through living. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 169

Out of a playful movement of elements whose interrelations are not immediately apparent, patterns arise which an observant and critical intellect can only evaluate afterwards. The creation of something new is not accomplished by the intellect but by the play instinct acting from inner necessity. The creative mind plays with the objects it loves. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 197

The accumulated libido activates images lying dormant in the collective unconscious, among them the God-image, that engram or imprint which from the beginning of time has been the collective expression of the most overwhelmingly powerful influences exerted on the conscious mind by unconscious concentrations of libido. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 412

As we can see from the example of Faust, the vision of the symbol is a pointer to the onward course of life, beckoning the libido towards a still distant goal—but a goal that henceforth will burn unquenchably within him, so that his life, kindled as by a flame, moves steadily towards the far off beacon. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 202

Reverence for the great mysteries of nature, which the language of religion seeks to express in symbols hallowed by their antiquity, profound significance, and beauty, will not suffer from the extension of psychology to this domain, to which science has hitherto found no access. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 428

Again, no psychological fact can ever be exhaustively explained in terms of causality alone; as a living phenomenon, it is always indissolubly bound up with the continuity of the vital process, so that it is not only something evolved but also continually evolving and creative. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 718

The dammed-up instinctual forces in civilized man are immensely destructive and far more dangerous than the instincts of the primitive, who in a modest degree is constantly living out his negative instincts. Consequently no war of the historical past can rival in grandiose horror the wars of civilized nations. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 230

Man is constantly inclined to forget that what was once good does not remain good eternally. He follows the old ways that once were good long after they have become bad and only with the greatest sacrifices and untold suffering can he rid himself of this delusion and see that what was once good is now perhaps grown old and is good no longer. This is so in great things as in small. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 313

Just as the unconscious world of mythological images speaks indirectly, through the experience of external things, to the man who surrenders himself wholly to the outer world, so the real world and its demands find their way indirectly to the man who has surrendered himself wholly to the soul; for no man can escape both realities. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 280

Apotropaic: Descriptive of “magical thinking,” based on the desire to depotentiate the influence of an object or person. Apotropaic actions are characteristic of introversion as a mode of psychological orientation. I have seen an introverted child who made his first attempts to walk only after he had learned the names of all the objects in the room he might touch. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, par. 897.

Sensation must be strictly differentiated from feeling, since the latter is an entirely different process, although it may associate itself with sensation as “feeling-tone.” Sensation is related not only to external stimuli but to inner ones, i.e., to changes in the internal organic processes. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 792.

The dynamic principle of fantasy is play, a characteristic also of the child, and as such it appears inconsistent with the principle of serious work. But without this playing with fantasy any creative work has ever yet come to birth. The debt we owe to the play of imagination is incalculable. It is therefore short-sighted to treat fantasy, on account of its risky or unacceptable nature, as a thing of little worth. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Page 82.

I have been compelled, in my investigations into the structure of the unconscious, to make a conceptual distinction between soul and psyche. By psyche I understand the totality of all psychic processes, conscious as well as unconscious. By soul, on the other hand, I understand a clearly demarcated functional complex that can best be described as a “personality.” ~Carl Jung, CW 6, para 797.

Nothing is so apt to challenge our self-awareness and alertness as being at war with oneself. One can hardly think of any other or more effective means of waking humanity out of the irresponsible and innocent half-sleep of the primitive mentality and bringing it to a state of conscious responsibility. ~Carl Jung; CW 6; Page 964.

Considered biologically, the sacrifice serves the interests of domestication, but psychologically it opens a door for new possibilities of spiritual development through the dissolution of old ties ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 24

 

These images are archaic forms of expression which become symbols, and these appear in their turn as equivalents of the devalued objects. This process is as old as mankind, for symbols may be found among the most primitive human types living today ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 402

 

But the complicated outer conditions under which we live and the even more complicated conditions of our individual psychic make-up seldom permit a completely undisturbed flow of psychic energy. Outer circumstances and inner disposition frequently favor one mechanism and restrict or hinder the other. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 6

 

The fact that the introvert, because of his abstracting attitude, naturally has a reflective and contemplative air is misleading. One is inclined to assume that in him the primacy falls to thinking ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 248

 

The extravert, on the contrary, naturally displays many immediate reactions, which easily lead one to conjecture a predominance of feeling. These suppositions are deceptive, since the extravert may well be a thinking, and the introvert a feeling type. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 248

 

There is a constant influx of unconscious contents into the conscious psychological process, to such a degree that at times it is hard for the observer to decide which character traits belong to the conscious and which to the unconscious personality ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 576

 

Introversion and extraversion are not traits of character at all but mechanisms, which can, as it were, be switched on or off at will. Only from their habitual predominance do the corresponding characters develop. The predilection one way or the other no doubt depends on the inborn disposition, but this is not always the decisive factor ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 479

 

If we go right back to primitive psychology, we find absolutely no trace of the concept of an individual. Instead of individuality we find only collective relationship or what Lévy-Bruhl calls participation mystique ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 12

 

The collective attitude hinders the recognition and evaluation of a psychology different from the subject’s, because the mind that is collectively oriented is quite incapable of thinking and feeling in any other way than by projection ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 12

 

What we understand by the concept “individual” is a relatively recent acquisition in the history of the human mind and human culture ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 12

 

The development of individuality, with the consequent psychological differentiation of man, goes hand in hand with the de-psychologizing work of objective science ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 12

 

Gnostic philosophy established three types, corresponding perhaps to three [out of four] of the basic psychological functions: thinking, feeling, and sensation [intuition missing]: The pneumatikoi could be correlated with thinking, The psychikoi with feeling, The hylikoi with sensation. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 14

 

The inferior rating of the psychikoi was in accord with the spirit of Gnosticism, which, unlike Christianity, insisted on the value of knowledge ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 14

 

The Christian principles of love and faith kept knowledge at a distance. In the Christian sphere the pneumatikoi would accordingly get the lower rating, since they were distinguished merely by the possession of Gnosis, i.e., knowledge ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 14

 

Tertullian was a fanatic, brilliantly one-sided in his defense of a recognized truth, possessed of a matchless fighting spirit, a merciless opponent who saw victory only in the total annihilation of his adversary, his language a flashing blade wielded with ferocious mastery ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 17

 

Tertullian was the creator of the Church Latin that lasted for more than a thousand years. It was also he who coined the terminology of the early Church ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 17

 

Tertullian’s impassioned thinking was so inexorable that again and again he alienated himself from the very thing for which he had given his heart’s blood. Accordingly his ethical code was bitterly severe ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 17

 

Tertullian commanded that martyrdom be sought and not shunned; he permitted no second marriage, and required the permanent veiling of persons of the female sex ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 17

 

Gnosis, which in reality is a passion for thinking and knowing, he [Tertullian] attacked with unrelenting fanaticism, together with philosophy and science which differed from it so little ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 17

 

Thanks to the acuteness of his mind, Tertullian saw through the poverty of philosophical and Gnostic knowledge, and contemptuously rejected it. He invoked against it the testimony of his own inner world, his own inner realities, which were one with his faith. In shaping and developing these realities he became the creator of those abstract conceptions which still underlie the Catholic system of today ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 18

 

Type differences should also be borne in mind when we consider the long and perilous struggle which the Church from its earliest beginnings waged against Gnosticism. Owing to the predominantly practical trend of early Christianity the intellectual hardly came into his own, except when he

followed his fighting instincts by indulging in polemical apologetics. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 15

 

The irrational inner reality had for Tertullian an essentially dynamic nature; it was his principle, his foundation in the face of the world and of all collectively valid and rational science and philosophy ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 18

 

With the sacrificium intellectus [by Tertullian] philosophy and science, and hence also Gnosis, fell to the ground ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 19

 

Introverted thinking is of value for his contemporaries only so long as it is manifestly and intelligibly related to the known facts of the time. Once it has become mythological, it ceases to be relevant on in itself ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 637

 

In his own special field of work the introverted thinker provokes the most violent opposition, which he has no notion how to deal with, unless he happens to be seduced by his primitive affects into acrimonious and fruitless polemics ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 635

 

The introverted thinker may develop into a misanthropic bachelor with a childlike heart. Often he is gauche in his behavior, painfully anxious to escape notice, or remarkably unconcerned and childishly naïve ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 635

 

In Origen we may recognize the absolute opposite of Tertullian. He was born in Alexandria about A.D. 185. His father was a Christian martyr ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 21

 

Origen, by mutilating himself [self-castration], sacrificed his sensual tie to the world. For him, evidently, the specific danger was not the intellect but feeling and sensation, which bound him to the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 26

 

Through castration Origen freed himself from the sensuality that was coupled with Gnosticism; he could then surrender without fear to the treasures of Gnostic thought, whereas Tertullian through his sacrifice of the intellect turned away from Gnosis but also reached a depth of religious feeling that we miss in Origen ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 26

 

Extraversion is the opposite attitude of introversion, where a predilection one way or the other depends on the inborn disposition of the subject, but the inborn disposition is not always the decisive factor since environmental influences can be just as important ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 479

 

Both extraversion and introversion may appear in the personality so we cannot decide at first to which attitude the superior function belongs, i.e., to introversion or extraversion. This can only be determined by a thorough analysis of the qualities of each function ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 576

 

Extraversion must be understood as a mechanism, not a trait of character, capable of being switched on or off at will, its corresponding character developing only from its habitual predominance ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 479

 

The extravert reveals himself simply and solely in his relatedness, i.e., in his affectivity. He discovers himself in what is fluctuating and changeable. His ego is of less importance than his relatedness ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 138

 

Extraversion becomes less subject to misunderstanding than the introvert because the style of the times works for him.an extraverted overvaluation of the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 645

 

The extravert holds a differing attitude from the introvert. This causes an intrinsically irritating conflict between the two and the most heated and futile scientific discussions ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 521

 

The extravert generally has a relaxed attitude. Exceptions, however, are frequent, even in one and the same individual e.g., put an extravert in a dark and silent room, where all his repressed complexes can gnaw at him, and he will get into such a state of tension that he will jump at the slightest stimulus ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 482

 

An extraverted consciousness is unable to believe in invisible forces.to the blind eyes of the extravert, the intensive sympathy of the introverted feeling type looks like coldness, because usually it does nothing visible ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 641

 

The extravert suffers most frequently from the neurosis of hysteria, evident in his exaggerated rapport with persons and adjustment to conditions amounting to imitation ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 566

 

The demands of the extravert’s unconscious have an essentially primitive, infantile, egocentric character which compensates for his conscious emphasis on things outside himself ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 571

 

An example of the extraverted type can be seen in Origen, an early Church scholar, whose basic orientation was towards the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 24

 

Since every man, as a relatively stable being, possesses all the basic psychological functions, it would be a psychological necessity with a view to perfect adaptation that he should also employ them in equal measure ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 28

 

However, there must be a reason why there are different modes of psychological adaptation: evidently one alone is not enough, since the object seems to be only partially comprehended when, for example, it is something that is merely thought or merely felt ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 28

 

A one-sided (“typical”) attitude leaves a deficiency in the adaptive performance which accumulates during the course of life, and sooner or later this will produce a disturbance of adaptation that drives the subject toward some kind of compensation ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 28

 

The sacrifice that Tertullian and Origen carried out was drastic too drastic for our taste but it was in keeping with the spirit of the age, which was thoroughly concretistic ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 29

 

Because of this spirit the Gnostics took their visions as absolutely real, or at least as relating directly to reality, and for Tertullian the reality of his feeling was objectively valid ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 29

 

The Gnostics projected their subjective inner perception of the change of attitude into a cosmogonic system and believed in the reality of its psychological figures ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 29

 

The doctrine of the transubstantiation asserts that the wine and holy wafer become transformed into the actual blood and body of Christ. As is well known, this view became dogma, according to which the transformation is accomplished vere, realiter, substantialiter (in truth, in reality, in substance) ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 36

 

It must not be overlooked, for instance, that it is precisely the belief in the reality of this miracle [of transubstantiation] that demands a detachment of the psychic process from the purely sensual, and this cannot remain without influence on the psychic process itself ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 38

 

In my experience this type [extraverted thinker] is found chiefly among men, since, in general, thinking tends more often to be a dominant function in men than in women. When thinking dominates in a woman it is usually associated with a predominantly intuitive cast of mind ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 591

 

Extraverted thinking may be characterized as programmatic in contrast to introverted thinking which is rational ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 38

 

We might take Darwin as an example of the normal extraverted thinking type, this type speaks with facts. Darwin ranges over the wide field of objective reality ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 632

 

Anatole France says: “What is thinking? And how does one think? We think with words; that in itself is sensual and brings us back to nature. “This is extreme nominalism, as it is when Nietzsche says that reason is “speech metaphysics” ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 40

 

The concept of reality necessarily coincides with the sensuous reality of things; their individuality represents the real as opposed to the abstract idea. Strict realism, on the contrary, transfers the accent on reality to the abstract, the idea, the universal, which posits ante rem (before the thing) ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 41

 

God is a datum formulated as the “highest good” signifying the supreme psychic value, i.e., a concept endowed with the highest and most general significance in determining our thoughts and actions ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 67

 

The autonomous activity of the psyche, which can be explained neither as a reflex action to sensory stimuli nor as the executive organ of eternal ideas. Like every vital process, it is a continuous creative act. The psyche creates reality every day. (The only expression I can use for this activity is fantasy) ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 78

 

Fantasy is just as much feeling as thinking; as much intuition as sensation. There is no psychic function that, through fantasy, is not inextricably bound up with other psychic functions. Sometimes it appears in primordial form, sometimes it is the ultimate and boldest product of all our faculties combined ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 78

 

Fantasy always fashions the bridge between the irreconcilable claims of subject and object, introversion and extraversion. In fantasy alone both mechanisms are united ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 78

 

How fantasy is assessed by psychology, so long as this remains merely science, is illustrated by the well-known views of Freud and Adler ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 88

 

The Freudian interpretation reduces fantasy to causal, elementary, instinctive processes. Adler’s conception reduces it to the elementary, final aims of the ego ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 88

 

Freud’s is a psychology of instinct, Adler’s an ego-psychology ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 88

 

Instinct is an impersonal biological phenomenon. A psychology founded on instinct must by its very nature neglect the ego, since the ego owes its existence to the principium individuationis, i.e., to individual differentiation, whose isolated character removes it from the realm of general biological phenomena ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 88

 

Every ego-psychology must necessarily exclude and ignore just the collective element that is bound to a psychology of instinct, since it describes that very process by which the ego becomes differentiated from collective drives ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 88

 

Freud’s and Adler’s theories reject the principle of imagination (fantasy) since they reduce fantasies to something else and treat them merely as a semiotic expression ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 93

 

For everyone whose guiding principle is adaptation to external reality, imagination is for these reasons something reprehensible and useless ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 93

 

The debt we owe to the play of imagination is incalculable. It is therefore short sighted to treat fantasy, on account of its risky or unacceptable nature, as a thing of little worth. It must not be forgotten that in the imagination a man’s highest value may lie ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 93

 

Freudian psychology is characterized by one central idea, the repression of incompatible wish-tendencies. Man appears as a bundle of wishes which are only partially adaptable to the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 90

 

Adler’s psychology, on the other hand, is characterized by the central concept of ego-superiority. Man appears primarily as an ego-point which must not under any circumstances be subordinated to the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 90

 

While the craving for the object, the fixation on the object, and the impossible nature of certain desires for the object play a paramount role with Freud, with Adler everything is directed to the superiority of the subject  ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 90

 

Freud’s repression of instinct in respect of the object corresponds to the security of the subject in Adler. For Adler the remedy is the removal of the security that isolates the subject; for Freud it is the removal of the repression that makes the object inaccessible ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 90

 

The basic formula with Freud is therefore sexuality, which expresses the strongest relation between subject and object; with Adler it is the power of the subject, which secures him most effectively against the object and guarantees him an impregnable isolation that abolishes all relationships ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 91

 

Freud would like to ensure the undisturbed flow of instinct towards its object; Adler would like to break the baleful spell of the object in order to save the ego from suffocating in its own defensive armor ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 91

 

Abstraction is a universal image conjuring the welter of impressions of animate objects into a fixed form, having the magical significance of a defense against the chaotic flux of experience ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 499

 

