Symbols of Transformation (Collected Works of C.G. Jung Vol.5)

Thornton Ladd Concordance ARAS

The Portable Jung

The Quotable Jung

The same is true of the religious attitude: it must be fully conscious of itself and of its foundations if it is to signify anything more than unconscious imitation. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 106

When the libido leaves the bright upper world, whether from choice, or from inertia, or from fate, it sinks back into its own depths, into the source from which it originally flowed, and returns to the point of cleavage, the navel, where it first entered the body. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 449

As most people know, one of the basic principles of analytical psychology is that dream-images are to be understood symbolically; that is to say, one must not take them literally, but must surmise a hidden meaning in them. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 4.

We must begin by overcoming our virtuousness, with the justifiable fear of falling into vice on the other side. This danger certainly exists, for the greatest virtuousness is always compensated inwardly by a strong tendency to vice, and how many vicious characters treasure inside themselves sugary virtues and a moral megalomania. Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 221

The psychic health of the adult individual, who in childhood was a mere particle revolving in a rotary system, demands that he should himself become the centre of a new system. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 644

But anyone who refuses to experience life must stifle his desire to live—in other words, he must commit partial suicide. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 165

That the highest summit of life can be expressed through the symbolism of death is a well-known fact, for any growing beyond oneself means death. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 432

I do not take kindly to the argument that because certain working hypotheses may not possess eternal validity or may possibly be erroneous, they must be withheld from the public. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 685

I do not regard the pursuit of science as a bickering about who is right, but as an endeavour to augment and deepen human knowledge. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 685

The world comes into being when man discovers it. But he only discovers it when he sacrifices his containment in the primal mother, the original state of unconsciousness. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 652

Fear of our erotic fate is quite understandable, for there is something unpredictable about it. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 101

Symbols are not allegories and not signs; they are images of contents which for the most part transcend consciousness. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 114

The dream, we would say, originates in an unknown part of the psyche and prepares the dreamer for the events of the following day. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 5

One such successful interpretation has been, for instance, Mother Church, but once this form begins to show signs of age and decay a new interpretation becomes inevitable. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 351

The religious interest, which ought normally to be the greatest and most decisive factor, turned away from the inner world, and great figures of dogma dwindled to strange and incomprehensible vestiges, a prey to every sort of criticism. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 113.

One might expect, perhaps, that a man of genius would luxuriate in the greatness of his own thoughts and renounce the cheap approbation of the rabble he despises; yet he succumbs to the more powerful impulse of the herd instinct. His seeking and his finding, his heart’s cry, are meant for the herd and must be heeded by them. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 14

We quite forget that we can be as deplorably overcome by a virtue as by a vice. There is a sort of frenzied, orgiastic virtuousness which is just as infamous as a vice and leads to just as much injustice and violence. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 222

The wounding and painful shafts do not come from outside, through gossip which only pricks us only on the surface, but from the ambush of our own unconscious. It is our own repressed desires that stick like arrows in our flesh. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 438

Just as our bodies still retain vestiges of obsolete functions and conditions in many of their organs, so our minds, which have apparently outgrown those archaic impulses, still bear the marks of the evolutionary stages we have traversed, and re-echo the dim bygone in dreams and fantasies. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 36

Therefore the sun is perfectly suited to represent the visible God of this world, i.e., the creative power of our own soul, which we call libido, and whose nature it is to bring forth the useful and to bring forth the useful and the harmful, the good and the bad. ~Carl Jung; CW 5, Para 176.

It would be a ridiculous and unwarranted assumption on our part if we imagined that we were more energetic or more intelligent than the men of the past. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 23

We have become rich in knowledge, but poor in wisdom. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 23

One cannot please everybody, therefore it is better to be at peace with oneself. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 911

The psychic health of the adult individual, who in childhood was a mere particle revolving in a rotary system, demands that he should himself become the centre of a new system. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 644

It is “moral” repression that makes sexuality on the one hand dirty and hypocritical, and on the other shameless and blatant. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 295

The world comes into being when man discovers it. But he only discovers it when he sacrifices his containment in the primal mother, the original state of unconsciousness. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 652

We shall all be as good as dead one day, but in the interests of life we should postpone this moment as long as possible, and this we can only do by never allowing our picture of the world to become rigid. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 700

The world changes its face —tempora mutantur et nos mutamur in illis—for we can grasp the world only as a psychic image in ourselves, and it is not always easy to decide, when the image changes, whether the world or ourselves have changed, or both. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 700

It is hard to believe that this teeming world is too poor to provide an object for human love – it offers boundless opportunities to everyone. It is rather the inability to love which robs a person of these opportunities. The world is empty only to him who does not know how to direct his libido towards things and people, and to render them alive and beautiful. What compels us to create a substitute from within ourselves is not an external lack, but our own inability to include anything outside ourselves in our love. Certainly the difficulties and adversities of the struggle for existence may oppress us, yet even the worst conditions need not hinder love; on the contrary, they often spur us on to greater efforts. Carl Jung, CW 5, 253.

We have, therefore, two kinds of thinking: directed thinking, and dreaming or fantasy-thinking. The former operates with speech elements for the purpose of communication, and is difficult and exhausting; the latter is effortless, working as it were spontaneously, with the contents ready to hand, and guided by unconscious motives. The one produces innovations and adaptation, copies reality, and tries to act upon it; the other turns away from reality, sets free subjective tendencies, and, as regards adaptation, is unproductive ~Carl Jung, CW 5, para. 20.

What he is describing here is the libido, which is not only creative and procreative, but possesses an intuitive faculty, a strange power to “smell the right place,” almost as if it were a live creature with an independent life of its own (which is why it is so easily personified). It is purposive, like sexuality itself, a favorite object of comparison. ~Carl Jung; CW 5, Para. 182.

The sun is not only beneficial, but also destructive; hence the zodiacal sign for August heat is the ravaging lion which Samson slew in order to rid the parched earth of its torment. Yet it is in the nature of the sun to scorch, and its scorching power seems natural to man. It shines equally on the just and the unjust, and allows useful creatures to flourish as well as the harmful. ~Carl Jung; CW 5, para 176.

Numerous mythological and philosophical attempts have been made to formulate and visualize the creative force which man knows only by subjective experience. To give but a few examples, I would remind the reader of the cosmogonic significance of Eros in Hesiod, and also of the Orphic figure of Phanes, the ‘Shining One,’ the first-born, the ‘Father of Eros.’ In Orphic terms, Phanes also denotes Priapos, a god of love, androgynous, and equal to the Theban Dionysus Lysios. The Orphic meaning of Phanes is the same as that of the Indian Kama, the God of love, which is also a cosmogonic principle. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, para. 198.

It is hard to believe that this teeming world is too poor to provide an object for human love—it offers boundless opportunities to everyone. It is rather the inability to love which robs a person of these opportunities. The world is empty only to him who does not know how to direct his libido towards things and people, and to render them alive and beautiful. What compels us to create a substitute from within ourselves is not an external lack, but our own inability to include anything outside ourselves in our love. Certainly the difficulties and adversities of the struggle for existence may oppress us, yet even the worst conditions need not hinder love; on the contrary, they often spur us on to greater efforts. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 253

Our civilization enormously underestimates the importance of sexuality, but just because of the repressions imposed upon it, sexuality breaks through into every conceivable field where it does not belong, and uses such an indirect mode of expression that we may expect to meet it all of a sudden practically everywhere. Thus the very idea of an intimate understanding of the human psyche, which is actually a very pure and beautiful thing, becomes besmirched and perversely distorted by the intrusion of an indirect sexual meaning. A direct and spontaneous expression of sexuality is a natural occurrence and, as such, never ugly or repulsive. It is “moral” repression that makes sexuality on the one hand dirty and hypocritical, and on the other shameless and blatant. This secondary significance, or rather the misuse which the repressed and suborned sexuality makes of the highest psychic functions, gives certain of our opponents an opportunity to sniff out the prurient eroticism of the confessional in psychoanalysis. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 295

An individual is infantile because he has freed himself insufficiently, or not at all, from his childish environment and his adaptation to his parents, with the result that he has a false reaction to the world on the one hand he reacts as a child towards his parents, always demanding love and immediate emotional rewards, while on the other hand he is so identified with his parents through his close ties with them that he behaves like his father or his mother. He is incapable of living his own life and finding the character that belongs to him. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 431