Abstraction may be equated to thinking, thus putting it in conflict with the poetic spirit ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 117

 

Intuition is not mere perception, or vision, but an active, creative process that puts into the object just as much as it takes out. Since it does this unconsciously, it also has an unconscious effect on the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 610

 

Intuition, like sensation, is an irrational function of perception. As with sensation, its contents have the character of being “given,” in contrast to the “derived” or “produced” character of thinking and feeling contents ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 770

 

Intuition is the function that mediates perceptions in an unconscious way. Everything, whether outer or inner objects or their relationships, can be the focus of this perception ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 770

 

The primary function of intuition is simply to transmit images, or perceptions of relations between things, which could not be transmitted by the other functions or only in a very roundabout way ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 611

 

Intuition may be seen as the perception of one’s own unconscious processes, withdrawing one from the object. It mounts above it, ever seeking to rule its material, to shape it, even violently, in accordance with one’s own subjective viewpoint, though without being aware of doing so ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 219

 

The peculiarity of intuition is that it is neither sense perception, nor feeling, nor intellectual inference, although it may also appear in these forms ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 770

 

In intuition a content presents itself whole and complete, without our being able to explain or discover how this content came into existence. Intuition is a kind of instinctive apprehension, no matter of what contents ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 770

 

Intuition tries to apprehend the widest range of possibilities, since only through envisioning possibilities is intuition fully satisfied ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 612

 

Intuition is constantly seeking fresh outlets and new possibilities in external life. In a very short time every existing situation becomes a prison for the intuitive, a chain that has to be broken ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 612

 

The intuitive does have sensations, of course, but is not guided by them as such; he uses them merely as starting-points for his perceptions. He selects them by unconscious predilections ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 611

 

The intuitive typically stops at perception; perception being his main problem ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 661

 

The intuitive function is represented in consciousness by an attitude of expectancy, by vision and penetration; but only from the subsequent result can it be established how much of what was “seen” was actually in the object, and how much was “read into” it ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 610

 

Affectivity is a state felt as painful by the introvert, but something not to be missed by the extravert ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 138

 

Affectivity means relatedness to the extravert, being felt by him as more important than his ego since affectivity is where his “person” lies ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 138

 

Introversion is the opposite attitude of extraversion, where a predilection one way or the other depends on the inborn disposition of the subject, but the inborn disposition is not always the decisive factor since environmental influences can be just as important ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 479

 

Both introversion and extraversion may appear in the personality so we cannot decide at first to which attitude the superior function belongs, i.e., introversion or extraversion a state which can only be determined by a thorough analysis of the qualities of each function ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 576

 

The introvert generally has a tense attitude, however, exceptions are frequent even in one and the same individual, e.g., an introvert in a congenial, harmonious milieu relaxes into complete extraversion ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 482

 

The introvert reveals his “person” exclusively as the ego, and shrinks from every change that is at all liable to affect his ego affectivity being something absolutely painful. The introvert discovers himself in the constant ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 138

 

The introvert holds the same repugnance, fear, or silent contempt for extraversion as the extravert holds for introversion ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 164

 

Both extraversion and introversion may appear in the personality so we cannot decide at first to which attitude the superior function belongs, i.e., to introversion or extraversion. This can only be determined by a thorough analysis of the qualities of each function ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 576

 

 

The extraverted feeling type finds himself through his feeling-relation to the object, whereas the introvert loses himself in the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 164

 

The concept of rta is a stepping-stone to the concept of Tao in Lao-tzu ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 192

 

Tao is the right way, the reign of law, the middle road between opposites, freed from them and yet uniting them in itself. The purpose of life is to travel this middle road and never to deviate towards the opposites ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 192

 

Tao contains no ecstatic element, its place being taken by a sublime philosophic lucidity, an intellectual and intuitive wisdom obscured by no mystical haze ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 192

 

The symbol lives through the restraint imposed upon certain forms of libido, and in turn serves to restrain these forms ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 401

 

For a certain time the [Holy] Grail symbol clearly fulfilled these requirements, and to this fact it owed its vitality, which, as the example of Wagner shows, is still not exhausted today, even though our age and our psychology strive unceasingly for its dissolution ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 401

 

Symbol-formation, therefore, must obviously be an extremely important biological function. As the symbol can come alive only through the devaluation of the object, it is evident that the purpose it serves is to deprive the object of its value ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 402

 

The profundity and pregnant significance of the symbol appeal just as strongly to thinking as to feeling, while its peculiar plastic imagery, when shaped into sensuous form, stimulates sensation as much as intuition ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 823

 

The symbol is the middle way along which the opposites flow together in a new movement, like a watercourse bringing fertility after a long drought ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 443

 

The symbol has a practical importance in its relation to consciousness and the conscious conduct of life, and great significance as an exponent of the unconscious thus it is of considerable value in the treatment of neurotics ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 204

 

The symbol always says: in some such form as this a new manifestation of life will become possible, a release from bondage and world-weariness ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 435

 

I say “may” advisedly, because on the other hand fantasies are also valueless, since in the form of raw material they possess no realizable worth. In order to unearth the treasures they contain they must be developed a stage further ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 93

 

Freudian psychology is characterized by one central idea, the repression of incompatible wish-tendencies. Man appears as a bundle of wishes which are only partially adaptable to the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 90

 

Adler’s psychology, on the other hand, is characterized by the central concept of ego-superiority. Man appears primarily as an ego-point which must not under any circumstances be subordinated to the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 90

 

Freud’s repression of instinct in respect of the object corresponds to the security of the subject in Adler. For Adler the remedy is the removal of the security that isolates the subject; for Freud it is the removal of the repression that makes the object inaccessible ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 90

 

The basic formula with Freud is therefore sexuality, which expresses the strongest relation between subject and object; with Adler it is the power of the subject, which secures him most effectively against the object and guarantees him an impregnable isolation that abolishes all relationships ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 91

 

Abstraction may be equated to thinking, thus putting it in conflict with the poetic spirit ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 117

 

Intuition is in the main an unconscious process, its nature is very difficult to grasp. Intuition is not mere perception, or vision, but an active, creative process that puts into the object just as much as it takes out. Since it does this unconsciously, it also has an unconscious effect on the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 610

 

The primary function of intuition is simply to transmit images, or perceptions of relations between things, which could not be transmitted by the other functions or only in a very roundabout way ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 611

 

Intuition may be seen as the perception of one’s own unconscious processes, withdrawing one from the object. It mounts above it, ever seeking to rule its material, to shape it, even violently, in accordance with one’s own subjective viewpoint, though without being aware of doing so ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 219

 

The peculiarity of intuition is that it is neither sense perception, nor feeling, nor intellectual inference, although it may also appear in these forms ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 770

 

In intuition a content presents itself whole and complete, without our being able to explain or discover how this content came into existence. Intuition is a kind of instinctive apprehension, no matter of what contents ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 770

 

Intuition tries to apprehend the widest range of possibilities, since only through envisioning possibilities is intuition fully satisfied ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 612

 

Intuition is constantly seeking fresh outlets and new possibilities in external life. In a very short time every existing situation becomes a prison for the intuitive, a chain that has to be broken ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 612

 

A symbol must be by its very nature unassailable to be effective ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 401

 

A symbol must be the best possible expression of the prevailing world-view, an unsurpassed container of meaning ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 401

 

A symbol must also be sufficiently remote from comprehension to resist all attempts of the critical intellect to break it down ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 401

 

Finally, the aesthetic form of the symbol must appeal so convincingly to our feelings that no argument can be raised against it on that score ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 401

 

The symbol always says: in some such form as this a new manifestation of life will become possible, a release from bondage and world-weariness ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 435

 

Brahman is also prana, the breath of life and the cosmic principle; it is vayu, wind, which is described in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (3.7) as “the thread by which this world and the other world and all things are tied together, the Self, the inner controller, the immortal” ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 334

 

Brahman is conceived in the Atharva Veda as the vitalistic-principle, the life force, which fashions all the organs and their respective instincts ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 335

 

Even man’s strength comes from Brahman. The Brahman concept, by virtue of all its attributes and symbols, coincides with that of a dynamic or creative principle which I have termed libido ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 336

 

The word Brahman means prayer, incantation, sacred speech, sacred knowledge (Veda), holy life, the sacred caste (the Brahmans), the Absolute ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 336

 

Not the artist alone, but every creative individual whatsoever owes all that is greatest in his life to fantasy ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 93

 

The dynamic principle of fantasy is play, a characteristic also of the child, and as such it appears inconsistent with the principle of serious work. But without this playing with fantasy no creative work has ever yet come to birth ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 93

 

The standpoints of Freud and Adler are equally one-sided and characteristic only of one type ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 92

 

Consequently, any possibility of an individual differentiation of the soul was lost when it became repressed in the collective worship. Such losses generally have unfortunate consequences, and in this case they soon made themselves felt ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 399

 

In the end, Hermas’ libido, i.e., his erotic desire is directed to his task of the Church. In this way, the transition of the worship of woman into the worship of the soul takes place ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 383

 

Hermas’ mistress appears to him not as an erotic fantasy but in “divine” form, seeming to him like a goddess in heaven ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 383

 

The Christian principle which unites the opposites in the worship of God. In Buddhism, it is the worship of the Self (self-development), while in Spitteler and Goethe it is the worship of the soul symbolized by the worship of woman ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 375

 

Implicit in this categorization is the modern individualistic principle on the one hand, and on the other a primitive poly-daemonism which assigns to every race, every tribe, every family, every individual its specific religious principle ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 375

 

The dissolution of the symbol means a streaming off of libido along the direct path, or at any rate an almost irresistible urge for its direct application ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 401

 

The symbol acquires a conscious motive force once we grant it a value, i.e., if it is perceived, its unconscious libido-charge is thereby given an opportunity to make itself felt in the conscious conduct of life ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 204

 

In order to characterize more closely these two “impulses” [Apollonian and Dionysian], Nietzsche compares the peculiar psychological states they give rise to with those of dreaming and intoxication ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 226

 

The Apollonian impulse produces the state comparable to dreaming, the Dionysian the state comparable to intoxication ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 226

 

The Dionysian impulse, on the other hand, means the liberation of unbounded instinct, the breaking loose of the unbridled dynamism of animal and divine nature; hence in the Dionysian rout man appears as a satyr, god above and goat below ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 227

 

“All the artistry of Nature is revealed in the ecstasies of intoxication.” Which means that the creative dynamism, libido in instinctive form, takes possession of the individual as though he were an object and uses him as a tool or as an expression of itself ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 227

 

Because of this, Nietzsche quite forgets that in the struggle between Apollo and Dionysus and in their ultimate reconciliation the problem for the Greeks was never an aesthetic one, but was essentially religious ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 231

 

Aestheticism is a modern bias that shows the psychological mysteries of the Dionysus cult in a light in which they were assuredly never seen or experienced by the ancients ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 231

 

Brahman requires that external opposites, such as heat and cold, first be denied participation in the psyche, and then extreme fluctuations of emotion, such as love and hate ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 329

 

Since suffering is an affect, release from affects means deliverance. Deliverance from the flux of affects, from the tension of opposites, is synonymous with the way of redemption that gradually leads to Brahman ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 330

 

Brahman is thus not only a state but also a process, a durée créatrice. It is therefore not surprising that it is expressed in the Upanishads by means of symbols I have termed libido symbols ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 330

 

The concept of rta is a libido symbol like sun, wind, etc. Only rta is less concretistic and contains the abstract element of fixed direction and regularity, the idea of a predetermined, ordered path or process ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 355

 

Rta is, therefore, a kind of philosophical libido symbol that can be directly compared to the Stoic concept of Heimarmene. For the Stoics heimarmene had the significance of creative, primal heat, and at the same time it was a predetermined, regular process (hence its other meaning: “compulsion of the stars”) ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 355

 

The natural flow of libido, the middle path, means complete obedience to the fundamental laws of human nature, and there can positively be no higher moral principle than harmony with natural laws that guide the libido in the direction of life’s optimum ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 356

 

Tao contains no ecstatic element, its place being taken by a sublime philosophic lucidity, an intellectual and intuitive wisdom obscured by no mystical haze ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 192

 

Man as a microcosm uniting the world opposites is the equivalent of an irrational symbol that unites the psychological opposites ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 367

 

As a microcosm, man is a reconciler of the opposites. Heaven, man, and earth form the three chief elements of the world, the san-tsai ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 366

 

Amfortas’ suffering is caused by the tension of opposites represented by the Grail and the power of Klingsor, who has taken possession of the holy spear ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 371

 

Klingsor holds a spell over Kundry who symbolizes the instinctive life-force or libido that Amfortas lacks ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 371

 

Parsifal rescues the libido from the state of restless, compulsive instinctuality, in the first place because he does not succumb to Kundry, and in the second place because he does not possess the Grail ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 371

 

The death of Kundry may be taken as the liberation of libido from its naturalistic, undomesticated form which falls away as a lifeless husk, while the energy bursts forth as a new stream of life in the glowing of the Grail ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 371

 

By Parsifal’s renunciation of the opposites (unwilling though this was, at least in part), Parsifal caused a blockage of libido that created a new potential and thus made a new manifestation of energy possible ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 372

 

Mystical interpretation, however, has always loved to conceive the bride as Israel and the bridegroom as Jehovah, impelled by a sound instinct to turn even erotic feelings into a relationship between God and the chosen people ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 392

 

Christianity appropriated the Song of Songs for the same reason, interpreting the bridegroom as Christ and the bride as the Church ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 392

 

To the psychology of the Middle Ages this analogy had an extraordinary appeal, and it inspired the quite unabashed Christ-eroticism of the Christian mystics, some of the best examples of which are supplied by Mechthild of Magdeburg ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 392

 

The Litany of Loreto was conceived in this spirit. It derived certain attributes of the Virgin directly from the Song of Songs, as in the case of the tower symbol ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 392

 

The rose, too, was used as one of her attributes even at the time of the Greek Fathers, together with the lily, which likewise appear in the Song of Songs (2 : 1): “I am the rose of Sharon, and the lily of the valleys” ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 392

 

Images much used in the medieval hymns are the “enclosed garden” and the “sealed fountain,” (Song of Songs 4 : 12 “a garden enclosed is my sister, my spouse; a spring shut up, a fountain sealed”) ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 392

 

The survival or unconscious revivification of the vessel symbol is indicative of a strengthening of the feminine principle in the masculine psychology of that time. Its symbolization in a enigmatic image must be interpreted as a spiritualization of the eroticism aroused by the worship of woman ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 401

 

One of the greatest schisms of the Church, having risen from the over-compensated doubt of the Inquisition which came surging up from the unconscious ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 400

 

The logical consequence of this subjectify process is a splitting up into sects, and its most extreme outcome is individualism, representing a new form of detachment from the world, the immediate danger of which is re-submersion in the unconscious dynamis ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 433

 

Gnosticism shows man’s unconscious psychology in full flower, almost perverse in its luxuriance; it contained the very thing that most strongly resisted the regula fidei [rule of faith] ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 409

 

Meister Eckhart was the greatest thinker of early medieval times, confronting us with new ideas having the same psychic orientation that impelled Dante to follow Beatrice into the underworld of the unconscious and that inspired the singers who sang the lore of the Grail ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 410

 

Eckhart rose to a purely psychological and relativistic conception of God and his relation to man and the souled., a psychological understanding of religious phenomena ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 411

 

Eckhart had a sense of inner affinity with God which must have enhanced the value of his soul, i.e., of his own inner being sharp contrast to the Christian sense of sin ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 411

 

The soul must be a content in which spontaneity is inherent, and hence also partial unconsciousness, as with every autonomous complex ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 419

 

This absorption of the soul into consciousness is just as much a characteristic of Eastern as it is of Western culture. In Buddhism everything is dissolved into consciousness; even the samskaras, the unconscious formative forces, must be transformed through religious self-development ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 419

 

One of the greatest schisms of the Church, having risen from the over-compensated doubt of the Inquisition which came surging up from the unconscious ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 400

 

The logical consequence of this subjectifying process is a splitting up into sects, and its most extreme outcome is individualism, representing a new form of detachment from the world, the immediate danger of which is re-submersion in the unconscious dynamis ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 433

 

Prometheus, the artist, the servant of the soul disappears from the world of men; while society itself, in obedience to a soulless moral routine, is delivered over to Behemoth, symbolizing the inimical, the destructive effect of an obsolete ideal ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 434