It is not possible to live too long amid infantile surroundings, or in the bosom of the family, without endangering one’s psychic health. Life calls us forth to independence, and anyone who does not heed this call because of childish laziness or timidity is threatened with neurosis. And once this has broken out, it becomes an increasingly valid reason for running away from life and remaining forever in the morally poisonous atmosphere of infancy. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 461

If we wish to stay on the heights we have reached, we must struggle all the time to consolidate our consciousness and its attitude. But we soon discover that this praiseworthy and apparently unavoidable battle with the years leads to stagnation and desiccation of soul. Our convictions become platitudes ground out on a barrel-organ, our ideals become starchy habits, enthusiasm stiffens into automatic gestures. The source of the water of life seeps away. We ourselves may not notice it, but everybody else does, and that is even more painful. If we should risk a little introspection, coupled perhaps with an energetic attempt to be honest for once with ourselves, we may get a dim idea of all the wants, longings, and fears that have accumulated down there—a repulsive and sinister sight. The mind shies away, but life wants to flow down into the depths. Fate itself seems to preserve us from this, for each of us has a tendency to become an immovable pillar of the past. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 553

For all these things have taken on shape, and all shapes are worn thin by the working of time; they age, sicken, crumble to dust—unless they change. But change they can, for the invisible spark that generated them is potent enough for infinite generation. No one should deny the danger of the descent, but it can be risked. No one need risk it, but it is certain that some will. And let those who go down the sunset way do so with open eyes, for it is a sacrifice which daunts even the gods. Yet every descent is followed by an ascent; the vanishing shapes are shaped anew, and a truth is valid in the end only if it suffers change and bears witness in new images, in new tongues, like a new wine that is put into new bottles. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 553

Nature has the primary claim on mankind, and only long after that comes the luxury of reason. The medieval ideal of a life lived for death should gradually be replaced by a more natural attitude to life, in which the natural claims of man are fully acknowledged, so that the desires of the animal sphere need no longer drag down the higher values of the spiritual sphere in order to be able to function at all. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 295

What aroused a feeling of horror in the Greeks still remains true, but it is true for us only if we give up the vain illusion that we are different, i.e., morally better, than the ancients. We have merely succeeded in forgetting that an indissoluble link binds us to the men of antiquity. This truth opens the way to an understanding of the classical spirit such as has never existed before—the way of inner sympathy on the one hand and of intellectual comprehension on the other. By penetrating into the blocked subterranean passages of our own psyches we grasp the living meaning of classical civilization, and at the same time we establish a firm foothold outside our own culture from which alone it is possible to gain an objective understanding of its foundations. That at least is the hope we draw from the rediscovery of the immortality of the Oedipus problem. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para i

People who strive to be excessively ethical, who always think, feel, and act altruistically and idealistically, avenge themselves for their intolerable ideals by a subtly planned maliciousness, of which they are naturally not conscious as such, but which leads to misunderstandings and unhappy situations. All these difficulties appear to them as “especially unfortunate circumstances,” or the fault and the malice of other people, or as tragic complications. Consciously they imagine they are rid of the conflict, but it is still there, unseen, to be stumbled over at every step. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 62

The essential thing is that we should be able to stand up to our judgment of ourselves. From outside this attitude looks like self-righteousness, but it is so only if we are incapable of criticizing ourselves. If we can exercise self-criticism, criticism from outside will affect us only on the outside and not pierce to the heart, for we feel that we have a sterner critic within us than any who could judge us from without. And anyway, there are as many opinions as there are heads to think them. We come to realize that our own judgment has as much value as the judgment of others. One cannot please everybody, therefore it is better to be at peace with oneself. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 911

All through our lives we possess, side by side with our newly acquired directed and adapted thinking, a fantasy thinking which corresponds to the antique state of mind. Just as our bodies still retain vestiges of obsolete functions and conditions in many of their organs, so our minds, which have apparently outgrown those archaic impulses, still bear the marks of the evolutionary stages we have traversed, and re-echo the dim bygone in dreams and fantasies. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 36

It would be a ridiculous and unwarranted assumption on our part if we imagined that we were more energetic or more intelligent than the men of the past. Our material knowledge has increased, but not our intelligence. This means that we are just as bigoted in regard to new ideas, and just as impervious to them, as people were in the darkest days of antiquity. We have become rich in knowledge, but poor in wisdom. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 23

The world changes its face —tempora mutantur et nos mutamur in illis—for we can grasp the world only as a psychic image in ourselves, and it is not always easy to decide, when the image changes, whether the world or ourselves have changed, or both. The picture of the world can change at any time, just as our conception of ourselves changes. Every new discovery, every new thought, can put a new face on the world. We must be prepared for this, else we suddenly find ourselves in an antiquated world, itself a relic of lower levels of consciousness. We shall all be as good as dead one day, but in the interests of life we should postpone this moment as long as possible, and this we can only do by never allowing our picture of the world to become rigid. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 700

If we do not fashion for ourselves a picture of the world, we do not see ourselves either, who are the faithful reflections of that world. Only when mirrored in our picture of the world can we see ourselves in the round. Only in our creative acts do we step forth into the light and see ourselves whole and complete. Never shall we put any face on the world other than our own, and we have to do this precisely in order to find ourselves. For higher than science or art as an end in itself stands man, the creator of his instruments. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 737

In the same way one can withhold the material content of primitive myths from a child but not take from him the need for mythology, and still less his ability to manufacture it for himself. One could almost say that if all the world’s traditions were cut off at a single blow, the whole of mythology and the whole history of religion would start all over again with the next generation. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 30

The conscious mind must have reason, firstly to discover some order in the chaos of disorderly individual events occurring in the world, and secondly to create order, at least in human affairs. We are moved by the laudable and useful ambition to extirpate the chaos of the irrational both within and without to the best of our ability. Apparently the process has gone pretty far. As a mental patient once told me: “Doctor, last night I disinfected the whole heavens with bichloride of mercury, but I found no God.” Something of the sort has happened to us as well. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 104A

The myth of the hero … is first and foremost a self-representation of the longing of the unconscious, of its unquenched and unquenchable desire for the light of consciousness. But consciousness, continually in danger of being led astray by its own light and of becoming a rootless will o’the wisp, longs for the healing power of nature, for the deep wells of being and for unconscious communion with life in all its countless forms. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 299

People often behave as if they did not rightly understand what constitutes the destructive character of the creative force. A woman who gives herself up to passion, particularly under present-day civilized conditions, experiences this all too soon. We must think a little beyond the framework of purely bourgeois moral conditions to understand the feeling of boundless uncertainty which befalls the man who gives himself over unconditionally to fate. Even to be fruitful is to destroy oneself, for with the creation of a new generation the previous generation has passed beyond its climax. Our off spring thus become our most dangerous enemies, with whom we cannot get even, for they will survive us and so inevitably will take the power out of our weakening hands. Fear of our erotic fate is quite understandable, for there is something unpredictable about it. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 101

Fear of fate is a very understandable phenomenon, for it is incalculable, immeasurable, full of unknown dangers. The perpetual hesitation of the neurotic to launch out into life is readily explained by his desire to stand aside so as not to get involved in the dangerous struggle for existence. But anyone who refuses to experience life must stifle his desire to live—in other words, he must commit partial suicide. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 165

Flight from life does not exempt us from the laws of old age and death. The neurotic who tries to wriggle out of the necessity of living wins nothing and only burdens himself with a constant foretaste of aging and dying, which must appear especially cruel on account of the total emptiness and meaninglessness of his life. If it is not possible for the libido to strive forwards, to lead a life that willingly accepts all dangers and ultimate decay, then it strikes back along the other road and sinks into its own depths, working down to the old intimation of the immortality of all that lives, to the old longing for rebirth. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 617

The sun, rising triumphant, tears himself from the enveloping womb of the sea, and leaving behind him the noonday zenith and all its glorious works, sinks down again into the maternal depths, into all-enfolding and all regenerating night. This image is undoubtedly a primordial one, and there was profound justification for its becoming a symbolical expression of human fate: in the morning of life the son tears himself loose from the mother, from the domestic hearth, to rise through battle to his destined heights. Always he imagines his worst enemy in front of him, yet he carries the enemy within himself—a deadly longing for the abyss, a longing to drown in his own source, to be sucked down to the realm of the Mothers. His life is a constant struggle against extinction, a violent yet fleeting deliverance from ever-lurking night. This death is no external enemy, it is his own inner longing for the stillness and profound peace of all-knowing non-existence, for all-seeing sleep in the ocean of coming-to-be and passing away. Even in his highest strivings for harmony and balance, for the profundities of philosophy and the raptures of the artist, he seeks death, immobility, satiety, rest. If, like Peirithous, he tarries too long in this abode of rest and peace, he is overcome by apathy, and the poison of the serpent paralyses him for all time. If he is to live, he must fight and sacrifice his longing for the past in order to rise to his own heights. And having reached the noonday heights, he must sacrifice his love for his own achievement, for he may not loiter. The sun, too, sacrifices its greatest strength in order to hasten onward to the fruits of autumn, which are the seeds of rebirth. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 553

When the libido leaves the bright upper world, whether from choice, or from inertia, or from fate, it sinks back into its own depths, into the source from which it originally flowed, and returns to the point of cleavage, the navel, where it first entered the body. This point of cleavage is called the mother, because from her the current of life reached us. Whenever some great work is to be accomplished, before which a man recoils, doubtful of his strength, his libido streams back to the fountainhead—and that is the dangerous moment when the issue hangs between annihilation and new life. For if the libido gets stuck in the wonderland of this inner world, then for the upper world man is nothing but a shadow, he is already moribund or at least seriously ill. But if the libido manages to tear itself loose and force its way up again, something like a miracle happens: the journey to the underworld was a plunge into the fountain of youth, and the libido, apparently dead, wakes to renewed fruitfulness. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 449

To the degree that the modern mind is passionately concerned with anything and everything rather than religion, religion and its prime object—original sin—have mostly vanished into the unconscious. That is why, today, nobody believes in either. People accuse psychology of dealing in squalid fantasies, and yet even a cursory glance at ancient religions and the history of morals should be sufficient to convince them of the demons hidden in the human soul. This disbelief in the devilishness of human nature goes hand in hand with a blank incomprehension of religion and its meaning. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 106

At a time when a large part of mankind is beginning to discard Christianity, it may be worth our while to try to understand why it was accepted in the first place. It was accepted as a means of escape from the brutality and unconsciousness of the ancient world. As soon as we discard it, the old brutality returns in force, as has been made overwhelmingly clear by contemporary events. . . . We have had bitter experience of what happens when a whole nation finds the moral mask too stupid to keep up. The beast breaks loose, and a frenzy of demoralization sweeps over the civilized world. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 341

The conflict between horse and snake or bull and snake represents a conflict within the libido itself, a striving forward and backwards at one and the same time.It is as if the libido were not only a ceaseless forward movement, an unending will for life, evolution, creation, such as Schopenhauer envisaged in his cosmic Will, where death is a mishap or fatality coming from outside; like the sun, the libido also wills its own descent, its own involution. During the first half of life it strives for growth; during the second half, softly at first and then ever more perceptibly, it points towards an altered goal. And just as in youth the urge for limitless expansion often lies hidden under veiling layers of resistance to life, so that “other urge” often hides behind an obstinate and purposeless cleaving to life in its old form. This apparent contradiction in the nature of the libido is illustrated by a statue of Priapus in the archaeological museum at Verona: Priapus, with a sidelong smile, points with his finger to a snake biting his phallus. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 680

“The demands of the unconscious act at first like a paralysing poison on a man’s energy and resourcefulness, so that it may well be compared to the bite of a poisonous snake. Apparently it is a hostile demon who robs him of: energy, but in actual fact it is his own unconscious whose alien tendencies are beginning to check the forward striving of the conscious mind. The cause of this process is often extremely obscure, the more so as it is complicated by all kinds of external factors and subsidiary causes, such as difficulties in work, disappointments, failures, reduced efficiency due to age, depressing family problems, and so on and so forth. According to the myths it is the woman who secretly enslaves a man, so that he can no longer free himself from her and becomes a child again.It is also significant that Isis, the sister-wife of the sun-god, creates the poisonous serpent from his spittle, which, like all bodily secretions, has a magical significance, being a libido equivalent. She creates the serpent from the libido of the god, and by this means weakens him and makes him dependent on her. Delilah acts in the same way with Samson: by cutting off his hair, the sun’s rays, she robs him of his strength. This demon-woman of mythology is in truth the “sister-wife-mother,” the woman in the man, who unexpectedly turns up during the second half of life and tries to effect a forcible change of personality. I have dealt with certain aspects of this change in my essay on “The Stages of Life.” It consists in a partial feminization of the man and a corresponding masculinization of the woman. Often it takes place under very dramatic circumstances: the man’s strongest quality, his Logos principle, turns against him and as it were betrays him. The same thing happens with the Eros of the woman. The man becomes rigidly set in his previous attitude, while the woman remains caught in her emotional ties and fails to develop her reason and understanding, whose place is then taken by equally obstinate and inept “animus” opinions. The fossilization of the man shrouds itself in a smoke-screen of moods, ridiculous irritability, feelings of distrust and resentment, which are meant to justify his rigid attitude. A perfect example of this type of psychology is Schreber’s account of his own psychosis, Memoirs of My Nervous Illness. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 458

Any very intensive train of thought works itself out more or less in verbal form if, that is to say, one wants to express it, or teach it, or convince someone of it. It is evidently directed outwards, to the outside world ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 11

 

To that extent, directed or logical thinking is reality-thinking, a thinking that is adapted to reality, by means of which we imitate the successiveness of objectively real things, so that the images inside our mind follow one another in the same strictly causal sequence as the events taking place outside it ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 11

 

We also call this “thinking with directed attention.” It has in addition the particularity of causing fatigue, and is for that reason brought into play for short periods only ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 11

 

The whole laborious achievement of our lives is adaptation to reality, part of which consists in directed thinking. In biological terms it is simply a process of psychic assimilation that leaves behind a corresponding state of exhaustion, like any other vital achievement ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 11

 

The material with which we think is language and verbal concepts something which from time immemorial has been directed outwards and used as a bridge, and which has but a single purpose, namely that of communication. So long as we think directedly, we think for others and speak to others ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 12

 

Directed thinking or, as we might also call it, thinking in words, is manifestly an instrument of culture, and we shall not be wrong in saying that the tremendous work of education which past centuries have devoted to directed thinking, thereby forcing it to develop from the subjective, individual sphere to the objective, social sphere, has produced a readjustment of the human mind to which we owe our modern empiricism and technics ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 17

 

These are absolutely new developments in the history of the world and were unknown to earlier ages. Inquiring minds have often wrestled with the question of why the first-rate knowledge which the ancients undoubtedly had of mathematics, mechanics, and physics, coupled with their matchless craftsmanship, was never applied to developing the rudimentary techniques already known to them (e.g., the principles of simple machines) into real technology in the modern sense of the word, and why they never got beyond the stage of inventing amusing curiosities ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 17

 

There is only one answer to this: the ancients, with a few illustrious exceptions, entirely lacked the capacity to concentrate their interest on the transformations of inanimate matter and to reproduce the natural artificially, by which means alone they could have gained control of the forces of nature. What they lacked was training in directed thinking ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 17

 

The secret of cultural development is the mobility and disposability of psychic energy. Directed thinking, as we know it today, is a more or less modern acquisition which earlier ages lacked ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 17

 

Directed thinking operates with speech elements for the purpose of communication, and is difficult and exhausting. It produces innovations and adaptation, copies reality, and tries to act upon it. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 20

 

History shows that directed thinking was not always as developed as it is today. The clearest expression of modern directed thinking is science and the techniques fostered by it. Both owe their existence simply and solely to energetic training in directed thinking. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 21

 