 

Pandora, the soul, creates the saving jewel in the unconscious, but it does not benefit mankind because men fail to appreciate it ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 434

 

Prometheus intervenes and through his insight and understanding brings first a few, and then many, individuals to their senses ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 434

 

The jewel represents the inferior function, those psychic contents not acknowledged, hence unacceptable ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 453

 

The symbol is the middle way along which the opposites flow together in a new movement, like a watercourse bringing fertility after a long drought. The tension that precedes solution is likened in Isaiah to pregnancy ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 443

 

The soul is a personification of the unconscious, where lies the treasure, the libido which is immersed in introversion and is allegorized as God’s kingdom. This amounts to a permanent union with God, a living in his kingdom, in that state where a preponderance of libido lies in the unconscious and determines conscious life ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 424

 

Human psychology is chameleon-like, as the practising psychologist knows from daily experience. So whenever the object predominates, an assimilation to the object takes place ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 531

 

On the other hand, we also have to bear in mind the great disadvantage which identification with the directed function entails, namely, the degeneration of the individual ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 502

 

No doubt man can be mechanized to a very considerable extent, but not to the point of giving himself up completely, or only at the cost of the gravest injury ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 502

 

Abstraction thus seems to be a function that is at war with the original state of participation mystique. Its purpose is to break the object’s hold on the subject. It leads on the one hand to the creation of art-forms, and on the other to knowledge of the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 496

 

All abstraction has the effect of killing the independent activity of the object in so far as this is magically related to the psyche of the subject. The abstracting type does it quite consciously, as a defense against the magical influence of the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 497

 

Abstraction and empathy, introversion and extraversion, are mechanisms of adaptation and defense ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 502

 

As our daily psychological experience shows, there are very many people who are completely identified with their directed (or “valuable”) function, among them the very types we are discussing ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 502

 

It seems to me that Lévy-Bruhl’s participation mystique is more descriptive of this condition [Chinese art], since it aptly formulates the primordial relation of the primitive to the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 495

 

As Worringer says, it is precisely the Oriental art-forms and religions that display this abstracting attitude to the world. To the Oriental, therefore, the world must appear very different from what it does to the Occidental, who animates it with his empathy ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 494

 

It is easy to see that empathy corresponds to the mechanism of extraversion, and abstraction to that of introversion ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 493

 

“The great inner uneasiness inspired in man by the phenomena of the external world” is nothing other than the introvert’s fear of all stimuli and change, occasioned by his deeper sensitivity and powers of realization ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 493

 

The introvert’s abstractions serve the avowed purpose of confining the irregular and changeable within fixed limits. It goes without saying that this essentially magical procedure is found in full flower in the art of primitives, whose geometrical patterns have a magical rather than an aesthetic value  ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 493

 

The unconscious depotentiation that precedes the act of empathy gives the object a permanently lower value, as in the case of abstraction ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 497

 

Since the unconscious contents of the empathetic type are identical with the object and make it appear inanimate, empathy is needed in order to cognize the nature of the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 497

 

Abstraction presupposes that the object is alive and active, and seeks to withdraw from the influence of the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 490

 

An extraverted consciousness is unable to believe in invisible forces.to the blind eyes of the extravert, the intensive sympathy of the introverted feeling type looks like coldness, because usually it does nothing visible ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 641

 

The extravert suffers most frequently from the neurosis of hysteria, evident in his exaggerated rapport with persons and adjustment to conditions amounting to imitation ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 566

 

The demands of the extravert’s unconscious have an essentially primitive, infantile, egocentric character which compensates for his conscious emphasis on things outside himself ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 571

 

Extraversion is the opposite attitude of introversion, where a predilection one way or the other depends on the inborn disposition of the subject, but the inborn disposition is not always the decisive factor since environmental influences can be just as important ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 479

 

Both extraversion and introversion may appear in the personality so we cannot decide at first to which attitude the superior function belongs, i.e., to introversion or extraversion. This can only be determined by a thorough analysis of the qualities of each function ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 576

 

Extraversion must be understood as a mechanism, not a trait of character, capable of being switched on or off at will, its corresponding character developing only from its habitual predominance ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 479

 

The extravert reveals himself simply and solely in his relatedness, i.e., in his affectivity. He discovers himself in what is fluctuating and changeable. His ego is of less importance than his relatedness ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 138

 

Extraversion becomes less subject to misunderstanding than the introvert because the style of the times works for him.an extraverted overvaluation of the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 645

 

The extravert holds a differing attitude from the introvert. This causes an intrinsically irritating conflict between the two and the most heated and futile scientific discussions ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 521

 

The extraverted type can barely conceive of the necessity that forces the introverted type to adapt to the world by means of a system ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 420

 

The idea of ritual murder is a projection, in acute form, of the rejection of the Redeemer, for one always sees the mote in one’s own eye as the beam in one’s brother’s ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 454

 

As against this historical evolution of the idea of the soul, analytical psychology opposes the view that the soul does not coincide with the totality of the psychic functions. We define the soul on the one hand as the relation to the unconscious, and on the other as a personification of unconscious contents  ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 420

 

These honorific titles reproduce the essential qualities of the redeeming symbol. Its “divine” effect comes from the irresistible dynamis of the unconscious. The saviour is always a figure endowed with magical power who makes the impossible possible  ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 443

 

The hallmark of classic hysteria is an exaggerated rapport with persons in the immediate environment and an adjustment to surrounding conditions that amounts to imitation ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 566

 

There is a constant tendency for the hysteric to make himself interesting and to produce an impression ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 566

 

Another unmistakable sign of the extraverted hysteric is his effusiveness, which occasionally carries him into the realm of fantasy, so that he is accused of the “hysterical lie” ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 566

 

The hysterical character begins as an exaggeration of the normal attitude; it is then complicated by compensatory reactions from the unconscious, which counteract the exaggerated expression by means of physical symptoms that force the libido to introvert ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 566

 

The reaction of the unconscious produces another class of symptoms having a more introverted character, one of the most typical being a morbid intensification of fantasy activity ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 566

 

A purely objective orientation does violence to a multitude of subjective impulses, intentions, needs, and desires and deprives them of the libido that is their natural right  ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 570

 

Man is not a machine that can be remodelled for quite other purposes as occasion demands, in the hope that it will go on functioning as regularly as before but in a quite different way ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 570

 

Man carries his whole history with him; in his very structure is written the history of mankind. This historical element in man represents a vital need to which a wise psychic economy must respond ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 570

 

Somehow the past must come alive and participate in the present. Total assimilation to the object will always arouse the protest of the suppressed minority of those elements that belong to the past and have existed from the very beginning ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 570

 

Feeling restricts the products of sensation and intuition since the choice is made by a rational judgment. It is not the intensity of a sensation that decides action but judgment (feeling) ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 602

 

One can feel “correctly” only when feeling is not disturbed by anything else. Nothing disturbs feeling so much as thinking. It is therefore understandable that thinking will be kept in abeyance as much as possible ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 598

 

If feeling is falsified by an egocentric attitude, it at once becomes unsympathetic, because it is then concerned mainly with the ego. It inevitably creates the impression of sentimental self-love, of trying to make itself interesting, and even of morbid self-admiration ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 639

 

The extraverted feeling type finds himself through his feeling-relation to the object, whereas the introvert loses himself in the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 164

 

Sensation is chiefly conditioned by the object, those objects that excite the strongest sensations will be decisive for the individual’s psychology. The result is a strong sensuous tie to the object. Sensation is therefore a vital function equipped with the strongest vital instinct ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 605

 

The extraverted sensation type need not be a common voluptuary; he is merely desirous of the strongest sensations, and these, by his very nature, he can receive only from the outside ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 607

 

The extraverted sensation type sees love as unquestionably rooted in the physical attractions of its object. If normal, he is conspicuously well adjusted to reality. That is his ideal, and it even makes him considerate of others ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 607

 

Over-extraverted feeling satisfies aesthetic expectations, but does not speak to the heart. It appeals merely to the senses or worse still only to reason. It can provide the aesthetic padding for a situation, but there it stops, and beyond that its effect is nil. It has become sterile ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 596

 

In this characterology of astrology, it seems safer to proceed from outside inwards, from the known to the unknown, from the body to the psyche.a direction that should be followed until the elementary psychic facts are established with sufficient certainty CW6 ¶ 917

 

 

The contrary attitudes [extraversion and introversion], are in themselves no more than correlative mechanisms: a diastolic going out and seizing of the object, and a systolic concentration and detachment of energy from the object seized. Every human being possesses both mechanisms as an expression of his natural life-rhythm, a rhythm which Goethe, surely not by chance, described physiologically in terms of the heart’s activity. A rhythmical alternative of both forms of psychic activity would perhaps correspond to the normal course of life ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 6

 

One mechanism will naturally predominate, and if this condition becomes in any way chronic a type will be produced: that is, an habitual attitude in which one mechanism predominates permanently, although the other can never be completely suppressed since it is an integral part of the psychic economy. Hence there can never be a pure type in the sense that it possesses only one mechanism with the complete atrophy of the other. A typical attitude always means merely the relative predominance of one mechanism ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 6

 

Extraversion and introversion are to be distinguished as general basic attitudes from the function-types. These two attitudes may be recognized with the greatest ease, while it requires considerable experience to distinguish the function-type. At times it is uncommonly difficult to find out which function holds prior place ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 248

 

Generally speaking, a judging observer will tend to seize on the conscious character, while a perceptive observer will be more influenced by the unconscious character, since judgment is chiefly concerned with the conscious motivation of the psychic process, while perception registers the process itself ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 576

 

But in so far as we apply judgment and perception in equal measure, it may easily happen that a personality appears to us as both introverted and extraverted, so that we cannot decide at first to which attitude the superior function belongs. In such cases only a thorough analysis of the qualities of each function can help us to form a valid judgment ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 576

 

We must observe which function is completely under conscious control, and which functions have a haphazard and spontaneous character. The former is always more highly differentiated than the latter, which also possess infantile and primitive traits. Occasionally the superior function gives the impression of normality, while the others have something abnormal or pathological about them ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 576

 

The sort of demons that introversion and extraversion may become is a daily experience for us psychotherapists. We see in our patients and can feel in ourselves with what irresistible force the libido streams inwards or outwards, with what unshakable tenacity an introverted or extraverted attitude can take root ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 347

 

The two fundamental mechanisms of the psyche, extraversion and introversion, are also to a large extent the normal and appropriate ways of reacting to complexes extraversion as a means of escaping from the complex into reality, introversion as a means of detaching oneself from external reality through the complex ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 259

 

It is no wonder, therefore, that the earlier all-powerful collective attitude prevented almost completely an objective psychological evaluation of individual differences, or any scientific objectification of individual psychological processes. It was owing to this very lack of psychological thinking that knowledge became “psychologized,” i.e., filled with projected psychology. We find striking examples of this in man’s first attempts at a philosophical explanation of the cosmos ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 12

 

Tertullian was a pagan, and he abandoned himself to the lascivious life of his city until about his thirty-fifth year, when Tertullian became a Christian. He was the author of numerous writings wherein his character, which is our especial interest, is unmistakably displayed. Most clearly of all we see his unparalleled noble-hearted zeal, his fire, his passionate temperament, and the profundity of his religious understanding ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 17

 

The self-mutilation performed by Tertullian in the sacrificium intellectus [the sacrifice of the intellect] led him to an unqualified recognition of the irrational inner reality, the true rock of his faith. The necessity of the religious process which he sensed in himself he crystalized in the incomparable formula anima naturaliter christiana (the soul is by nature Christian) ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 19

 

Tertullian is a classic example of introverted thinking. His very considerable and keenly developed intellect was flanked by an unmistakable sensuality. The psychological process of development which we call specifically Christian led him to the sacrifice, the amputation, of the most valuable function, [i.e., thinking]a mythical idea that is also found in the great and exemplary symbol of the sacrifice of the Son of God ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 20

 

Tertullian’s most valuable organ was the intellect and the clarity of knowledge it made possible. Through the sacrificium intellectus the way of purely intellectual development was closed to him; it forced him to recognize the irrational dynamism of his soul as the foundation of his being. The intellectuality of Gnosis, the specifically rational stamp it gave to the dynamic phenomena of the soul, must have been odious to him, for that was just the way he had to forsake in order to acknowledge the principle of feeling ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 20

 

The introverted thinker never shrinks from thinking a thought because it might prove to be dangerous, subversive, heretical or wounding to other people’s feelings, he is none the less beset by the greatest anxiety if ever he has to make it an objective reality. That goes against the grain. And when he does put his ideas into the world, he never introduces them like a mother solicitous for her children, but simply dumps them there and gets extremely annoyed if they fail to thrive on their own account. His amazing unpracticalness and horror of publicity in any form have a hand in this ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 634

 

The introverted thinking type is strongly influenced by ideas, though his ideas have their origin not in objective data but in his subjective foundation. He will follow his ideas like the extravert, but in the reverse direction; inwards and not outwards. Intensity is his aim, not extensity. In these fundamental respects he differs quite unmistakable from his extraverted counterpart ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 633

 

Introverted thinking easily gets lost in the immense truth of the subjective factor. It creates theories for their own sake, apparently with an eye to real or at least possible facts, but always with a tendency to slip over from the world of ideas into mere imagery. Accordingly, visions of numerous possibilities appear on the scene, but none of them ever becomes a reality, until finally images are produced which no longer express anything externally real, being mere symbols of the ineffable and unknowable. It is now merely a mystical thinking and quite as unfruitful as thinking that remains bound to objective data. Whereas the latter sinks to the level of a mere representation of facts, the former evaporates into a representation of the irrepresentable, far beyond anything that could be expressed in an image ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 630

 

With regard to the establishment of new facts it [introverted thinking] is only indirectly of value, since new views rather than knowledge of new facts are its main concern. It formulates questions and creates theories, it opens up new prospects and insights, but with regard to facts its attitude is one of reserve. They are all very well as illustrative examples, but they must not be allowed to predominate ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 628

 

However clear the inner structure of this his [introverted thinker] thoughts may be, he is not in the least clear where or how they link up with the world of reality. Only with the greatest difficultly will he bring himself to admit that what is clear to him may not be equally clear to everyone ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 634

 

Introverted thinking differs from extraverted thinking most visibly when it attempts to bring objective data into connections not warranted by the objection other words, to subordinate them to a subjective idea. Each type of thinking senses the other as an encroachment on its own province, and hence a sort of shadow effect is produced, each revealing to the other its least favourable aspect. Introverted thinking then appears as something quite arbitrary, while extraverted thinking seems dull and banal. Thus the two orientations are incessantly at war ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 581

 

Extraverted thinking shows a dangerous tendency to force the facts into the shape of its image, or to ignore them altogether in order to give fantasy free play. In that event it will be impossible for the finished product the idea to repudiate its derivation from the dim archaic image. It will have a mythological streak which one is apt to interpret as “originality” or, in more pronounced cases, as mere whimsicality, since its archaic character is not immediately apparent to specialists unfamiliar with mythological motifs ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 629

 

In the introverted thinker’s pursuit of his ideas he is generally stubborn, headstrong, and quite unamenable to influence. His suggestibility to personal influences is in strange contrast to this. This type tends to vanish behind a cloud of misunderstanding, which gets all the thicker the more he attempts to assume, by way of compensation and with the help of his inferior functions, an air of urbanity which contrasts glaringly with his real nature ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 634

 

The introverted thinker is well exemplified in the figures of: Kant who relied on the subjective factor, restricting himself to a critique of knowledge ~Carl Jung, Tertullian, an early church father and creator of the Church Latinis a classic example of introverted thinking. His very considerable and keenly developed intellect was flanked by an unmistakable sensuality Gauss, a mathematician who had a strong distaste for teaching because he was obliged to communicate his findings to others without first having checked and polished every word of the text. To be obliged to communicate his findings to others without such verification must have felt to him as though he were exhibiting himself before strangers in his nightshirt ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 553

 

The detachment of libido from the object transfers it [the libido], into the subject, where it activates the images lying dormant in the unconscious. These images are archaic forms of expression which become symbols, and these appear in their turn as equivalents of the devalued objects ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 402

 

Since all unconscious contents, when activated by dissociated libido, are projected upon external objects, the devaluation of the real woman was compensated by daemonic traits. She no longer appeared as an object of love, but as a persecutor or witch. The consequence of increasing Mariolatry was the witch hunt, that indelible blot on the later Middle Ages ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 399

 

But this was not the only consequence. The splitting off and repression of a valuable progressive tendency resulted in a quite general activation of the unconscious. This activation could find no satisfying expression in collective Christian symbols, for an adequate expression always takes an individual form ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 400

 

Thus the way was paved for heresies and schisms, against which the only defense available to the Christian consciousness was fanaticism. The frenzied horror of the Inquisition was the product of over-compensated doubt, which came surging up from the unconscious and finally gave rise to one of the greatest schisms of the Church the Reformation Considered biologically, the sacrifice serves the interests of domestication, but psychologically it opens a door for new possibilities of spiritual development through the dissolution of old ties ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 24

 

The brahman concept contains the idea of rta, right order, the orderly course of the world. In brahman, the creative universal essence and universal Ground, all things come upon the right way, for in it they are eternally dissolved and recreated; all development in an orderly way proceeds from brahman ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 192

 

In his personal relations the introverted thinker appears taciturn or else throws himself on people who cannot understand him, and for him this is one more proof of the abysmal stupidity of man. If for once he is understood, he easily succumbs to a credulous overestimation of his prowess ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 635

 

Casual acquaintances think him [introverted thinker] inconsiderate and domineering. But the better one knows him, the more favorable one’s judgment becomes, and his closest friends value his intimacy very highly. To outsiders he seems prickly, unapproachable, and arrogant, and sometimes soured as a result of his antisocial prejudices. As a personal teacher he has little influence, since the mentality of his students is strange to him. Besides, teaching has, at bottom, no interest for him unless it happens to provide him with a theoretical problem. He is a poor teacher, because all the time he is teaching his thought is occupied with the material itself and not with its presentation ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 635

 

The introverted thinker usually has bad experiences with rivals in his own field because he never understands how to curry their favor; as a rule he only succeeds in showing them how entirely superfluous they are to him. He has only to be convinced of a person’s seeming innocuousness to lay himself open to the most undesirable elements. They seize hold of him from the unconscious. He lets himself be brutalized and exploited in the most ignominious way if only he can be left in peace to pursue his ideas ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 634

 

In the introverted thinker’s pursuit of his ideas he is generally stubborn, headstrong, and quite unamenable to influence. His suggestibility to personal influences is in strange contrast to this. This type tends to vanish behind a cloud of misunderstanding, which gets all the thicker the more he attempts to assume, by way of compensation and with the help of his inferior functions, an air of urbanity which contrasts glaringly with his real nature ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 634

 

With the intensification of his type [introverted thinker], his convictions become all the more rigid and unbending. Outside influences are shut off; as a person, too, he becomes more unsympathetic to his wider circle of acquaintances, and therefore more dependent on his intimates. His tone becomes personal and surly, and though his ideas may gain in profundity they can no longer be adequately expressed in the material at hand. To compensate for this, he falls back on emotionality and touchiness. The outside influences he has brusquely fended off attack him from within, from the unconscious, and in his efforts to defend himself he attacks things that to outsiders seem utterly unimportant. Because of the subjectivization of consciousness resulting from his lack of relationship to the object, what secretly concerns his own person now seems to him of extreme importance ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 636

 

The introverted thinker begins to confuse his subjective truth with his own personality. Although he will not try to press his convictions on anyone personally, he will burst out with vicious personal retorts against every criticism, however just. Thus his isolation gradually increases. His originally fertilizing ideas become destructive, poisoned by the sediment of bitterness. His struggle against the influences emanating from the unconscious increases with his external isolation, until finally they begin to cripple him. He thinks his withdrawal into ever-increasing solitude will protect him from the unconscious influences, but as a rule it only plunges him deeper into the conflict that is destroying him from within ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 636

 

The introverted thinker is well exemplified in the figures of: Kant who relied on the subjective factor, restricting himself to a critique of knowledge ~Carl Jung, Tertullian, an early church father and creator of the Church Latinis a classic example of introverted thinking. His very considerable and keenly developed intellect was flanked by an unmistakable sensuality Gauss, a mathematician who had a strong distaste for teaching because he was obliged to communicate his findings to others without first having checked and polished every word of the text. To be obliged to communicate his findings to others without such verification must have felt to him as though he were exhibiting himself before strangers in his nightshirt ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 553

 

Origen grew up in that quite unique mental atmosphere where the ideas of East and West mingled. With an intense yearning for knowledge he eagerly absorbed all that was worth knowing, and accepted everything whether Christian, Jewish, Hellenistic, or Egyptian, that the teeming intellectual world of Alexandria offered him ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 21

 

Origen’s self-castration had taken place sometime before A.D. 211; his inner motives for this may be guessed, but historically they are not known to us. Personally he was of great influence, and had a winning speech. He was constantly surrounded by pupils and a whole host of amanuenses who gathered up the precious words that fell from the revered master’s lips ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 22

 

In complete contrast to Tertullian, Origen did not cut himself off from the influence of Gnosticism; on the contrary, he even channelled it, in attenuated form, into the bosom of the Church, or such at least was his aim. Indeed, judging by his thought and fundamental views, he was himself almost a Christian Gnostic ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 22

 

Origen is a classic example of the extraverted type. His basic orientation was towards the object; this showed itself in his scrupulous regard for objective facts and their conditions, as well as in the formation of that supreme principle: amor et visio Dei. The Christian process of development encountered in Origen a type whose ultimate foundation was the relation to the object a relation that has always symbolically expressed itself in sexuality and accounts for the fact that there are certain theories today which reduce all the essential psychic functions to sexuality too ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 24

 

Castration was therefore an adequate expression of the sacrifice of the most valuable function. It is entirely characteristic that Tertullian should perform the sacrificium intellectus (sacrifice of the intellect), whereas Origen was led to the sacrificium phalli (castration), because the Christian process demands a complete abolition of the sensual tie to the object; in other words, it demands the sacrifice of the hitherto most valued function, the dearest possession, the strongest instinct ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 24

 

The natural course of instinct, like everything in nature, follows the line of least resistance. One man is rather more gifted here, another there; or again, adaptation to the early environment of childhood may demand relatively more reserve and reflection or relatively more empathy and participation, according to the nature of the parents and the circumstances ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 28

 

The adaptive deficiency, which is the causa efficiens of the process of conversion, is subjectively felt as a vague sense of dissatisfaction. Such an atmosphere prevailed at the turning-point of our era. A quite astonishing need of redemption came over mankind, and brought about that unparalleled efflorescence of every sort of possible and impossible cult in ancient Rome ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 28

 

However, Radbertus found a more resolute opponent in Scotus Erigena, one of the great philosophers and daring thinkers of the early Middle Ages for whom true philosophy was also true religion, was no blind follower of authority and the “once accepted” because, unlike the majority of his age, he himself could think. He set reason above authority, very unseasonably perhaps but in a way that assured him the acclaim of later centuries ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 36

 

This type of man elevates objective reality, or an objectively oriented intellectual formula, into the ruling principle not only for himself but for his whole environment. By this formula good and evil are measured, and beauty and ugliness determined. Everything that agrees with this formula is right, everything that contradicts it is wrong, and anything that passes by it indifferently is merely incidental. Because this formula seems to embody the entire meaning of life, it is made into a universal law which must be put into effect everywhere all the time, both individually and collectively ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 585

 

Just as the extraverted thinking type subordinates himself to his formula, so, for their own good, everybody round him must obey it too, for whoever refuses to obey it is wrong he is resisting the universal law, and is therefore unreasonable, immoral, and without a conscience. His moral code forbids him to tolerate exceptions ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 585

 

All those activities that are dependent on feeling will become repressed in such a type for instance, aesthetic activities, taste, artistic sense, cultivation of friends, etc. Irrational phenomena such as religious experiences, passions, and suchlike are often repressed to the point of complete unconsciousness ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 587

 

The thinking of the extraverted type is positive, i.e., productive. It leads to the discovery of new facts or to general conceptions based on disparate empirical material. It is usually synthetic too. Even when it analyses it constructs, because it is always advancing beyond the analysis to a new combination, to a further conception which reunites the analysed material in a different way or adds something to it. One could call this kind of judgment predicative. A characteristic feature, at any rate, is that it is never absolutely depreciative or destructive, since it always substitutes a fresh value for the one destroyed. This is because the thinking of this type is the main channel into which his vital energy flows. The steady flow of life manifests itself in his thinking, so that his thought has a progressive, creative quality ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 592

 

The conscious altruism of the extraverted thinking type, which is often quite extraordinary, may be thwarted by a secret self-seeking which gives a selfish twist to actions that in themselves are disinterested. Purely ethical intentions may lead him into critical situations which sometimes have more than a semblance of being the outcome of motives far from ethical. There are guardians of public morals who suddenly find themselves in compromising situations, or rescue workers who are themselves in dire need of rescue. Their desire to save others leads them to employ means which are calculated to bring about the very thing they wished to avoid ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 588

 

There are extraverted idealists so consumed by their desire for the salvation of mankind that they will not shrink from any lie or trickery in pursuit of their ideal. In science there are not a few painful examples of highly respected investigators who are so convinced of the truth and general validity of their formula that they have not scrupled to falsify evidence in its favour. Their sanction is: the end justifies the means. Only an inferior feeling function, operating unconsciously and in secret, could seduce otherwise reputable men into such aberrations ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 588

 

The extraverted thinker may play a very useful role in social life as a reformer or public prosecutor or purifier of conscience, or as the propagator of important innovations. But the more rigid the formula, the more he develops into a martinet, a quibbler, and a prig, who would like to force himself and others into one mould ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 585

 

The influence and activities of these personalities [extraverted thinking type] are the more favorable and beneficial the further from the center their radius extends. Their best aspect is to be found at the periphery of their sphere of influence. The deeper we penetrate into their own power province, the more we feel the unfavourable effects of their tyranny. A quite different life pulses at the periphery, where the truth of the formula can be felt as a valuable adjunct to the rest ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 586

 

But the closer we come to the center of power where the formula operates, the more life withers away from everything that does not conform to its dictates. Usually it is the nearest relatives who have to taste the unpleasant consequences of the extraverted formula, since they are the first to receive its relentless benefits. But in the end it is the subject himself who suffers most ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 586

 

Extraverted thinking differs from introverted thinking most visibly when it appropriates material that is the special province of introverted thinking. When, for instance, a subjective conviction is explained analytically in terms of objective data or as being derived from objective ideas. Each type of thinking senses the other as an encroachment on its own province, and hence a sort of shadow effect is produced, each revealing to the other its least favourable aspect. Introverted thinking then appears as something quite arbitrary, while extraverted thinking seems dull and banal. Thus the two orientations are incessantly at war ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 581

 

In keeping with the objective formula, the conscious attitude [of the extraverted thinker] becomes more or less impersonal, often to such a degree that personal interests suffer. If the attitude is extreme, all personal considerations are lost sight of, even those affecting the subject’s own person. His health is neglected, his social position deteriorates, the most vital interests of his family health, finances, morals are violated for the sake of the ideal. Personal sympathy with others must in any case suffer unless they too happen to espouse the same ideal ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 589

 

Often the closest members of his family, his own children know such a father only as a cruel tyrant, while the outside world resounds with the fame of his humanity. Because of the highly impersonal character of the conscious attitude, the unconscious feelings are extremely personal and oversensitive, giving rise to secret prejudices a readiness, for instance, to misconstrue any opposition to his formula as personal ill-will, or a constant tendency to make negative assumptions about other people in order to invalidate their arguments in advance in defence, naturally, of his own touchiness ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 589

 

The extraverted thinker’s unconscious sensitivity makes him sharp in tone, acrimonious, aggressive. Insinuations multiply. His feelings have a sultry and resentful character always a mark of the inferior function. Magnanimous as he may be in sacrificing himself to his intellectual goal, his feelings are petty, mistrustful, crotchety, and conservative. Anything new that is not already contained in his formula is seen through a veil of unconscious hatred and condemned accordingly ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 589

 

However, Radbertus found a more resolute opponent in Scotus Erigena, one of the great philosophers and daring thinkers of the early Middle Ages for whom true philosophy was also true religion, was no blind follower of authority and the “once accepted” because, unlike the majority of his age, he himself could think. He set reason above authority, very unseasonably perhaps but in a way that assured him the acclaim of later centuries ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 36

 

Directed thinking becomes absolutely impossible when the sensual has too high a threshold value. Because the sensual value is too high it constantly intrudes into the psyche, where it disrupts and destroys the function of directed thinking which is based on the exclusion of everything incompatible with thought ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 38

 

What we may learn from this example is that the thinking of the introvert is incommensurable with the thinking of the extravert, since the two forms of thinking, as regards their determinant, are wholly and fundamentally different. We might perhaps say that the thinking of the introvert is rational, while that of the extravert is programmatic ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 38

 

In spite of its ecclesiastical associations, nominalism is a sceptical tendency that denies the separate existence characteristic of abstractions. It is kind of scientific scepticism coupled with the most rigid dogmatism ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 41

 

Fantasy, therefore, seems to me the clearest expression of the specific activity of the psyche. It is, pre-eminently, the creative activity from which the answers to all answerable questions come; it is the mother of all possibilities where, like all psychological opposites, the inner and outer worlds are joined together in living union ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 78

 

Although biological instinctive processes also contribute to the formation of the personality, individuality is nevertheless essentially different from collective instincts; indeed, it stands in the most direct opposition to them, just as the individual as a personality is always distinct from the collective. His essence consists precisely in this distinction ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 88

 

Freud’s view is essentially extraverted, Adler’s introverted. The extraverted theory holds good for the extraverted type, the introverted theory for the introverted type. Since a pure type is a product of a wholly one-sided development it is also necessarily unbalanced. Over accentuation of the one function is synonymous with repression of the other ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 91

 

Psychoanalysis fails to remove this repression just in so far as the method it employs is oriented according to the theory of the patient’s own type. Thus the extravert, in accordance with his [Freud’s] theory, will reduce the fantasies rising out of his unconscious to their instinctual content, while the introvert [according to Adler], will reduce them to his power aims ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 92

 

In Schiller we have to reckon with a predominance of intellect, not at the expense of his poetic intuition but at the cost of feeling. To Schiller himself it seemed as though there were a perpetual conflict in him between imagination and abstraction, that is, between intuition and thinking. “Even now it happens often enough that the power of imagination disturbs my abstraction, and cold reasoning my poetry” ( Goethe, ed. Beutler, XX, p. 20 ) ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 117

 

For a time objects appear to have an exaggerated value, if they should serve to bring about a solution, a deliverance, or lead to the discovery of a new possibility. Yet not sooner have they served their purpose as stepping-stones or bridges than they lose their value altogether and are discarded as burdensome appendages. Facts are acknowledged only if they open new possibilities of advancing beyond them and delivering the individual from their power. Nascent possibilities are compelling motives from which intuition cannot escape and to which all else must be sacrificed ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 612

 

Affectivity designates and comprises “not only the affects proper, but also the slight feelings or feeling-tones of pain and pleasure.” Bleuler distinguishes affectivity from the sense-perceptions and physical sensations as well as from “feelings” that may be regarded as inner perception processes (e.g., the “feeling” of certainty, of probability, etc.) or vague thoughts or discernments ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 682

 

The introvert is far more subject to misunderstanding than the extravert, not so much because the extravert is a more merciless or critical adversary than he himself might be, but because of the style of the times which he himself imitates works against him. He finds himself in the minority, not in numerical relation to the extravert, but in relation to the general Western view of the world as judged by his feeling ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 645

 

In so far as he [the introvert] is a convinced participator in the general style, he undermines his own foundations; for the general style, acknowledging as it does only the visible and tangible values, is opposed to his specific principle. Because of its invisibility, he is obliged to depreciate the subjective factor, and must force himself to join in the extraverted overvaluation of the object. He himself sets the subjective factor at too low a value, and his feelings of inferiority are his chastisement for this sin ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 645

 

According to the central concepts of Taoism, Tao is divided into a fundamental pair of opposites, yang and yin. Yang signifies warmth, light, maleness; yin is cold, darkness, femaleness. Yang is also heaven, yin earth. From the yang force arises shen, the celestial portion of the human soul, and from the yin force comes kwei, the earthly part ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 366