Our thinking then lacks all leading ideas and the sense of direction emanating from them. We no longer compel our thoughts along a definite track, but let them float, sink or rise according to their specific gravity. In Kuelpe’s view, thinking is a sort of “inner act of will,” and its absence necessarily leads to an “automatic play of ideas” ( Outlines, p. 448 ). William James regards non-directed thinking, or “merely associative” thinking as the ordinary kind ( Principles, II, p. 325 ) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 18

 

We can supplement James’s definitions by saying that this sort of thinking does not tire us, that it leads away from reality into fantasies of the past or future. At this point thinking in verbal forms ceases, image piles on image, feeling on feeling, and there is an ever-increasing tendency to shuffle things about and arrange then not as they are in reality but as one would like them to be. Naturally enough, the stuff of this thinking which shies away from reality can only be the past with its thousand-and-one memory images. Common speech calls this kind of thinking “dreaming” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 19

 

Dreaming or fantasy thinking is effortless, working as it were spontaneously, with the contents ready to hand, and guided by unconscious motives. It turns away from reality, sets free subjective tendencies, and, as regards adaptation, is unproductive ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 20

 

At the time when the forerunners of our present-day culture, such as the poet Petrarch, were just beginning to approach nature in a spirit of understanding, an equivalent of our science already existed in scholasticism ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 21

 

Scholasticism took its subjects from fantasies of the past, but it gave the mind a dialectical training in directed thinking. The one goal of success that shone before the thinker was rhetorical victory in disputation, and not the visible transformation of reality ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 21

 

The subjects he thought about were often unbelievably fantastic; for instance, it was debated how many angels could stand on the point of a needle, whether Christ could have performed his work of redemption had he come into the world in the shape of a pea etc., etc. The fact that these problems could be posed at all and the stock metaphysical problem of how to know the unknowable comes into this category proves how peculiar the medieval mind must have been, that it could contrive questions which for us are the height of absurdity ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 21

 

Nietzsche glimpsed something of the background of this phenomenon when he spoke of the “glorious tension of mind” which the Middle Ages produced ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 21

 

Scholasticism consisted essentially in a dialectical gymnastics which gave the symbol of speech, the word, an absolute meaning, so that words came in the end to have a substantiality with which the ancients could invest their Logos only by attributing to it a mystical value ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 22

 

The great achievement of scholasticism was that it laid the foundations of a solidly built intellectual function, the sine qua non of modern science and technology ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 22

 

All the creative power that modern man pours into science and technics the man of antiquity devoted to his myths. This creative urge explains the bewildering confusion, the kaleidoscopic changes and syncretistic regroupings, the continual rejuvenation, of myths in Greek culture ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 24

 

We move in a world of fantasies which, untroubled by the outward course of things, well up from an inner source to produce an ever-changing succession of plastic or phantasmal forms ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 24

 

This activity of the early classical mind was in the highest degree artistic: the goal of its interest does not seem to have been how to understand the real world as objectively and accurately as possible, but how to adapt it aesthetically to subjective fantasies and expectations ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 24

 

The naïve man of antiquity saw the sun as the great Father of heaven and earth, and the moon as the fruitful Mother. Everything had its demon, was animated like a human being, or like his brothers the animals. Everything was conceived anthropomorphically or theriomorphically, in the likeness of man or beast. Even the sun’s disc was given wings or little feet to illustrate its motion. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 24

 

Thus there arose a picture of the universe which was completely removed from reality, but which corresponded exactly to man’s subjective fantasies. It needs no very elaborate proof to show that children think in much the same way. They too animate their dolls and toys, and with imaginative children it is easy to see that they inhabit a world of marvels ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 24

 

This idea is not at all strange; we know it quite well from comparative anatomy and from evolution, which show that the structure and function of the human body are the result of a series of embryonic mutations corresponding to similar mutations in our racial history ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 26

 

The supposition that there may also be in psychology a correspondence between ontogenesis and phylogenesis therefore seems justified. If this is so, it would mean that infantile thinking and dream-thinking are simply a recapitulation of earlier evolutionary stages. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 26

 

Faced by the vast uncertainty of the future, the adolescent puts the blame for it on the past, saying to himself: “If only I were not the child of my very ordinary parents, but the child of a rich and elegant count and had merely been brought up by foster-parents, then one day a golden coach would come and the count would take his long-lost child back with him to his wonderful castle,” and so on, just as in a Grimms’ fairy-story ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 34

 

There was a time, however, in the ancient world, when the fantasy was a legitimate truth that enjoyed universal recognition. Hence the fantasy of our adolescent is simply a re-echo of an ancient folk-belief which was once very widespread ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 34

 

The fantasy of ambition therefore chooses, among other things, a classical form which at one time had real validity ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para  34

 

The Judas legend is itself a typical motif, namely that of the mischievous betrayal of the hero. One is reminded of Siegfried and Hagen, Baldur and Loki: Siegfried and Baldur were both murdered by a perfidious traitor from among their closest associates ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 42

 

This myth is moving and tragic, because the noble hero is not felled in a fair fight but through treachery ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 42

 

At the same time it is an event that was repeated many times in history, for instance in the case of Caesar and Brutus. Through the myth is extremely old it is still a subject for repetition, as it expresses the simple fact that envy does not let mankind sleep in peace ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 42

 

This rule can be applied to the mythological tradition in general: it does not perpetuate accounts of ordinary everyday events in the past, but only of those which express the universal and ever-renewed thoughts of mankind ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 42

 

Thus the lives and deeds of the culture-heroes and founders of religions are the purest condensations of typical mythological motifs, behind which the individual figures entirely disappear ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 42

 

Why should the pious Abbé Oegger worry about the old Judas legend? We are told that he went out into the world to preach the gospel of God’s unending mercy. Not long afterwards he left the Catholic Church and became a Swedenborgian ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 43

 

Now we understand his fantasy: he was the Judas who betrayed his Lord. Therefore he had first of all to assure himself of God’s mercy in order to play the role of Judas undisturbed ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 43

 

Oegger’s case throws light on the mechanism of fantasies in general. The conscious fantasy may be woven of mythological or any other material; it should not be taken literally, but must be interpreted according to its meaning ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 44

 

If it is taken too literally it remains unintelligible, and makes one despair of the meaning and purpose of the psychic function ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 44

 

But the case of the Abbé Oegger shows that his doubts and his hopes are only apparently concerned with the historical person of Judas, but in reality revolve round his own personality, which was seeking a way to freedom through the solution of the Judas problem ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 44

 

Conscious fantasies therefore illustrate, through the use of mythological material, certain tendencies in the personality which are either not yet recognized or are recognized no longer ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 45

 

It will be readily understood that a tendency which we fail to recognize and which we treat as non-existent can hardly contain anything that would fit in with our conscious character. Hence it is mostly a question of things which we regard as immoral or impossible, and whose conscious realization meets with the strongest resistances ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 45

 

What would Oegger have said had one told him in confidence that he was preparing himself for the role of Judas ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 45

 

Because he found the damnation of Judas incompatible with God’s goodness, he proceeded to think about this conflict. That is the conscious causal sequence ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 45

 

Hand in hand with this goes the unconscious sequence: because he wanted to be Judas, or had to be Judas, he first made sure of God’s goodness ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 45

 

For him Judas was the symbol of his own unconscious tendency, and he made use of this symbol in order to reflect on his own situation its direct realization would have been too painful for him ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 45

 

There must, then, be typical myths which serve to work out our racial and national complexes. Jacob Burckhardt seems to have glimpsed this truth when he said that every Greek of the classical period carries in himself a little bit of Oedipus, and every German a little bit of Faust. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 45

 

The problems with which the simple tale of the Abbé Oegger confronts us will meet us again when we examine another set of fantasies, which owe their existence this time to the exclusive activity of the unconscious. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 46

 

One might describe the theater, somewhat unaesthetically, as an institution for working out private complexes in public ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 48

 

The enjoyment of comedy, or of the blissful dénouement of the plot, is the direct result of identifying one’s own complexes with those personified by the actors, while enjoyment of tragedy lies in the thrilling yet satisfying feeling that what is happening to somebody else may very well happen to you ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 48

 

The fantasies reveal the symbolic transition from sun to man in the third and last of her creations which she calls “Chiwantopel, A hypnagogic drama” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 251

 