 

Attributes of Tao: ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 358

The way

The middle way between the opposites

Method

Principle

The natural force or life force

The regulated processes of nature

The idea of the world

The prime cause of all phenomena

The right

The right

The good

Moral order

God

 

If the object had an absolute value, it would be an absolute determining factor for the subject and would abolish his freedom of action absolutely, since even a relative freedom could not coexist with absolute determination by the object. Absolute relation to the object is equivalent to a complete exteriorization of the conscious processes; it amounts to an identity of subject and object which would render all cognition impossible ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 402

 

The symbol is always a product of an extremely complex nature, since data from every psychic function have gone into its making. It is, therefore, neither rational nor irrational. It certainly has a side that accords with reason, but it has another side that does not; for it is composed not only of rational but also or irrational data supplied by pure inner and outer perception ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 823

 

By “dreaming” Nietzsche means, as he himself says, essentially an “inward vision,” the “lovely semblance of dream-worlds.” Apollo “rules over the beautiful illusion of the inner world of fantasy,” he is “the god of all shape-shifting powers.” He signifies measure, number, limitation, and subjugation of everything wild and untamed. “One might even describe Apollo himself as the glorious divine image of the principium individuationis” [principle of individuality] ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 226

 

The Dionysian is the horror of the annihilation of the principium individuationis [principle of individuality] and at the same time “rapturous delight” in its destruction. It is therefore comparable to intoxication, which dissolves the individual into his collective instincts and components an explosion of the isolated ego through the world ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 227

 

Hence, in the Dionysian orgy, man finds man: “alienated Nature, hostile or enslaved, celebrates once more her feast of reconciliation with her prodigal son Man.” Each feels himself “not only united, reconciled, merged with his neighbour, but one with him.” His individuality is entirely obliterated. “Man is no longer the artist, he has become the work of art” ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 227

 

It will have been the same with the Greeks. It was just their living sense of horror that gradually brought about a reconciliation of the Apollinian with the Dionysian “through a metaphysical miracle,” as Nietzsche says. This statement, as well as the other where he says that the antagonism between them is “only seemingly bridged by the common term `Art,’” must constantly be borne in mind, because Nietzsche, like Schiller, had a pronounced tendency to credit art with a mediating and redeeming role ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 230

 

The problem then remains stuck in aesthetics the ugly is also “beautiful,” even beastliness and evil shine forth enticingly in the false glamour of aesthetic beauty. The artistic nature in both Schiller and Nietzsche claims a redemptive significance for itself and its specific capacity for creation and expression ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 230

 

The Dionysian satyr festival, to judge by all the analogies, was a kind of totem feast involving a regressive identification with the mythical ancestors or directly with the totem animal. The cult of Dionysus had in many places a mystical and speculative streak, and in any case exercised a very strong religious influence ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 231

 

The fact that Greek tragedy arose out of an originally religious ceremony is at least as significant as the connection of our modern theatre with the medieval Passion play, which was exclusively religious in origin; we are not permitted, therefore, to judge the problem under its purely aesthetic aspect ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 231

 

With Nietzsche as with Schiller the religious viewpoint is entirely overlooked and is replaced by the aesthetic. These things obviously have their aesthetic side and it should not be neglected. Nevertheless, if medieval Christianity is understood only aesthetically its true character is falsified and trivialized, just as much as if it were viewed exclusively from the historical standpoint ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 231

 

This shifting of the problem must doubtless have its psychological cause and purpose. The advantages of such a procedure are not far to seek: the aesthetic approach immediately converts the problem into a picture which the spectator can contemplate at his ease, admiring both its beauty and its ugliness, merely re-experiencing its passions at a safe distance, with no danger of becoming involved in them. The aesthetic attitude guards against any real participation, prevents one from being personally implicated, which is what a religious understanding of the problem would mean ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 232

 

Fluctuations of emotion are, of course, the constant concomitants of all psychic opposites, and hence of all conflicts of ideas, whether moral or otherwise. We know from experience that the emotions thus aroused increase in proportion as the exciting factor affects the individual as a whole ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 329

 

The Indian purpose is therefore clear: it wants to free the individual altogether from the opposites inherent in human nature, so that he can attain a new life in Brahman, which is the state of redemption and at the same time God. It is an irrational union of opposites, their final overcoming. Although Brahman, the world-ground and world-creator, created the opposites, they must nevertheless be cancelled out in it again, for otherwise it would not amount to a state of redemption ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 329

 

Brahman is the union and dissolution of all opposites, and at the same time stands outside them as an irrational factor. It is therefore wholly beyond cognition and comprehension. It is a divine entity, at once the Self (though to a lesser degree than the analogous Atman concept) and a definite psychological state characterized by isolation from the flux of affects ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 330

 

Brahman is not only the producer but the produced, the ever-becoming. The epithet “Gracious One” (vena), here bestowed on the sun, is elsewhere applied to the seer who is endowed with the divine light, for, like the Brahman sun, the mind of the seer traverses “earth and heaven contemplating Brahman.” The intimate connection, indeed identity, between the divine being and the Self (Atman) of the man is generally known ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 332

 

Hence the most one-sided differentiations are found among semi-barbarous people for instance, certain aspects of Christian asceticism that are an affront to good taste, and parallel phenomena among the yogis and Tibetan Buddhists. For the barbarian, this tendency to fall a victim to one-sidedness in one way or another, thus losing sight of his total personality, is a great and constant danger ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 346

 

The Gilgamesh epic, for example, begins with this conflict. The one-sidedness of the barbarian takes the form of daemonic compulsion; it has something of the character of going berserk or running amok. In all cases it presupposes an atrophy of instinct that is not found in the true primitive, for which reason he is in general still free from the one-sidedness of the cultural barbarian ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 346

 

The sort of demons that introversion and extraversion may become is a daily experience for us psychotherapists. We see in our patients and can feel in ourselves with what irresistible force the libido streams inwards or outwards, with what unshakable tenacity an introverted or extraverted attitude can take root. The description of manas and vac as “mighty monsters of Brahman” is in complete accord with the psychological fact that at the instant of its appearance the libido divides into two streams, which as a rule alternate periodically but at times may appear simultaneously in the form of a conflict, as an outward stream opposing an inward stream ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 347

 

The daemonic quality of the two movements lies in their ungovernable nature and overwhelming power. This quality, however, makes itself felt only when the instinct of the primitive is already so stunted as to prevent a natural and purposive counter-movement to one-sidedness, and culture not sufficiently advanced for man to tame his libido to the point where he can follow its introverting or extraverting movement of his own free will and intention ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 347

 

The vital optimum is not to be found in crude egoism, for fundamentally man is so constituted that the pleasure he gives to his neighbour is something essential to him. Nor can the optimum be reached by an unbridled craving for individualistic supremacy, because the collective element in man is so powerful that his longing for fellowship would destroy all pleasure in naked egoism ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 356

 

The optimum can be reached only through obedience to the tidal laws of the libido, by which systole alternates with diastole laws which bring pleasure and the necessary limitations of pleasure, and also set us those individual life tasks without whose accomplishment the vital optimum can never be attained ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 356

 

According to the central concepts of Taoism, Tao is divided into a fundamental pair of opposites, yang and yin. Yang signifies warmth, light, maleness; yin is cold, darkness, femaleness. Yang is also heaven, yin earth. From the yang force arises shen, the celestial portion of the human soul, and from the yin force comes kwei, the earthly part ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 366

 

Amfortas has the Grail and suffers for it, because he lacks libido. Parsifal has nothing of either, he is nirdvandva, free from opposites, and is therefore the redeemer, the bestowed of healing and renewed vitality, who unites the bright, heavenly, feminine symbol of the Grail with the dark, earthy, masculine symbol of the spear ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 371

 

The undeniable sexual symbolism might easily lead to the one-sided interpretation that the union of spear and Grail merely signifies a release of sexuality. The fate of Amfortas shows, however, that sexuality is not the point. On the contrary, it was his relapse into a nature-bound, brutish attitude that was the cause of his suffering and brought about the loss of his power. His seduction by Kundry was a symbolic act, showing that it was not sexuality that dealt him his wound so much as an attitude of nature-bound compulsion, a supine submission to the biological urge  372

 

This attitude expresses the supremacy of the animal part of our psyche. The sacrificial wound that is destined for the beast strikes the man who is overcome by the beast all for the sake of man’s further development. The fundamental problem, as I have pointed out in Symbols of Transformation, is not sexuality per se, but the domestication of libido, which concerns sexuality only so far as it is one of the most important and most dangerous forms of libidinal expression ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 372

 

The central religious idea in this legend, of which there are numerous variants, is the holy vessel, which, it must be obvious to everyone, is a thoroughly non-Christian image, whose origin is to be sought in extra-canonical sources. From the material I have cited, it seems to me a genuine relic of Gnosticism, which either survived the extermination of heresies because of a secret tradition, or owed its revival to an unconscious reaction against the domination of official Christianity ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 401

 

The survival or unconscious revivification of the vessel symbol is indicative of a strengthening of the feminine principle in the masculine psychology of that time. Its symbolism in an enigmatic image must be interpreted as a spiritualization of the eroticism aroused by the worship of woman ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 401

 

But spiritualization always means the retention of a certain amount of libido, which would otherwise be immediately squandered in sexuality. Experience shows that when the libido is retained, one part of it flows into the spiritualized expression, while the remainder sinks into the unconscious and activates images that correspond to it, in this case the vessel symbol ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 401

 

As the symbol can come alive only through the devaluation of the object, it is evident that the purpose it serves is to deprive the object of its value. If the object had an absolute value, it would be an absolute determining factor for the subject and would abolish his freedom of action absolutely, since even a relative freedom could not coexist with absolute determination by the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 402

 

An example of the devalued object can be seen in the vision of Hermas, in which he saw a tower being built. The old woman, who at first had declared herself to be the Church, now explains that the tower is a symbol of the Church. Her significance is thus transferred to the tower, and it is with this that the whole remaining part of the text is concerned. For Hermas it is only the tower that matters, and no longer the old woman, let alone Rhoda. The detachment of libido from the real object, its concentration on the symbol and canalization into a symbolic function, is complete. The idea of a universal and undivided Church, expressed in the symbol of a seamless and impregnable tower, has become an unshakable reality in the mind of Hermas ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 402

 

The medieval background of Faust has quite special significance because there actually was a medieval element that presided over the birth of modern individualism. It began, it seems to me, with the worship of woman, which strengthened the man’s soul very considerably as a psychological factor, since the worship of woman meant worship of the soul. This is nowhere more beautifully and perfectly expresses than in Dante’s Divine Comedy ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 376

 

Dante is the spiritual knight of his lady; for her sake he embarks on the adventure of the lower and upper worlds. In this heroic endeavor her image is exalted into the heavenly, mystical figure of the Mother of Goad figure that has detached itself from the object and become the personification of a purely psychological factor, or rather, of those unconscious contents whose personification I have termed the anima. Canto XXXIII of the Paradiso expresses this culminating point of Dante’s psychic development in the prayer of St. Bernard ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 377

 

The very fact that Dante speaks through the mouth of St. Bernard is an indication of the transformation and exaltation of his own being. The same transformation also happens to Faust, who ascends from Gretchen to Helen and from Helen to the Mother of God; his nature is altered by repeated figurative deaths (Boy Charioteer, homunculus, Euphorion), until finally he attains the highest goal as Doctor Marianus. In that form Faust utters his prayer to the Virgin Mother ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 378

 

We might also mention in this connection the symbolic attributes of the Virgin in the Litany of Loreto: ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 379

 

Lovable Mother

Wonderful Mother

Mother of good counsel

Mirror of justice

Seat of wisdom

Cause of our gladness

Vessel of the spirit

Vessel of honor

Noble vessel of devotion

Mystical rose

Tower of David

Tower of ivory

House of gold

Ark of the covenant

Gate of heaven

Morning star

 

We find this characteristic transition from the worship of woman to the worship of the soul in an early Christian document, the Shepherd of Hermas, which flourished about A.D. 140. This book, written in Greek, consists of a number of visions and revelations describing the consolidation of the new faith. The book, long regarded as canonical, was nevertheless rejected by the Muratori Canon ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 381

 

The repressed erotic impression has activated the latent primordial image of goddess, i.e., the archetypal soul-image. The erotic impression has evidently become united in the collective unconscious with archaic residues which have preserved from time immemorial the imprint of vivid impressions of the nature of woman as mother and woman as desirable maid ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 383

 

Official Christianity, therefore, absorbed certain Gnostic elements that manifested themselves in the worship of woman and found a place for them in an intensified worship of Mary. I have selected the Litany of Loreto as an example of this process of assimilation from a wealth of equally interesting material. The assimilation of these elements to the Christian symbol nipped in the bud the psychic culture of the man; for his soul, previously reflected in the image of the chosen mistress, lost its individual form of expression through this absorption ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 399

 

Since the psychic relation to woman was expressed in the collective worship of Mary, the image of woman lost a value to which human beings had a natural right. This value could find its natural expression only through individual choice, and it sank into the unconscious when the individual form of expression was replaced by a collective one. In the unconscious the image of woman received an energy charge that activated the archaic and infantile dominants ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 399

 

Vessel symbolism probably contains a pagan relic which proved adaptable to Christianity, and this is all the more likely as the worship of Mary was itself a vestige of paganism which secured for the Christian Church the heritage of the Magna Mater, Isis, and other mother goddesses. The image of the vas Sapientiae, vessel of wisdom, likewise recalls its Gnostic prototype, Sophia ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 398

 

It elucidates the psychological relations between the worship of woman and the legend of the Grail, which was so essentially characteristic of the early Middle Ages. The central religious idea in this legend, of which there are numerous variants, is the holy vessel, a thoroughly non-Christian image, a genuine relic of Gnosticism ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 401

 

The symbolism of the vessel has pagan roots in the “magic cauldron” of Celtic mythology. Dagda, one of the benevolent gods of ancient Ireland, possesses such a cauldron, which supplies everybody with food according to his needs or merits. The Celtic god Bran likewise possesses a cauldron of renewal  ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 401

 

We hear the voice of the collective psyche in new bold ideas, which with imperturbable assurance and the finality of natural law brings about spiritual transformation and renewal. The unconscious currents reached the surface at the time of the Reformation. The Reformation largely did away with the Church as the dispenser of salvation and established once more the personal relation to God   ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 433

 

Looked at historically, the soul, that many-faceted and much-interpreted concept, refers to a psychological content that must possess a certain measure of autonomy within the limits of consciousness. If this were not so, man would never have hit on the idea of attributing an independent existence to the soul, as though it were some objectively perceptible thing ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 419

 

The primitive, as we know, usually has several souls several autonomous complexes with a high degree of spontaneity, so that they appear as having a separate existence (as in certain mental disorders). On a higher level the number of souls decreases, until at the highest level of culture the soul resolves itself into the subject’s general awareness of his psychic activities and exists only as a term for the totality of psychic processes ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 419

 

The libido concentrated in the unconscious was formerly invested in objects, and this made the world seem all-powerful. God was then “outside,” but now he works from within, as the hidden treasure conceived as God’s kingdom. If, then, Meister Eckhart reaches the conclusion that the soul is itself God’s kingdom, it is conceived as a function of relation to God, and God would be the power working within the soul and perceived by it. Eckhart even calls the soul the image of God ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 424

 

It is evident from the ethnological and historical material that the soul is a content that belongs partly to the subject and partly to the world of spirits, i.e., the unconscious. Hence the soul always has an earthly as well as a rather ghostly quality. It is the same with magical power, the divine force of primitives, whereas on the higher levels of culture God is entirely separate from man and is exalted to the heights of pure ideality. But the soul never loses its intermediate position But symbols are shaped energies, determining ideas whose affective power is just as great as their spiritual value ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 425

 

The organ of perception, the soul, apprehends the contents of the unconscious, and, as the creative function, gives birth to its dynamis in the form of a symbol. The soul gives birth to images that from the rational standpoint of consciousness are assumed to be worthless. And so they are, in the sense that they cannot immediately be turned to account in the objective world ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 426

 

We hear the voice of the collective psyche in new bold ideas, which with imperturbable assurance and the finality of natural law brings about spiritual transformation and renewal. The unconscious currents reached the surface at the time of the Reformation. The Reformation largely did away with the Church as the dispenser of salvation and established once more the personal relation to God ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 433