It is hardly to be supposed that Miss Miller, who evidently had not the faintest clue as to the real meaning of her visions would be able to meet the next phase of the process, namely the assimilation of the hero to her conscious personality, with the right attitude ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 683

 

Miss Miller’s fantasies show Chiwantopel as the hero, or brother-beloved of the author, Miss Miller, i.e., as her animus. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 679

 

In order to do so she would have had to recognize what fate demanded of her, and what was the meaning of the bizarre images that had broken in upon her consciousness ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 683

 

That there was already some degree of dissociation is obvious, since the unconscious went ahead independently and kept on churning out images which she had not consciously produced herself and which she felt as strange and portentous ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 683

 

Their melancholy outcome is due largely to the fact that they break off at the critical moment when the threat of invasion by the unconscious is plainly apparent ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 683

 

To the objective observer it is perfectly clear that the fantasies were products of a psychic energy not under the control of the conscious mind. They were longings, impulses, and symbolic happenings which it was quite unable to cope with either positively or negatively ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 683

 

The instinctual impulse that was trying to rouse the dreamer from the sleep of childhood was opposed by a personal pride that was distinctly out of place, and also, one must suppose, by a correspondingly narrow moral horizon, so that there was nothing to help her understand the spiritual content of the symbols ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 683

 

Our civilization has long since forgotten how to think symbolically, and even the theologian has no further use for the hermeneutics of the Church Fathers. The cure of souls in Protestantism is in an even more parlous condition. Who ever would go to the trouble, nowadays, of patching together the basic ideas of Christianity from a “welter of pathological fantasies”? ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 683

 

For patients in this situation it is a positive life-saver when the doctor takes such products seriously and gives the patient access to the meanings they suggest. In this way he makes it possible for the patient to assimilate at least part of the unconscious and to repair the menacing dissociation by just that amount ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 683

 

At the same time the assimilation guards against the dangerous isolation which everyone feels when confronted by an incomprehensible and irrational aspect of his personality. Isolation leads to panic, and that is only too often the beginning of a psychosis ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 683

 

The wider the gap between conscious and unconscious, the nearer creeps the fatal splitting of the personality, which in neurotically disposed individuals leads to neurosis, and, in those with a psychotic constitution, to schizophrenia and fragmentation of personality ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 683

 

The aim of psychotherapy is therefore to narrow down and eventually abolish the dissociation by integrating the tendencies of the unconscious into the conscious mind ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 683

 

We know from analytical experience that the initial dreams of patients at the beginning of an analysis are of especial interest, not least because they often bring out a critical evaluation of the personality of the doctor or psychoanalyst which previously he would have asked for in vain ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 62

 

They enrich the patient’s conscious impression of the doctor, often on very important points, and they frequently contain erotic comments which the unconscious had to make in order to counterbalance the patient’s underestimation and uncertain appraisal of the impression ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 62

 

Expressed in the drastic and hyperbolic manner peculiar to dreams, the impression often appears in almost unintelligible form owing to the incongruity of the symbolism ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 62

 

A further peculiarity, which seems due to the historical stratification of the unconscious, is that when an impression is denied conscious recognition it reverts to an earlier form of relationship ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 62

 

That explains why young girls, at the time of their first love, have great difficulty in expressing themselves owing to disturbances brought about by regressive reactivation of the father-imago ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 62

 

I purposely give preference to the term “imago” rather than to “complex,” in order to make clear, by this choice of a technical term, that the psychological factor which I sum up under “imago” has a living independence in the psychic hierarchy, i.e., possesses that autonomy which wide experience has shown to be the essential feature of feeling-toned complexes. This is brought out by the term “imago” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 62

 

My critics have seen in this view a return to medieval psychology and have therefore repudiated it. This “return” was made consciously and deliberately on my part, because the psychology of ancient and modern superstition furnishes abundant evidence for my point of view ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 62

 

Since, psychologically speaking, the God-image is a complex of ideas of an archetypal nature, it must necessarily be regarded as representing a certain sum of energy (libido) which appears in projection ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 89

 

In most of the existing religions it seems that the formative factor which creates the attributes of divinity is the father-imago, while in older religions it was the mother-imago. These attributes are omnipotence, a sternly persecuting paternalism ruling through fear (Old Testament), and loving paternalism (New Testament) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 89

 

In certain pagan conceptions of divinity the maternal element is strongly emphasized, and there is also a wide development of the animal or theriomorphic element ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 89

 

The God-concept is not only an image, but an elemental force. The primitive power which Job’s Hymn of Creation vindicates, absolute and inexorable, unjust and superhuman, is a genuine and authentic attribute of the natural power of instinct and fate which “leads us into life,” which makes “all the world become guilty before God” ( Romans 3:19 ), and against which all struggle is in vain ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 89

 

Nothing remains for mankind but to work in harmony with this will. To work in harmony with the libido does not mean letting oneself drift with it, for the psychic forces have no uniform direction, but are often directly opposed to one another ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 89

 

A mere letting go of oneself leads in the shortest space of time to the most hopeless confusion. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 89

 

I am of the opinion that, in general, psychic energy or libido creates the God-image by making use of archetypal patterns, and that man in consequence worships the psychic force active within him as something divine (fig. 258.05a) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 129

 

We thus arrive at the objectionable conclusion that, from the psychological point of view, the God-image is a real but subjective phenomenon ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para ¶ 129

 

As Seneca says: “God is near you, he is with you, he is within you,” or, as in the First Epistle of John, “He who does not love does not know God; for God is love,” and “If we love one another, God abides in us” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 129

 

To anyone who understands libido merely as the psychic energy over which he has conscious control, the religious relationship, as we have defined it, is bound to appear as a ridiculous game of hide-and-seek with oneself. But it is rather a question of the energy which belongs to the archetype, to the unconscious, and which is therefore not his to dispose of ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 130

 

To carry a god around in yourself means a great deal; it is guarantee of happiness, or power, and even of omnipotence, in so far as these are attributes of divinity ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para  130

 

To carry a god within oneself is practically the same as being God oneself. In Christianity, despite the weeding out of the most grossly sensual ideas and symbols, we can still find traces of this psychology ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 130

 

The idea of “becoming a god” is even more obvious in the pagan mystery cults, where the neophyte, after initiation, is himself lifted up to divine status: at the conclusion of the consecration rites in the syncretistic Isis mysteries he was crowned with a crown of palm leaves, set up on a pedestal, and worshipped as Helios (fig. 258.06) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 130

 

This idea of becoming a god is age-old. The old belief relegates it to the time after death, but the mystery cults bring it about in this world. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 133

 

When man becomes God, his importance and power are enormously increased. That seems to have been its main purpose: to strengthen the individual against his all-too-human weakness and insecurity in personal life ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 134

 

But the strengthening of his power-consciousness is only the outward effect of his becoming God; far more important are the deeper lying processes in the realm of feeling ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 134

 

For whoever introverts libido, i.e., withdraws it from the external object, suffers the necessary consequences of introversion: the libido which is turned inwards, into the subject, reverts to the individual past and digs up from the treasure-house of memory those images glimpsed long ago, which bring back the time when the world was a full and rounded whole ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 134

 

First and foremost are the memories of childhood, among them the imagos of father and mother. These are unique and imperishable, and in adult life not many difficulties are needed to reawaken those memories and make them active ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 134

 

The regressive reactivation of the father and mother imagos plays an important role in religion ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 134

 

The benefits of religion are equivalent, in their effects, to the parental care lavished upon the child, and religious feelings are rooted in unconscious memories of certain tender emotions in early infancy memories of archetypal intuitions ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 134

 

The naïve intellect cannot help taking its autonomy into account and putting the dialectical relationship to practical use. It does this by calling upon the divine presence in all difficult or dangerous situations, for the purpose of unloading all its unbearable difficulties upon the Almighty and expecting help from that quarter ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 95

 

In the psychological sense this means that complexes weighing on the soul are consciously transferred to the God-image. This, it should be noted, is the direct opposite of an act of repression, where the complexes are handed over to an unconscious authority, inasmuch as one prefers to forget them ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 95

 

But in any religious discipline it is of the highest importance that one should remain conscious of one’s difficulties in other words, of one’s sins. An excellent means to this end is the mutual confession of sin ( James 5 : 16 ), which effectively prevents one from becoming unconscious ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 95