 

The end of the jewel [Pandora’s] is mysterious: it falls into the hands of a wandering Jew. “It was not a Jew of this world, and his clothes seemed to us exceedingly strange.” ( Prometheus and Epimetheus p. 164 ). This peculiar Jew can only be Ahasuerus, who did not accept the actual Redeemer, and now, as it were, steals his image 454

 

The story of Ahasuerus is a late Christian legend, which cannot be traced back earlier than the thirteenth century. Psychologically, it sprang from a component of the personality or a charge of libido that could find no outlet in the Christian attitude to life and the world and was therefore repressed. The Jews were always a symbol for this, hence the persecution mania against the Jews in the Middle Ages ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 454

 

The ritual murder idea also plays a part in Spitteler’s story of Pandora in his Prometheus the Jew steals the wonder-child from heaven. It is a mythologized projection of a dim realization that the workings of the Redeemer are constantly being frustrated by the presence of an unredeemed element in the unconscious ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 454

 

This unredeemed, untamed, barbarian element, which can only be held on a chain and cannot be allowed to run free, is projected upon those who have never accepted Christianity. There is an unconscious awareness of this intractable element whose existence we don’t like to admit hence the projection. In reality it is a part of ourselves that has contrived to escape the Christian process of domestication. The restlessness of the wandering Jew is a concretization of this unredeemed state ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 454

 

The paranoid idea can be the result, in pathological cases, of a particularly isolated and uninfluenceable complex which has become an “over-valued idea”, a dominant that defies all criticism and enjoys complete autonomy, until it finally becomes an all-controlling factor manifesting itself as “spleen.” In pathological cases it turns into an obsessive or paranoid idea, absolutely unshakable, that rules the individual’s entire life ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 467

 

The extravert generally has a relaxed attitude. Exceptions, however, are frequent, even in one and the same individual., put an extravert in a dark and silent room, where all his repressed complexes can gnaw at him, and he will get into such a state of tension that he will jump at the slightest stimulus  ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 482

 

Empathy is a kind of perceptive process, characterized by the fact that, through feeling, some essential psychic content is projected into the object, so that the object is assimilated to the subject and coalesces with him to such an extent that the subject feels himself, as it were, in the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 486

 

This happens when the projected content is associated to a higher degree with the subject than with the object. He does not, however, feel himself projected into the object; rather, the “empathized” object appears animated to him [the subject], as though it were speaking to him of its own accord ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 486

 

It should be noted that in itself projection is usually an unconscious process not under conscious control. On the other hand it is possible to imitate the projection consciously by means of a conditional sentence for instance, “if you were my father “thus bringing about the situation of empathy ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 486

`

As a rule, the projection transfers unconscious contents into the object, for which reason empathy is also termed “transference” (Freud) in analytical psychology. Empathy, therefore, is a form of extraversion ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 486

 

Worringer defines the aesthetic experience of empathy as follows: “Aesthetic enjoyment is objectified self-enjoyment” ( Abstraction and Empathy, p. 5 ). Consequently, only a form one can empathize with is beautiful. Lipps says: “Only so far as this empathy extends are forms beautiful. Their beauty is simply my ideal having free play in them” ( Aesthetic, p. 247 ). According to this, any form one cannot empathize with would be ugly. But here the theory of empathy reaches its limitations, for, as Worringer points out, there are art forms to which the empathetic attitude cannot be applied ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 487

 

It is indeed true that empathy presupposes a subjective attitude of confidence, or trustfulness toward the object. It is a readiness to meet the object halfway, a subjective assimilation that brings about a good understanding between subject and object or at least simulates it ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 489

 

As the essence of empathy is the projection of subjective contents, it follows that the preceding unconscious act must be the opposite a neutralizing of the object that renders it inoperative. In this way the object is emptied, so to speak, robbed of its spontaneous activity, and thus made a suitable receptacle for subjective contents ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 491

 

The empathizing subject wants to feel his own life in the object; hence the independence of the object and the difference between it and the subject must not be too great. As a result of the unconscious act that preceded empathy, the sovereignty of the object is depotentiated, or rather it is overcompensated, because the subject immediately gains ascendency over the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 491

 

This can only happen unconsciously, through an unconscious fantasy that either devalues and depotentiates the object or enhances the value and importance of the subject. Only in this way can that difference of potential arise which empathy needs in order to convey subjective contents into the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 491

 

Just as abstraction is based on the magical significance and power of the object, the basis of empathy is the magical significance of the subject, who gains power over the object by means of mystical identification. The primitive is in a similar position: he is magically influenced by the power of the fetish, yet at the same time he is the magician and accumulator of magical power who charges the fetish with potency. An example of this is the churinga rite of the Australian aborigines  ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 496

 

The abstracting attitude is centripetal, i.e., introverting. Worringer’s conception of abstraction therefore corresponds to the introverted attitude. It is significant that Worringer describes the influence of the object as fear or dread. The abstracting attitude endows the object with a threatening or injurious quality against which it has to defend itself. This seemingly a priori quality is doubtless a projection, but a negative one. We must therefore suppose that abstraction is preceded by an unconscious act of projection which transfers negative contents to the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 490

 

The man with the abstracting attitude finds himself in a frighteningly animated world that seeks to overpower and smother him. He therefore withdraws into himself, in order to think up a saving formula calculated to enhance his subjective value at least to the point where he can hold his own against the influence of the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 492

 

The man with the empathetic attitude finds himself, on the contrary, in a world that needs his subjective feeling to give it life and soul. He animates it with himself, full of trust; but the man with the abstract attitude retreats mistrustfully before the daemonism of objects, and builds up a protective interlude composed of abstractions ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 492

 

Worringer rightly says of Oriental art: Tormented by the confusion and flux of the phenomenal world, these people were dominated by an immense need for repose. The enjoyment they sought in art consisted not so much in immersing themselves in the things of the outside world and finding pleasure there, as in raising the individual object out of its arbitrary and seemingly fortuitous existence, immortalizing it by approximation to abstract forms, and so finding a point of repose amid the ceaseless flux of appearances (Abstraction and Empathy, p. 16 ) ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 493

 

All is on fire. The eye and all the senses are on fire, with the fire of passion, the fire of hate, the fire of delusion; the fire is kindled by birth, old age, and death, by pain and lamentation, by sorrow, suffering, and despair…The whole world is in flames, the whole world is wrapped in smoke, the whole world is consumed by fire, the whole world trembles ( Warren, Buddhism in Translations, p. 352 ) ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 494

 

It is this fearful and sorrowful vision of the world that forces the Buddhist into his abstracting attitude, just as, according to legend, a similar impression started the Buddha on his life’s quest. The dynamic animation of the object as the impelling cause of abstraction is strikingly expressed in the Buddha’s symbolic language. This animation does not come from empathy, but from an unconscious projection that actually exists a priori. The term “projection” hardly conveys the real meaning of this phenomenon. Projection is really an act that happens, and not a condition existing a priori, which is what we are obviously dealing with here ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 495

 

The primitive’s objects have a dynamic animation. They are charged with soul-stuff or soul-force (and not always possessed of souls, as the animist theory supposes) so that they have a direct psychic effect upon him, producing what is practically a dynamic identification with the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 495

 

In certain primitive languages articles of personal use have a gender denoting “alive” (the suffix of animation). With the abstracting attitude it is much the same, for here too the object is alive and autonomous from the beginning and in no need of empathy; on the contrary, it has such a powerful effect that the subject is forced into introversion ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 495

 

Its strong libido investment comes from its participation mystique with the subject’s own unconscious. This is clearly expressed in the words of the Buddha: the universal fire is identical with the fire of libido, with the subject’s burning passion, which appears to him as an object because it is not differentiated into a disposable function ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 495

 

Identification with the directed function has an undeniable advantage in that a man can best adapt to collective demands and expectations; moreover, it also enables him to keep out of the way of his inferior, undifferentiated, undirected functions by self-alienation. In addition, “selflessness” is always considered a particular virtue from the standpoint of social morality ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 502

 

For the more he identifies with one function, the more he invests it with libido, and the more he withdraws libido from the other functions. They can tolerate being deprived of libido for even quite long periods, but in the end they will react. Being drained of libido, they gradually sink below the threshold of consciousness, lose their associative connection with it, and finally lapse into the unconscious ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 502

 

This is a regressive development, a reversion to the infantile and finally to the archaic level. Since man has spent only a few thousand years in a cultivated state, as opposed to several hundred thousand years in a state of savagery, the archaic modes of functioning are still extraordinarily vigorous and easily reactivated. Hence, when certain functions disintegrate by being deprived of libido, their archaic foundations in the unconscious become operative again ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 502

 

Dissimilation is a condition where the empathetic type is assimilated to the object, although it feels as if the object were assimilated to him. But whenever the value of the object is emphasized, it at once assumes an importance which in its turn influences the subject, forcing him to a “dissimilation” from himself ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 531

 

Identification with the love-object plays no small role in analytical psychology, and the psychology of primitives swarms with examples of dissimilation in favour of the totem animal or ancestral spirit. The stigmatization of saints in medieval and even in recent times is a similar phenomenon. In the imitatio Christi [imitation of Christ] dissimilation is exalted into a principle ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 531

 

It is sufficient to note that the peculiar nature of the extravert constantly urges him to expend and propagate himself in every way, while the tendency of the introvert is to defend himself against all demands from outside, to conserve his energy by withdrawing it from objects, thereby consolidating his own position ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 559

 

Blake’s intuition did not err when he described the two classes of men as “prolific” and “devouring.” Just as, biologically, the two modes of adaptation work equally well and are successful in their own way, so too with the typical attitudes. The one achieves its end by a multiplicity of relationships, the other by monopoly ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 559

 

The very adjustment of the normal extraverted type is his limitation. He owes his normality on the one hand to his ability to fit into existing conditions with comparative ease. His requirements are limited to the objectively possible, for instance to the career that holds out good prospects at this particular moment ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 564

 

The normal extraverted type does what is needed of him, or what is expected of him, and refrains from all innovations that are not entirely self-evident or that in any way exceed the expectations of those around him. On the other hand, his normality must also depend essentially on whether he takes account of his subjective needs and requirements, and this is just his weak point ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 564

 

The tendency of his type is so outer-directed that even the most obvious of all subjective facts, the condition of his own body, receives scant attention. The body is not sufficiently objective or “outside,” so that the satisfaction of elementary needs which are indispensable to physical well-being is no longer given its due. The body accordingly suffers, to say nothing of the psyche ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 564

 

One can feel “correctly” only when feeling is not disturbed by anything else. Nothing disturbs feeling so much as thinking. It is therefore understandable that in this type [extraverted feeling] thinking will be kept in abeyance as much as possible. This does not mean that the woman does not think at all; on the contrary, she may think a great deal and very cleverly, but her thinking is never sui generis [of its own kind]it is an Epimethean appendage to her feeling. What she cannot feel, she cannot consciously think. “But I can’t think what I don’t feel,” such a type said to me once in indignant tones. So far as her feeling allows, she can think very well, but every conclusion, however logical, that might lead to a disturbance of feeling is rejected at the outset. It is simply not thought. Thus everything that fits in with the objective values is good, and is loved, and everything else seems to her to exist in a world apart ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 598

 

As feeling is undeniably a more obvious characteristic of feminine psychology than thinking, the most pronounced feeling types are to be found among women. When extraverted feeling predominates we speak of an extraverted feeling type. Examples of this type that I can call to mind are, almost without exception, women. The woman of this type follows her feeling as a guide throughout life. As a result of upbringing her feeling has developed into an adjusted function subject to conscious control. Except in extreme cases, her feeling has a personal quality, even though she may have repressed the subjective factor to a large extent ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 597

 

Her [extraverted feeling type] personality appears adjusted in relation to external conditions. Her feelings harmonize with objective situations and general values. This is seen nowhere more clearly than in her love choice: the “suitable” man is loved, and no one else; he is suitable not because he appeals to her hidden subjective nature about which she usually knows nothing but because he comes up to all reasonable expectations in the matter of age, position, income, size and respectability of his family, etc. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 597

 

Accordingly the unconscious of this type [extraverted feeling] contains first and foremost a peculiar kind of thinking, a thinking that is infantile, archaic, negative. So long as the conscious feeling preserves its personal quality, or, to put it another way, so long as the personality is not swallowed up in successive states of feeling, this unconscious thinking remains compensatory. But as soon as their personality is dissociated and dissolves into a succession of contradictory feeling states, the identity of the ego is lost and the subject lapses into the unconscious ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 600

 

When this happens, it [the ego] gets associated with the unconscious thinking processes and occasionally helps them to the surface. The stronger the conscious feeling is and the more ego-less it becomes, the stronger grows the unconscious opposition. The unconscious thoughts gravitate round just the most valued objects and mercilessly strip them of their value ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 600

 

The “nothing but” type of thinking comes into its own here, since it effectively depotentiates all feelings that are bound to the object. The unconscious thinking reaches the surface in the form of obsessive ideas which are invariably of a negative and depreciatory character ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 600

 

Women of this type have moments when the most hideous thoughts fasten on the very objects most valued by their feelings. This negative thinking utilizes every infantile prejudice or comparison for the deliberate purpose of casting aspersions on the feeling value, and musters every primitive instinct in the attempt to come out with “nothing but” interpretations. Hysteria, with the characteristic infantile sexuality of its unconscious world of ideas, is the principal form of neurosis in this type ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 600

 

Feeling is primarily a process that takes place between the ego and a given content, a process, moreover, that imparts to the content a definite value in the sense of acceptance or rejection (“like” or “dislike”). The process can also appear isolated, as it were, in the form of a “mood,” regardless of the momentary contents of consciousness or momentary sensations ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 724

 

Feeling, therefore, is an entirely subjective process, which may be in every respect independent of external stimuli, though it allies itself with every sensation. Even an “indifferent” sensation possesses a feeling-tone, namely that of indifference, which again expresses some sort of valuation. Hence feeling is a kind of judgment, differing from intellectual judgment in that its aim is not to establish conceptual relations but to set up a subjective criterion of acceptance or rejection. Valuation by feeling extends to every content of consciousness, of whatever kind it may be ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 725

 

Objects are valued in so far as they excite sensations, and, so far as lies within the power of sensation, they are fully accepted into consciousness whether they are compatible with rational judgments or not. The sole criterion of their value is the intensity of the sensation produced by their objective qualities. Accordingly, all objective processes which excite any sensations at all make their appearance in consciousness ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 605

 

Sensation is the psychological function that mediates the perception of a physical stimulus. It is, therefore, identical with perception. Sensation must be strictly distinguished from feeling, since the latter is an entirely different process, although it may associate itself with sensation as “feeling-tone.” Sensation is related not only to external stimuli but to inner ones, i.e., to changes in the internal organic processes ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 2

 

Sensation is strongly developed in children and primitives, since in both cases it predominates over thinking and feeling, though not necessarily over intuition. I [Jung] regard sensation as conscious, and intuition as unconscious, perception. For me sensation and intuition represent a pair of opposites, or two mutually compensating functions, like thinking and feeling ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 795

 

The extraverted sensation type is the lover of tangible reality, with little inclination for reflection and no desire to dominate. To feel the object, to have sensations and if possible enjoy them that is his constant aim. He is by no means unlovable, on the contrary, his lively capacity for enjoyment makes him very good company. He is usually a jolly fellow, and sometimes a refined aesthete. In the former case the great problems of life hang on a good or indifferent dinner, and in the latter, it’s all a question of good taste ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 607

 

As the extraverted sensation type has no ideals connected with ideas, he has no reason to act in any way contrary to the reality of things as they are. This manifests itself in all the externals of his life. He dresses well, as befits the occasion; he keeps a good table with plenty of drink for his friends, making them feel very grand, or at least giving them to understand that his refined taste entitles him to make a few demands of them. He may even convince them that certain sacrifices are decidedly worth while for the sake of style ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 607

 

The more sensation predominates, the subject disappears behind the sensation, and the less agreeable does this type [extraverted sensation] become. He develops into a crude pleasure-seeker, or else degenerates into an unscrupulous, effete aesthete. Although the object has become quite indispensable to him, yet, as something existing in its own right, it is none the less devalued. It is ruthlessly exploited and squeezed dry, since now its sole use is to stimulate sensation ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 608