 

These measures aim at keeping the conflicts conscious, and that is also a sine qua non of the psychotherapeutic procedure. Just as medical treatment appoints the person of the doctor to take over the conflicts of his patients, so Christian practice appoints the Saviour, “in whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins” ( Ephesians I:7 and Colossians I:14 ) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 95

 

He is the deliverer and redeemer of our guilt, a God who stands above sin, who “committed no sin, no guile was found on his lips” ( I Peter 2:22 ), who “himself bore our sins in his body on the tree” ( I Peter 2 : 24 ) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 95

 

The conscious projection at which Christian education aims therefore brings a double psychic benefit: firstly, one keeps oneself conscious of the conflict (“sin”) of two mutually opposing tendencies, thus preventing a known suffering from turning into an unknown one, which is far more tormenting, by being repressed and forgotten; and secondly, one lightens one’s burden by surrendering it to God, to whom all solutions are known ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 95

 

Religious experience in antiquity was frequently conceived as bodily union with the deity, and certain cults were saturated with sexuality of every kind. Sexuality was all too close to the relations of people with one another ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 102

 

The Stoics called this condition Heimarmene, compulsion by the stars, to which every “unredeemed” soul is subject ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 644

 

The moral degeneracy of the first centuries of the Christian era produced a moral reaction which then, in the second and third centuries, after germinating in the darkness of the lowest strata of society, expressed itself at its purest in the two mutually antagonistic religions, Christianity and Mithraism ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 102

 

These religions strove after precisely that higher form of social intercourse symbolized by a projected (“incarnate”) idea (the Logos), whereby all the strongest impulses of man which formerly had flung him from one passion to another and seemed to the ancients like the compulsion of evil stars, Heimarmene, or like what we psychologists would call the compulsion of libido could be made available for the maintenance of society ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 102

 

There is no doubt this is one of the main causes of the singular melancholy that reigned all through the time of the Caesars ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 104

 

It was not in the long run possible for those who wallowed in pleasure not to be infected, through the mysterious working of the unconscious, by the deep sadness and still deeper wretchedness of their brothers ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 104

 

The old idea of a mediator in whose name new ways of love would be opened, became a fact, and with that human society took an immense stride forward. This was not the result of any speculative, sophisticated philosophy, but of an elementary need in the great masses of humanity vegetating in spiritual darkness ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 104

 

They were evidently driven to it by the profoundest inner necessities, for humanity does not thrive in a state of licentiousness. The meaning of these cults Christianity and Mithraism is clear: moral subjugation of the animal instincts ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 104

 

The spread of both these religions betrays something of that feeling of redemption which animated their first adherents, and which we can scarcely appreciate today. We can hardly realize the whirlwinds of brutality and unchained libido that roared through the streets of Imperial Rome ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 104

 

The world and its beauty had to be shunned, not only because of their vanity and transitoriness, but because love of created nature soon makes man its slave. As St. Augustine says ( X, 6 ): “they love these things too much and become subject to them, and subjects cannot judge” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 112

 

One would certainly think it possible to love something, to have a positive attitude towards it, without supinely succumbing to it and losing one’s power of rational judgment ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 112

 

But St. Augustine knew his contemporaries, and knew furthermore how much godliness and godlike power dwelt in the beauty of the world ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 112

 

Thus Lucretius extols “alma Venus” as the ruling principle of nature. To such a daimonion man falls an abject victim unless he can categorically reject its seductive influence at the outset. It is not merely a question of sensuality and of aesthetic corruption, butane this is the point of paganism and nature worship (fig. 001) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 113

 

Because gods dwell in created things, man falls to worshipping them, and for that reason he must turn away from them utterly lest he be overwhelmed. In this respect the fate of Alypius is extremely instructive ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 113

 

If the flight from the world is successful, man can then build up an inner, spiritual world which stands firm against the onslaught of sense-impressions ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 113

 

The struggle with the world of the senses brought to birth a type of thinking independent of external factors. Man won for himself that sovereignty of the idea which was able to withstand the aesthetic impact, so that thought was no longer fettered by the emotional effect of sense-impressions, but could assert itself and even rise, later, to reflection and observation ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 113

 

In the flight from the world during the first few centuries after Christ (cities of the anchorites in the desert), the Desert Fathers mortified themselves through spirituality in order to escape the extreme brutality of the decadent Roman civilization ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 119

 

Asceticism occurs whenever the animal instincts are so strong that they need to be violently exterminated. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 119

 

I believe that miscegenation makes rather for a coarsened joie de vivre. To all appearances the ascetics were ethical people who, disgusted with the melancholy of the age which was merely an expression of the disruption of the individual, put an end to their lives in order to mortify an attitude that was itself obsolete ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 119

 

His [Faust] equally importunate longing for the beauties of this world plunged him into renewed ruin, doubt and wretchedness, which culminated in the tragedy of Gretchen’s death ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 119

 

Faust’s mistake was that he made the worst of both worlds by blindly following the urge of his libido, like a man overcome by strong and violent passions. Faust’s conflict is a reflection of the collective conflict at the beginning of the Christian era, but in him, curiously enough, it takes the opposite course ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 119

 

Faust takes the opposite road; for him the ascetic ideal is sheer death. He struggles for liberation and wins life by binding himself over to evil, thereby bringing about the death of what he loves most: Gretchen ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 120

 

He tears himself away from his grief, and sacrifices his life in unceasing work, thus saving many lives. His double mission as saviour and destroyer had been hinted at from the beginning ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 120

 

Faust’s desire, like that of every hero, is a yearning for the mystery of rebirth, for immortality; therefore his way leads out to sea and down into the maw of death, that frighteningly narrow “passage” which signals the new day ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 417

 

Nature is beautiful because I love it, and good is everything that my feeling regards as good. Values are chiefly created by the quality of one’s subjective reactions ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 126

 

In the erotic sphere, it is abundantly evident how little the object counts, and how much the subjective reaction counts ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 126

 

The light and fire attributes depict the intensity of the feeling-tone and are therefore expressions for the psychic energy which manifests itself as libido ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 128

 

If one worships God, sun, or fire, one is worshipping intensity and power, in other words the phenomenon of psychic energy as such, the libido. Every force and every phenomenon is a special form of energy ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 128

 

Form is both an image and a mode of manifestation. It expresses two things: the energy which takes shape in it, and the medium in which that energy appears. On the one hand one can say that energy creates its own image, and on the other hand that the character of the medium forces it into a definite form ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 128

 

One man will derive the idea of God from the sun, another will maintain that it is the numinous feelings it arouses which give the sun its godlike significance. The former, by attitude and temperament, believes more in the causal nexus of the environment, the latter more in the spontaneity of psychic experience ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 128

 

The well-known fact that in worshipping the sun’s strength we pay homage to the great generative force of Nature is the plainest possible evidence if evidence were still needed that in God we honour the energy of the archetype ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 135

 

Religious regression makes use of the parental imago, but only as a symbol that is to say, it clothes the archetype in the image of the parents, just as it bodies forth the archetype’s energy by making use of sensuous ideas like fire, light, heat, fecundity, generative power, and so on ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 138

 

The phallus is the source of life and libido the creator and worker of miracles, and as such it was worshipped everywhere ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 146

 

Ikhnaton (Amenophis IV) achieved, by his reforms, a psychologically valuable work of interpretation. He united all the bull, ram, crocodile, and pile-dwelling gods into the sun-disc, and made it clear that their various attributes were compatible with those of the sun ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 148

 

But the striving for unity is opposed by a possibly even stronger tendency to create multiplicity, so that even in strictly monotheistic religions like Christianity the polytheistic tendency cannot be suppressed ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 149

 

The deity is divided into three parts, and on top of that come all the heavenly hierarchies. These two tendencies are in constant warfare: sometimes there is only one God with countless attributes, sometimes there are many gods, who are simply called by different names in different places, and who personify one or the other attribute of their respective archetype, as we have seen in the case of the Egyptian gods ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 149

 