 

What comes from inside seems to the extraverted sensation type as morbid and suspect. He always reduces his thoughts and feelings to objective causes, to influences emanating from objects, quite unperturbed by the most glaring violations of logic. Once he can get back to tangible reality in any form he can breathe again. In this respect he is surprisingly credulous ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 607

 

The bondage to the object is carried to the extreme limit. In consequence, the unconscious is forced out of its compensatory role into open opposition. Above all, the repressed intuitions begin to assert themselves in the form of projections. The wildest suspicions arise; if the object is a sexual one, jealous fantasies and anxiety states gain the upper hand ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 608

 

More acute cases develop every sort of phobia, and, in particular, compulsion symptoms. The pathological contents have a markedly unreal character, with a frequent moral or religious streak. A pettifogging captiousness follows, or a grotesquely punctilious morality combined with primitive “magical” superstitions that fall back on abstruse rites ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 608

 

All these things have their source in the repressed inferior functions which have been driven into harsh opposition to the conscious attitude, and they appear in a guise that is all the more striking because they rest on the most absurd assumptions, in complete contrast to the conscious sense of reality ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 608

 

The whole structure of thought and feeling seems, in this second personality, to be twisted into a pathological parody: reason turns into hair-splitting pedantry, morality into dreary moralizing and blatant Pharisaism, religion into ridiculous superstition, and intuition, the noblest gift of man, into meddlesome officiousness, poking into every corner; instead of gazing into the far distance, it descends to the lowest level of human meanness ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 608

 

No other human type can equal the extraverted sensation type in realism. His sense for objective facts is extraordinarily developed. His life is an accumulation of actual experiences of concrete objects, and the more pronounced his type, the less use does he make of his experience. In certain cases the events in his life hardly deserve the name “experience” at all. What he experiences serves at most as a guide to fresh sensations; anything new that comes within his range of interest is acquired by way of sensation and has to serves its ends ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 606

 

The subjective factor has, from the earliest times and among all peoples, remained in large measure constant, elementary perceptions and cognitions being almost universally the same, it is a reality that is just as firmly established as the external object. By the subjective factor I understand that psychological action or reaction which merges with the effect produced by the object and so gives rise to a new psychic datum  ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 622

 

It is precisely in the present epoch, and particularly in those movements which are somewhat ahead of the time, that the subjective factor reveals itself in exaggerated, tasteless forms of expression bordering on caricature. Owing to the extraverted overvaluation of the object e.g., the art of the present day ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 645

 

The image is called primordial when it possesses an archaic character. I [Jung] speak of its archaic character when the image is in striking accord with familiar mythological motifs. It then expresses material primarily derived from the collective unconscious, and indicates at the same time that the factors influencing the conscious situation of the moment are collective rather than personal ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 746

 

The primordial image, elsewhere also termed archetype, is always collective, i.e., it is at least common to entire peoples or epochs. In all probability the most important mythological motifs are common to all times and races. I [Jung] have, in fact, been able to demonstrate a whole series of motifs from Greek mythology in the dreams and fantasies of pure-bred Negroes suffering from mental disorders ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 747

 

The primordial image is an inherited organization of psychic energy, an ingrained system, which not only gives expression to the energic process but facilitates its operation. It shows how the energic process has run its unvarying course from time immemorial, while simultaneously allowing a perpetual repetition of it by means of an apprehension or psychic grasp of situations so that life can continue into the future ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 754

 

The primordial images, in their totality, constitute a psychic mirror-world. It is a mirror with the peculiar faculty of reflecting the existing contents of consciousness not in their known and customary form but, as it were, sub specie aeternitatis, somewhat as a million-year-old consciousness might see them. Such a consciousness would see the becoming and passing away of things simultaneously with their momentary existence in the present, and not only that, it would also see what was before their becoming and will be after their passing hence ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 649

 

The predominance of the subjective factor in consciousness naturally involves a devaluation of the object. The object is not given the importance that belongs to it by right. Just as it plays too great a role in the extraverted attitude, it has too little meaning for the introvert. To the extent that his consciousness is subjectivized and excessive importance attached to the ego, the object is put in a position which in the end becomes untenable. The object is a factor whose power cannot be denied, whereas the ego is a very limited and fragile thing ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 626

 

It would be a very different matter if the Self opposed the object. Self and world are commensurable factors; hence a normal introverted attitude is as justifiable and valid as a normal extraverted attitude. But if the ego has usurped the claims of the subject, this naturally produces, by way of compensation, an unconscious reinforcement of the influence of the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 626

 

As a result of the ego’s unadapted relation to the object for a desire to dominate it is not adaptation a compensatory relation arises in the unconscious which makes itself felt as an absolute and irrepressible tie to the object. The more the ego struggles to preserve its independence, freedom from obligation, and superiority, the more it becomes enslaved to the objective data ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 626

 

In consequence, the ego’s efforts to detach itself from the object and get it under control become all the more violent. In the end it surrounds itself with a regular system of defences (aptly described by Adler) for the purpose of preserving at least the illusion of superiority. The introvert’s alienation from the object is now complete; he wears himself out with defence measures on the one hand, while on the other he makes fruitless attempts to impose his will on the object and assert himself. These efforts are constantly being frustrated by the overwhelming impressions received from the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 626

 

The object continually imposes itself on him against his will, it arouses in him the most disagreeable and intractable affects and persecutes him at every step. A tremendous inner struggle is needed all the time in order to “keep going.” The typical form his neurosis takes is psychasthenia, a malady characterized on the one hand by extreme sensitivity and on the other by great proneness to exhaustion and chronic fatigue ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 626

 

The existence of positive feeling can be inferred only indirectly. The aim of introverted feeling is not to adjust itself to the object, but to subordinate it in an unconscious effort to realize the underlying images. It is continually seeking an image which has no existence in reality, but which it has seen in a vision. It glides unheedingly over all objects that do not fit in with its aim. It strives after inner intensity, for which the objects serve at most as a stimulus ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 638

 

The primordial images are, of course, just as much ideas as feelings. Fundamental ideas, ideas like God, freedom, and immortality, are just as much feeling-values as they are significant ideas. Everything, therefore, that we have said about introverted thinking is equally true of introverted feeling, only here everything is felt while there it was thought. But the very fact that thoughts can generally be expressed more intelligibly than feelings demands a more than ordinary descriptive or artistic ability before the real wealth of this feeling can be even approximately presented or communicated to the world. If subjective thinking can be understood only with difficulty because of it unrelatedness, this is true in even higher degree of subjective feeling ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 639

 

In order to communicate with others, it [feeling] has to find an external form not only acceptable to itself, but capable also of arousing a parallel feeling in them. Thanks to the relatively great inner (as well as outer) uniformity of human beings, it is actually possible to do this, though the form acceptable to feeling is extraordinarily difficult to find so long as it is still mainly oriented to the fathomless store of primordial images ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 639

 

If, however, feeling is falsified by an egocentric attitude, it at once becomes unsympathetic, because it is then concerned mainly with the ego. It inevitably creates the impression of sentimental self-love, of trying to make itself interesting, and even of morbid self-admiration. the intensification of egocentric feeling only leads to inane transports of feeling for their own sake. This is the mystical, ecstatic stage which opens the way for the extraverted functions that feeling has repressed ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 639

 

Just as introverted thinking is counterbalanced by a primitive feeling, to which objects attach themselves with a magical force, introverted feeling is counterbalanced by a primitive thinking, whose concretism and slavery to facts surpass all bounds. Feeling progressively emancipates itself from the object and creates for itself a freedom of action and conscience that is purely subjective, and may even renounce all traditional values. But so much the more does unconscious thinking fall a victim to the power of objective reality ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 639

 

The introverted feeling type has no desire to affect others, to impress, influence, or change them in any way. If this outward aspect is more pronounced, it arouses a suspicion of indifference and coldness, which may actually turn into a disregard for the comfort and well-being of others. One is distinctly aware then of the movement of feeling away from the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 640

 

The mysterious power of this type comes from the deeply felt, unconscious images, but consciously the introverted feeling type is apt to relate it to the ego, where upon her influence becomes debased into a personal tyranny. Whenever the unconscious subject is identified with the ego, the mysterious power of intensive feeling turns into a banal and overweening desire to dominate, into vanity and despotic bossiness. This produces a type of woman notorious for her unscrupulous ambition and mischievous cruelty. It is a change, however that leads to neurosis ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 642

 

Although the tendency [of the introverted feeling type] to overpower or coerce the other person with her secret feelings rarely plays a disturbing role in the normal type, some trace of it nevertheless seeps through in the form of a domineering influence often difficult to define. It is sensed as a sort of stifling or oppressive feeling which holds everybody around her under a spell ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 642

 

Although, with the introverted feeling type, there is a constant readiness for peaceful and harmonious co-existence, strangers are shown no touch of amiability, no gleam of responsive warmth, but are met with apparent indifference or a repelling coldness. Often they are made to feel entirely superfluous. This type observes a benevolent though critical neutrality, coupled with a faint trace of superiority that soon takes the wind out of the sails of a sensitive person. Any stormy emotion, however, will be struck down with murderous coldness ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 640

 

The introverted feeling type’s feelings are intensive rather than extensive. They develop in depth. While an extensive feeling of sympathy can express itself in appropriate words and deeds, and thus quickly gets back to normal again, an intensive sympathy, being shut off from every means of expression, acquires a passionate depth that comprises a whole world of misery and simple gets benumbed. To the outside world, or to the blind eyes of the extravert, this intensive sympathy looks like coldness, because usually it does nothing visible, and an extraverted consciousness is unable to believe in invisible forces ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 641

 

The subjective factor has, from the earliest times and among all peoples, remained in large measure constant, elementary perceptions and cognitions being almost universally the same, it is a reality that is just as firmly established as the external object. By the subjective factor I understand that psychological action or reaction which merges with the effect produced by the object and so gives rise to a new psychic datum ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 622

 

In the introverted sensation type a compulsion neurosis results as soon as the unconscious becomes antagonistic. The archaic intuitions come to the surface and exert their pernicious influence, forcing themselves on the individual and producing compulsive ideas of the most perverse kind. Hysterical features are masked by symptoms of exhaustion ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 654

 

This type seizes on new objects or situations with great intensity, sometimes with extraordinary enthusiasm, only to abandon them cold-bloodedly, without any compunction and apparently without remembering them, as soon as their range is known and no further developments can be divined. So long as a new possibility is in the offing, the intuitive is bound to it with the shackles of fate. It is as though his whole life vanished in the new situation ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 613

 

One gets the impression, which he himself [extraverted intuitive] shares, that he has always just reached a final turning-point, and that from now on he can think and feel nothing else. No matter how reasonable and suitable it may be, and although every conceivable argument speaks for its stability, a day will come when nothing will deter him from regarding as a prison the very situation that seemed to promise him freedom and deliverance, and from acting accordingly. Neither reason nor feeling can restrain him or frighten him away from a new possibility, even though it goes against all his previous convictions ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 613

 

The extraverted intuitive type is uncommonly important both economically and culturally. If his intentions are good, i.e., if his attitude is not too egocentric, he can render exceptional service as the initiator or promoter of new enterprises. He is the natural champion of all minorities with a future. Because he is able, when oriented more to people than things, to make an intuitive diagnosis of their abilities and potentialities, he can also “make” men. His capacity to inspire courage or to kindle enthusiasm for anything new is unrivalled, although he may already have dropped it by the morrow ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 614

 

Since the extraverted intuitive tends to rely most predominantly on his vision, his moral efforts become one-sided; he makes himself and his life symbolic adapted, it is true, to the inner and eternal meaning of events, but unadapted to present-day reality. He thus deprives himself of any influence upon it because he remains uncomprehended. His language is not the one currently spoken it has become too subjective. His arguments lack the convincing power of reason. He can only profess or proclaim. His is “the voice of one crying in the wilderness” ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 662

 

The extraverted intuitive type would seem to be more common among women than among men. In women the intuitive capacity shows itself not so much in the professional as in the social sphere. Such women understand the art of exploiting every social occasion, they make the right social connections, they seek out men with prospects only to abandon everything again for the sake of a new possibility ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 613

 

The extraverted intuitive will experience through a forced exaggeration of the conscious attitude, a complete subordination to inner perceptions, the unconscious goes over to the opposition, giving rise to compulsive sensations whose excessive dependence on the object directly contradicts the conscious attitude ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 663

 

The extraverted intuitive exempts himself from the restrictions of reason only to fall victim to neurotic compulsions in the form of over-subtle ratiocinations, hairsplitting dialectics, and a compulsive tie to the sensation aroused by the object. His conscious attitude towards both sensation and object is one of ruthless superiority. Not that he means to be ruthless or superior he simply does not see the object that everyone else sees and rides roughshod over it, just as the sensation type has no eyes for its soul. But sooner or later the object takes revenge in the form of compulsive hypochondriacal ideas, phobias, and every imaginable kind of absurd bodily sensation ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 615

 

Thinking and feeling, the indispensable components of conviction, are his [extraverted intuitive] inferior functions, carrying no weight and hence incapable of effectively withstanding the power of intuition. And yet these functions are the only ones that could compensate its supremacy by supplying the judgment which the intuitive type totally lacks. The intuitive’s morality is governed neither by thinking nor by feeling; he has his own characteristic morality, which consists in a loyalty to his vision and in voluntary submission to its authority ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 613

 

The extraverted intuitive represses the sensation of the object, giving rise to a compensatory extraverted sensation function of an archaic character. The unconscious personality can best be described as an extraverted sensation type of a rather low and primitive order. Instinctuality and intemperance are the hallmarks of this sensation, combined with an extraordinary dependence on sense-impressions ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 663

 

All too easily the extraverted intuitive may fritter away his life on things and people, spreading about him an abundance of life which others live and not he himself. If only he could stay put, he would reap the fruits of his labours; but always he must be running after a new possibility, quitting his newly planted fields while others gather in the harvest. In the end he goes away empty ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 615

 

This type seizes on new objects or situations with great intensity, sometimes with extraordinary enthusiasm, only to abandon them cold-bloodedly, without any compunction and apparently without remembering them, as soon as their range is known and no further developments can be divined. So long as a new possibility is in the offing, the intuitive is bound to it with the shackles of fate. It is as though his whole life vanished in the new situation ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 613

 

One gets the impression, which he himself [extraverted intuitive] shares, that he has always just reached a final turning-point, and that from now on he can think and feel nothing else. No matter how reasonable and suitable it may be, and although every conceivable argument speaks for its stability, a day will come when nothing will deter him from regarding as a prison the very situation that seemed to promise him freedom and deliverance, and from acting accordingly. Neither reason nor feeling can restrain him or frighten him away from a new possibility, even though it goes against all his previous convictions ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 613

 

The extraverted intuitive type is uncommonly important both economically and culturally. If his intentions are good, i.e., if his attitude is not too egocentric, he can render exceptional service as the initiator or promoter of new enterprises. He is the natural champion of all minorities with a future. Because he is able, when oriented more to people than things, to make an intuitive diagnosis of their abilities and potentialities, he can also “make” men. His capacity to inspire courage or to kindle enthusiasm for anything new is unrivalled, although he may already have dropped it by the morrow ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 614

 

Since the extraverted intuitive tends to rely most predominantly on his vision, his moral efforts become one-sided; he makes himself and his life symbolic adapted, it is true, to the inner and eternal meaning of events, but unadapted to present-day reality. He thus deprives himself of any influence upon it because he remains uncomprehended. His language is not the one currently spoken it has become too subjective. His arguments lack the convincing power of reason. He can only profess or proclaim. His is “the voice of one crying in the wilderness” ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 662

 

The extraverted intuitive type would seem to be more common among women than among men. In women the intuitive capacity shows itself not so much in the professional as in the social sphere. Such women understand the art of exploiting every social occasion, they make the right social connections, they seek out men with prospects only to abandon everything again for the sake of a new possibility ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 613

 

The extraverted intuitive will experience through a forced exaggeration of the conscious attitude, a complete subordination to inner perceptions, the unconscious goes over to the opposition, giving rise to compulsive sensations whose excessive dependence on the object directly contradicts the conscious attitude ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 663

 