We saw, however, that the snake is to be taken not only in the phallic sense, but as an attribute of the sun’s image (the Egyptian uraeus) and as a libido-symbol. It is therefore possible for the sun-disc to be equipped not only with hands and feet (cf.fig. 007) and (fig. 258.01), but also with a phallus. We find proof of this in a strange vision in the Mithraic liturgy: “And likewise the so-called tube, the origin of the ministering wind. For you will see hanging down from the disc of the sun something that looks like a tube” ( Dieterich, Mithras liturgie, pp. 6-7 ) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 149

 

The Holy Ghost of the New Testament appeared to the apostles in the form of flames, because the pneuma was believed to be fiery ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 149

 

The Iranian conception of Hvareno was similar: it signified the “Grace of Heaven” through which the monarch ruled ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 149

 

This “Grace” was understood as a sort of fire or shining glory, something very substantial. We come across ideas of the same type in Kerner’s Seeress of Prevorst ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 149

 

The various attributes of the sun appear one after another in the Mithraic liturgy. After the vision of Helios, seven maidens appear with faces like snakes, and seven gods with the faces of black bulls. The maiden can easily be understood as a causative libido analogy ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 155

 

The bull is a notorious fertility-symbol. In the Mithraic liturgy, the bull-gods are called guardians of the world's axis,' who turn theaxle of the wheel of heaven’ ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 155

 

The serpent in Paradise is usually thought of as feminine, as the seductive principle in woman, and is represented as feminine by the old painters. Through a similar change of meaning the snake in antiquity became a symbol of the earth, which has always been considered feminine ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 155

 

The same attribute falls also to Mithras: sometimes he is the Sol invictus itself, sometimes the companion and ruler Helios; in his right hand he holds “the constellation of the Bear, which moves and turns the heavens round” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 155

 

The bull-head deities, sacred and valorous youths' like Mithras himself, who is also given the attribute,the younger one,’ are merely aspects of the same divinity ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 155

 

The chief god of the Mithraic liturgy is himself divided into Mithras and Helios both of whom have closely related attributes ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 155

 

Numerous fire- and light-symbols are attributed to the saints in Christian legend. The twelve apostles, for example, were likened to the twelve signs of the zodiac and were therefore represented each with a star over his head ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 163

 

The pictures in the catacombs likewise contain a good deal of sun symbolism. For instance there is a swastika (sun-wheel) on the robe of Fossor Diogenes in the cemetery of Peter and Marcellinus ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 163

 

The symbols of the rising sun bull and ramare found in the Orpheus frescoes in the cemetery of Domitilla; also the ram and peacock (a sun-symbol like the phoenix) on an epitaph in the Callistus catacomb ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 163

 

The power of God is menaced by the seductions of passion; heaven is threatened with a second fall of angels ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 170

 

If we translate this projection back into the psychological sphere whence it came, it would mean that the good and rational Power which rules the world with wise laws is threatened by the chaotic, primitive force of passion ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 170

 

Therefore passion must be exterminated, which means, in mythological projection, that the race of Cain and the whole sinful world must be wiped out, root and branch, by the Flood ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 170

 

That is the inevitable result of a passion that sweeps away all barriers. It is like the sea breaking through its dykes, like the waters of the deep and the torrential rains, the creative, fructifying, “motherly” waters, as Indian mythology calls them ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 170

 

Now [the waters] depart from their natural courses and surge over the mountain-tops and engulf all living things ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 170

 

If evil were to be utterly destroyed, everything daemonic, including God himself, would suffer a grievous loss; it would be like performing an amputation on the body of the Deity ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 170

 

Passion raises a man not only above himself, but also above the bounds of his mortality and earthliness, and by the very act of raising him, it destroys him ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 171

 

This “rising above himself” is expressed mythologically in the building of the heaven-high tower of Babel that brought confusion to mankind, and in the revolt of Lucifer ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 171

 

(In Byron’s poem [ “Heaven and Earth,” CW 5: par. 169 ], it is the overweening ambition of the race of Cain, whose strivings make the stars subservient and corrupt the sons of God themselves. Even if a longing for the highest is legitimate in itself, the sinful presumption and inevitable corruption lie in the very fact that it goes beyond the fixed human boundaries ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 171

 

Through excess of longing man can draw the gods down into the murk of his passions. He seems to be raising himself up to the Divine, but in so doing he abandons his humanity ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 171

 

There, where the deep fountains of the ocean are, dwells Leviathan; from there the all-destroying flood ascends, the tidal wave of animal passion ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 174

 

The choking, heart-constricting surge of instinct is projected outwards as a mounting flood to destroy everything that exists, so that a new and better world may arise from the ruins of the old ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 174

 

The sun’s the only truly “rational” image of God, whether we adopt the standpoint of the primitive savage or of modern science. (In either case the sun is the father-god from whom all living things draw life; he is the fructifier and creator, the source of energy for our world ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 176

 

The discord into which the human soul has fallen can be harmoniously resolved through the sun as a natural object which knows no inner conflict ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 176

 

The sun is not only beneficial, but also destructive; hence the zodiacal sign for August heat is the ravaging lion which Samson slew in order to rid the parched earth of its torment ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 176

 

Samson as a sun-god. The killing of the lion, like the Mithraic bull-sacrifice, is an anticipation of the god’s self-sacrifice ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 176

 

Yet it is the nature of the sun to scorch, and its scorching power seems natural to man. It shines equally on the just and the unjust, and allows useful creatures to flourish as well as the harmful ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 176

 

Therefore the sun is perfectly suited to represent the visible God of this world, i.e., the creative power of our own soul, which we call libido, and whose nature it is to bring forth the useful and the harmful, the good and the bad ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 176

 

The same is true of many other sexual images which are found not only in dreams and fantasies but in everyday speech. In neither case should they be taken literally, for they are not to be understood semiotically, as signs for definite things, but as symbols ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 180

 

A symbol is an indefinite expression with many meanings, pointing to something not easily defined and therefore not fully known. But the sign always has a fixed meaning, because it is a conventional abbreviation for, or a commonly accepted indication of, something known ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 180

 

The symbol therefore has a large number of analogous variants, and the more of these variants it has at its disposal, the more complete and clear-cut will be the image it projects of its object ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 180

 

The same creative force which is symbolized by Tom Thumb, etc., can also be represented by the phallus or by numerous other symbols which delineate further aspects of the process underlying them all. Thus the creative dwarfs toil away in secret; the phallus, also working in darkness, begets a living being; and the key unlocks the mysterious forbidden door behind which some wonderful thing awaits discovery. One thinks, in this connection, of “The Mothers” in Faust: ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 180

 

Here the devil again puts into Faust’s hand the marvelous tool [the key], as once before when, in the form of the black dog, he introduced himself to Faust as part of that power which would ever work evil, but engenders good. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 181

 

What he is describing here is the libido, which is not only creative and procreative, but possesses an intuitive faculty, a strange power to “smell the right place,” almost as if it were a live creature with an independent life of its own (which is why it is so easily personified). It is purposive, like sexuality itself, a favorite object of comparison ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 182

 

The “realm of the Mothers” has not a few connections with the womb with the matrix, which frequently symbolizes the creative aspect of the unconscious ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 182

 

This libido is a force of nature, good and bad at once, or morally neutral. Uniting himself with it, Faust succeeds in accomplishing his real life’s work, at first with evil results and then for the benefit of mankind ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 182

 

In the realm of the Mothers he finds the tripod, the Hermetic vessel in which the “royal marriage” is consummated. But he needs the phallic wand in order to bring off the greatest wonder of all the creation of Paris and Helen. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 182

 

The insignificant-looking tool in Faust’s hand is the dark creative power of the unconscious, which reveals itself to those who follow its dictates and is indeed capable of working miracles ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 182

 

This paradox appears to be very ancient, for the Shvetashvatara Upanishad (9, 20) goes on to say of the dwarf-god, the cosmic purusha: ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 182

 

The phallus often stands for the creative divinity, Hermes being an excellent example. It is sometimes thought of as an independent being, an idea that is found not only in antiquity but in the drawings of children and artists of our own day ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 183

 

So we ought not to be surprised if certain phallic characteristics are also found in the seers, artists, and wonder-workers of mythology. Hephaestus, Wieland the Smith, and Mani (the founder of Manichaeism, famous also for his artistic gifts), had crippled feet ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 183