The extraverted intuitive exempts himself from the restrictions of reason only to fall victim to neurotic compulsions in the form of over-subtle ratiocinations, hairsplitting dialectics, and a compulsive tie to the sensation aroused by the object. His conscious attitude towards both sensation and object is one of ruthless superiority. Not that he means to be ruthless or superior he simply does not see the object that everyone else sees and rides roughshod over it, just as the sensation type has no eyes for its soul. But sooner or later the object takes revenge in the form of compulsive hypochondriacal ideas, phobias, and every imaginable kind of absurd bodily sensation ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 615

 

Thinking and feeling, the indispensable components of conviction, are his [extraverted intuitive] inferior functions, carrying no weight and hence incapable of effectively withstanding the power of intuition. And yet these functions are the only ones that could compensate its supremacy by supplying the judgment which the intuitive type totally lacks. The intuitive’s morality is governed neither by thinking nor by feeling; he has his own characteristic morality, which consists in a loyalty to his vision and in voluntary submission to its authority ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 613

 

The extraverted intuitive represses the sensation of the object, giving rise to a compensatory extraverted sensation function of an archaic character. The unconscious personal The extraverted intuitive’s consideration for the welfare of others is weak. Their psychic well-being counts as little with him as does his own. He has equally little regard for their convictions and way of life, and on this account he is often put down as an immoral and unscrupulous adventurer ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 613

 

The extraverted intuitive’s remarkable indifference to external objects is shared by the introverted intuitive in relation to inner objects ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 658ity can best be described as an extraverted sensation type of a rather low and primitive order. Instinctuality and intemperance are the hallmarks of this sensation, combined with an extraordinary dependence on sense-impressions ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 663

 

All too easily the extraverted intuitive may fritter away his life on things and people, spreading about him an abundance of life which others live and not he himself. If only he could stay put, he would reap the fruits of his labours; but always he must be running after a new possibility, quitting his newly planted fields while others gather in the harvest. In the end he goes away empty ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 615

 

Differentiation means the development of differences, the separation of parts from a whole. It consists in the separation of the function from other functions, and in the separation of its individual parts from each other. Without differentiation direction is impossible, since the direction of a function towards a goal depends on the elimination of anything irrelevant. Fusion with the irrelevant precludes direction; only a differentiated function is capable of being directed ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 705

 

Identification with the love-object plays no small role in analytical psychology, and the psychology of primitives swarms with examples of dissimilation in favour of the totem animal or ancestral spirit. The stigmatization of saints in medieval and even in recent times is a similar phenomenon. In the imitatio Christi [imitation of Christ] dissimilation is exalted into a principle ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 531

 

Such contents are what Lévy-Bruhl calls the représentations collectives of primitives. Among primitives, the représentations collectives are at the same time collective feelings, as Lévy-Bruhl has shown. Because of this collective feeling-value he calls the représentations collectives “mystical,” since they are not merely intellectual but emotional ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 692

 

Among civilized peoples, too, certain collective ideas God, justice, fatherland, etc. Are bound up with collective feelings. This collective quality adheres not only to particular psychic elements or contents but to whole functions (q.v.). Thus the thinking function as a whole can have a collective quality, when it possesses general validity and accords with the laws of logic. Similarly, the feeling function as a whole can be collective, when it is identical with the general feeling and accords with general expectations, the general moral consciousness, etc. In the same way, sensation and intuition are collective when they are at the same time characteristic of a large group of men ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 692

 

Thinking is a directed function, and so is feeling. When these functions are concerned not with a rational choice of objects, or with the qualities and interrelations of objects, but with the perception of accidentals which the actual object never lacks, they at once lose the attribute of directedness and, with it, something of their rational character, because they then accept the rational. They begin to be irrational. Thinking and feeling find fulfillment only when they are in complete harmony with the laws of reason ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 776

 

Concretism is a concept which falls under the more general concept of participation mystique. Just as the latter represents a fusion of the individual with external objects, concretism represents a fusion of thinking and feeling with sensation, so that the object of one is at the same time the object of the other. This fusion prevents any differentiation of thinking and feeling and keeps them both within the sphere of sensation; they remain its servants and can never be developed into pure functions ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 698

 

Concretism, therefore, is an archaism. The magical influence of the fetish is not experienced as a subjective state of feeling, but sensed as a magical effect. That is concretistic feeling. The primitive does not experience the idea of divinity as a subjective content; for him the sacred tree is the abode of the god, or even the god himself. That is concretistic thinking. In civilized man, concretistic thinking consists in the inability to conceive of anything except immediately obvious facts transmitted by the senses, or in the inability to discriminate between subjective feeling and the sensed object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 697

 

Differentiation means the development of differences, the separation of parts from a whole. It consists in the separation of the function from other functions, and in the separation of its individual parts from each other. Without differentiation direction is impossible, since the direction of a function towards a goal depends on the elimination of anything irrelevant. Fusion with the irrelevant precludes direction; only a differentiated function is capable of being directed ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 705

 

Feeling is primarily a process that takes place between the ego and a given content, a process, moreover, that imparts to the content a definite value in the sense of acceptance or rejection (“like” or “dislike”). The process can also appear isolated, as it were, in the form of a “mood,” regardless of the momentary contents of consciousness or momentary sensations ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 724

 

Feeling, therefore, is an entirely subjective process, which may be in every respect independent of external stimuli, though it allies itself with every sensation. Even an “indifferent” sensation possesses a feeling-tone, namely that of indifference, which again expresses some sort of valuation. Hence feeling is a kind of judgment, differing from intellectual judgment in that its aim is not to establish conceptual relations but to set up a subjective criterion of acceptance or rejection. Valuation by feeling extends to every content of consciousness, of whatever kind it may be ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 725

 

Identification differs from imitation in that it is an unconscious imitation, whereas imitation is a conscious copying. Imitation is an indispensable aid in developing the youthful personality. It is beneficial so long as it does not serve as a mere convenience and hinder the development of ways and means suited to the individual ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 738

 

Similarly, identification can be beneficial so long as the individual cannot go his own way. But when a better possibility presents itself, identification shows its morbid character by becoming just as great a hindrance as it was an unconscious help and support before. It now has a dissociative effect, splitting the individual into two mutually estranged personalities ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 738

 

Identification then leads to the formation of a secondary character, the individual identifying with his best developed function to such an extent that he alienates himself very largely or even entirely from his original character, with the result that his true individuality falls into the unconscious. This is nearly always the rule with people who have one highly differentiated function. It is, in fact, a necessary transitional stage on the way to individuation ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 739

 

The image is called primordial when it possesses an archaic character. I [Jung] speak of its archaic character when the image is in striking accord with familiar mythological motifs. It then expresses material primarily derived from the collective unconscious, and indicates at the same time that the factors influencing the conscious situation of the moment are collective rather than personal ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 746

 

The primordial image, elsewhere also termed archetype, is always collective, i.e., it is at least common to entire peoples or epochs. In all probability the most important mythological motifs are common to all times and races. I [Jung] have, in fact, been able to demonstrate a whole series of motifs from Greek mythology in the dreams and fantasies of pure-bred Negroes suffering from mental disorders ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 747

 

The primordial image is an inherited organization of psychic energy, an ingrained system, which not only gives expression to the energic process but facilitates its operation. It shows how the energic process has run its unvarying course from time immemorial, while simultaneously allowing a perpetual repetition of it by means of an apprehension or psychic grasp of situations so that life can continue into the future ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 754

 

The primordial images, in their totality, constitute a psychic mirror-world. It is a mirror with the peculiar faculty of reflecting the existing contents of consciousness not in their known and customary form but, as it were, sub specie aeternitatis, somewhat as a million-year-old consciousness might see them. Such a consciousness would see the becoming and passing away of things simultaneously with their momentary existence in the present, and not only that, it would also see what was before their becoming and will be after their passing hence ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 649

 

The primordial image is the precursor of the idea, and its matrix. By detaching it from the concretism peculiar and necessary to the primordial image, reason develops it into a concept i.e., an idea which differs from all other concepts in that it is not a datum of experience but is actually the underlying principle of all experience. The idea derives this quality from the primordial image, which, as an expression of the specific structure of the brain, gives every experience a definite form ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 750

 

The term introjection was introduced by Avenarius to correspond with projection. The expulsion of a subjective content into an object, which is what Avenarius meant, Ferenczi  has now defined introjection as the opposite of projection, namely as an indrawing of the object into the subjective sphere of interest, while projection is an expulsion of subjective contents into the object. Introjection is a sort of “diluting process,” an “expansion of the circle of interest” ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 767

 

The reductive method traces the unconscious product back to its elements, no matter whether these be reminiscences of events that actually took place, or elementary psychic processes. The reductive method is oriented backwards, in contrast to the constructive method, whether in the purely historical sense or in the figurative sense of tracing complex, differentiated factors back to something more general and more elementary ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 788

 

Objects are valued in so far as they excite sensations, and, so far as lies within the power of sensation, they are fully accepted into consciousness whether they are compatible with rational judgments or not. The sole criterion of their value is the intensity of the sensation produced by their objective qualities. Accordingly, all objective processes which excite any sensations at all make their appearance in consciousness ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 605

 

Sensation is the psychological function that mediates the perception of a physical stimulus. It is, therefore, identical with perception. Sensation must be strictly distinguished from feeling, since the latter is an entirely different process, although it may associate itself with sensation as “feeling-tone.” Sensation is related not only to external stimuli but to inner ones, i.e., to changes in the internal organic processes ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 792

 

Sensation is strongly developed in children and primitives, since in both cases it predominates over thinking and feeling, though not necessarily over intuition. I [Jung] regard sensation as conscious, and intuition as unconscious, perception. For me sensation and intuition represent a pair of opposites, or two mutually compensating functions, like thinking and feeling ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 795

 

Abstract sensation is a sensation that is abstracted or separated from the other psychic elements. Abstract sensation is a differentiated kind of perception, which might be termed “aesthetic” in so far as, obeying its own principle, it detaches itself from all contamination with the different elements in the perceived object and from all admixtures of thought and feeling, and thus attains a degree of purity beyond the reach of concrete sensation ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 794

 

Abstract sensation immediately picks out the most salient sensuous attributes, e.g., of a flower and its redness, and by makes this the sole or at least the principal content of consciousness, entirely detached from all other admixtures. Abstract sensation is found chiefly among artists. Like every abstraction, it is a product of functional differentiation ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 794

 

Concrete sensation conveys a full perception, e.g., in the case of a flower. The perception not only of the flower as such, but also of the stem, leaves, habitat, and so on. It is also instantly mingled with feelings of pleasure or dislike which the sight of the flower evokes, or with simultaneous olfactory perceptions, or with thoughts about its botanical classification, etc. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 794

 

The soul-image [anima / animus] is a specific image among those produced by the unconscious.in a man the soul, i.e., anima, or inner attitude, is represented in the unconscious by definite persons with corresponding qualities. Such an image is called a “soul-image.” Sometimes these images are of quite unknown or mythological figures ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 808

 

In all cases where there is an identity with the persona, and the soul accordingly is unconscious, the soul-image is transferred to a real person. This person is the object of intense love or equally intense hate (or fear). The influence of such a person is immediate and absolutely compelling, because it always provokes an affective response ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 808

 

The affect is due to the fact that a real, conscious adaptation to the person representing the soul-image is impossible. Because an objective relationship is non-existent and out of the question, the libido gets dammed up and explodes in an outburst of affect. Affects always occur where there is a failure of adaptation ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 808

 

The living symbol cannot come to birth in a dull or poorly developed mind, for such a mind will be content with the already existing symbols offered by established tradition. Only the passionate yearning of a highly developed mind, for which the traditional symbol is no longer the unified expression of the rational and the irrational, of the highest and the lowest, can create a new symbol ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 823

 

Precisely because the new symbol is born of man’s highest spiritual aspirations and must at the same time spring from the deepest roots of his being, it cannot be a one-sided product of the most highly differentiated mental functions but must derive equally from the lowest and most primitive levels of the psyche. For this collaboration of opposing states to be possible at all, they must first face one another in the fullest conscious opposition. This necessarily entails a violent disunion with oneself, to the point where thesis and antithesis negate one another, while the ego is forced to acknowledge its absolute participation in both ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 824

 

The raw material shaped by thesis and antithesis, and in the shaping of which the opposites are united, is the living symbol. Its profundity of meaning is inherent in the raw material itself, the very stuff of the psyche, transcending time and dissolution; and its configurations by the opposites ensures its sovereign power over all the psychic functions ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 828

 

The living symbol cannot come to birth in a dull or poorly developed mind, for such a mind will be content with the already existing symbols offered by established tradition. Only the passionate yearning of a highly developed mind, for which the traditional symbol is no longer the unified expression of the rational and the irrational, of the highest and the lowest, can create a new symbol ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 823

 

The raw material shaped by thesis and antithesis, and in the shaping of which the opposites are united, is the living symbol. Its profundity of meaning is inherent in the raw material itself, the very stuff of the psyche, transcending time and dissolution; and its configurations by the opposites ensures its sovereign power over all the psychic functions ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 828

 

During the incubation of his illness the schizophrenic likewise turns away from the outer world in order to withdraw into himself, but when the period of morbid compensation arrives, he seems constrained to draw attention to himself, to force himself upon the notice of those around him, by his extravagant, insupportable, or directly aggressive behavior ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 859

 

The underlying idea goes back to the fifth century B.C., to the teachings of Hippocrates, that the human body was composed of the four elements, air, water, fire, and earth. Corresponding to these elements, four substances were to be found in the living body, blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. It was Galen’s idea that, by the varying admixture of these four substances, men could be divided into four classes ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 883

 

Those in whom there was a preponderance of blood belonged to the sanguine type; a preponderance of phlegm produced the phlegmatic; yellow bile produced the choleric, and black bile the melancholic. As our language shows, these differences of temperament have pasted into history, though they have, of course, long since been superseded as a physiological theory ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 883

 

One of the earliest signs of introversion in a child is a reflective, thoughtful manner, marked shyness and even fear of unknown objects. Very early there appears a tendency to assert himself over familiar objects, and attempts are made to master them. Everything unknown is regarded with mistrust; outside influences are usually met with violent resistance ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 897

 

The distinction between mind and body is an artificial dichotomy, an act of discrimination based far more on the peculiarity of intellectual cognition than on the nature of things. In fact, so intimate is the intermingling of bodily and psychic traits that not only can we draw far-reaching inferences as to the constitution of the psyche from the constitution of the body, but we can also infer from psychic peculiarities the corresponding bodily characteristics ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 916

 

It is true that the latter process is far more difficult, not because the body is less influenced by the psyche than the psyche by the body, but for quite another reason. In taking the psyche as our starting point, we work from the relatively unknown to the known; while in the opposite case we have the advantage of starting from something known, that is, from the visible body ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 916

 

To the same class of interpretations from outward signs belong palmistry, Gall’s phrenology, Lavater’s physiognomy, and more recently graphology, Kretschmer’s physiological types, and Rorschach’s klexographic method. As we can see, there are any number of paths leading from outside inwards, from the physical to the psychic, and it is necessary that research should follow this direction until the elementary psychic facts are established with sufficient certainty 91~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 7

 

They are the “sore spots,” the bétes noires, the “skeletons in the cupboard” which we do not like to remember and still less to be reminded of by others, but which frequently come back to mind unbidden and in the most unwelcome fashion. They always contain memories, wishes, fears, duties, needs, or insights which somehow we can never really grapple with, and for this reason they constantly interfere with our conscious life in a disturbing and usually a harmful way ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 924

 

Complexes are focal or nodal points of psychic life which we would not wish to do without; indeed, they should not be missing, for otherwise psychic activity would come to a fatal standstill. They point to the unresolved problems in the individual, the places where he has suffered a defeat, at least for the time being, and where there is something he cannot evade or overcome his weak spots in every sense of the word ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 925

 

These characteristics of the complex throw a significant light on its origin. It obviously arises from the clash between a demand of adaptation and the individual’s constitutional inability to meet the challenge. Seen in this light, the complex is a valuable symptom which helps us to diagnose an individual disposition ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 926

 

Experience shows us that complexes are infinitely varied, yet careful comparison reveals a relatively small number of typical primary forms, which are all built upon the first experiences of childhood. This must necessarily be so, because the individual disposition is already a factor in infancy; it is innate, and not acquired in the course of life ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 927