 

The foot, as I shall explain in due course, is supposed to possess a magical generative power. The ancient seer Melampus, who is said to have introduced the cult of the phallus, had a very peculiar name Blackfoot, and it also seems characteristic of seers to be blind ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 183

 

Ugliness and deformity are especially characteristic of those mysterious chthonic gods, the sons of Hephaestus, the Cabiri, to whom mighty wonder-working powers were ascribed ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 183

 

Their cult was closely bound up with that of the ithyphallic Hermes, who according to Herodotus was brought to Attica by the Pelasgians. They were called, ‘great gods’ ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 183

 

Their near relatives were the Idaean dactyls (fingers or else Tom Thumbs), to whom the mother of the gods had taught the blacksmith’s art (“Follow it down, it leads you to the Mothers!”) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 183

 

They [Idaean dactyls] were the first Wise Men, the teachers of Orpheus, and it was they who invented the Ephesian magic formulae and the musical rhythms ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 183

 

The characteristic disparity which we noted in the Upanishads and Faust crops up again here, since the giant Hercules was said to be an Idaean dactyl. Also the colossal Phrygians, Rhea’s technicians, were dactyls ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 183

 

The two Dioscuri are related to the Cabiri; they too wear the queer little pointed hat, the pileus, which is peculiar to these mysterious gods and was thenceforward perpetuated as a secret mark of identification. Attis and Mithras both wore the pileus (fig. 020) . It had become the traditional headgear of our infantile chthonic gods today, the pixies and goblins ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 183

 

Cicero gives it a very wide meaning: will is a rational desire, but when it is divorced from reason and is too violently aroused, that is “libido,” or unbridled desire, which is found in all fools ( Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, Gook IV, vi, 12 ) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 185

 

Here libido means a want' or awish,’ and also, in contradiction to the will' of the Stoics,unbridled desire.’ Cicero uses it in this sense when he says:(“to do something from willful desire and not from reason”) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 186

 

The use of libido is so general that the phrase “libido est scire” merely means: I like,'it pleases me.’ In the phrase libido has the meaning of `urge’ ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 186

 

It can also have the nuance of `lasciviousness.’ St. Augustine aptly defines libido as a “general term for all desire” and says: There is a lust for revenge, which is called rage; a lust for having money, which is called avarice; a lust for victory at all costs, which is called stubbornness; a lust for self-glorification, which is called boastfulness. There are many and varied kinds of lust ( De Civitate Dei, XIV, xv. ) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 186

 

For St. Augustine libido denotes an appetite like hunger and thirst, and so far as sexuality is concerned he says: Pleasure is preceded by an appetite that is felt in the flesh, a kind of desire like hunger and thirst ( De Civitate Dei, XIV, xv. ) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 187

 

Libido is connected etymologically with: it pleases, gladly, willingly, to experience violent longing, excites longing, eager, love, hope, praise, and glory ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 188

 

We can say, then, that the concept of libido in psychology has functionally the same significance as the concept of energy in physics since the time of Robert Mayer ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 189

 

The term describes the Indian concept of tejas which denotes a subjective intensity, i.e., anything potent and highly charged with energy ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 238

 

Libido is symbolized by the human figure as demon or hero one that passes from joy to sorrow, from sorrow to joy, and like the sun, now stands high at the zenith and now plunged into darkest night, only to rise again in new splendor ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 251

 

Libido denotes a desire or impulse which is unchecked by any kind of authority, moral or otherwise. It appetite in its natural state ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 194

 

From the genetic point of view it is bodily needs like hunger, thirst, sleep, sex, and emotional states or affects which constitute the essence of libido ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 194

 

Like energy, the libido never manifests itself as such, but only in the form of a “force,” that is to say, in the form of something in a definite energic state, be it moving bodies, chemical or electrical tension, etc. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 505

 

The libido expresses itself in images of sun, light, fire, sex, fertility, and growth ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 324

 

This leads to a conception of libido which expands into a conception of intentionality in general. We would be better advised, therefore, when speaking of libido, to understand it as an energy-value which is able to communicate itself to any field of activity whatsoever, be it power, hunger, hatred, sexuality, or religion, without ever being itself a specific instinct ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 197

 

Intricate overlapping’s of meaning can only be disentangled if we reduce them to a common denominator. This denominator is the libido ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 659

 

As a power which transcends consciousness the libido is by nature daemonic: it is both God and devil ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 170

 

As we know, an important change occurred in the principles of propagation during the ascent through the animal kingdom: the vast numbers of gametes which chance fertilization made necessary were progressively reduced in favor of assured fertilization and effective protection of the young ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 194

 

The decreased production of ova and spermatozoa set free considerable quantities of energy which soon sought and found new outlets ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 194

 

Thus we find the first stirrings of the artistic impulse in animals, but subservient to the reproductive instinct and limited to the breeding season ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 194

 

The original sexual character of these biological phenomena gradually disappears as they become organically fixed and achieve functional independence ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 194

 

Although there can be no doubt that music originally belonged to the reproductive sphere, it would be an unjustified and fantastic generalization to put music in the same category as sex ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 194

 

Such a view would be tantamount to treating of Cologne Cathedral in a text-book of mineralogy, on the ground that it consisted very largely of stones ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 194

 

According to Plotinus, the world-soul has a tendency towards separation and divisibility, the sine qua non of all change, creation, and reproduction. It is an “unending All of life” and wholly energy; a living organism of ideas which only become effective and real in it ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 198

 

The intellect is its progenitor and father, and what the intellect conceives the world-soul brings to birth in reality. “What lies enclosed in the intellect comes to birth in the world-soul as Logos, fills it with meaning and makes it drunken as if with nectar” (Plotinus, Enneads, III, 5, 9.) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 198

 

Nectar, like soma, is the drink of fertility and immortality. The soul is fructified by the intellect; as the “oversoul” it is called the heavenly Aphrodite, as the “under soul” the earthly Aphrodite. It knows “the pangs of birth.” It is not without reason that the dove of Aphrodite is the symbol of the Holy Ghost ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 198

 

Certain early Christian sects gave a maternal significance to the Holy Ghost (world-soul or moon) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 198

 

It seems as if the process of analogy-making has gradually altered and added to the common stock of ideas and names, with the result that man’s picture of the world was considerably broadened ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 203

 

Specially colourful or intense contents (the “feeling-toned” complexes) were reflected in countless analogies, and gave rise to synonyms whose objects were thus drawn into the magic circle of the psyche ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 203

 

In this way there came into being those intimate relationships by analogy which Lévy-Bruhl fittingly describes as participation mystique ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 203

 

It is evident that this tendency to invent analogies deriving from feeling-toned contents has been of enormous significance for the development of the human mind ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 203

 

We are in thorough agreement with Steinthal when he says that a positive overwhelming importance attaches to the little word “like” in the history of human thought ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 203

 

One can easily imagine that the canalization of libido into analogy-making was responsible for some of the most important discoveries ever made by primitive man ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 203

 

At the same time there develops in the motor sphere in general a pleasurable rhythmic movement of the arms and legs (kicking, etc.) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 206

 

With the growth of the individual and development of his organs the libido creates for itself new avenues of activity. The primary model of rhythmic movement, producing pleasure and satisfaction, is transferred to the zone of other functions, with sexuality as its ultimate goal ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 206

 

This is not to say that the rhythmic activity derives from the act of nutrition. A considerable part of the energy supplied by nutrition for growth has to convert itself into sexual libido and other forms of activity ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 206

 

The transition of libido does not take place suddenly at the time of puberty, as is commonly supposed, but only very gradually during the course of childhood ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 206

 

Sucking still belongs to the sphere of the nutritive function, but outgrows it by ceasing to be a function of nutrition and becoming an analogous rhythmic activity without intake of nourishment ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 206

 

At this point the hand comes in as an auxiliary organ. It appears even more clearly as an auxiliary organ in the phase of rhythmic activity, which then leaves the oral zone and turns to other regions. Numerous possibilities now present themselves ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 206

 

As a rule, it is the other body openings that become the main object of interest; then the skin, or special parts of it; and finally rhythmic movements of all kinds ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 206

 

In the course of its migrations the libido carries traces of the nutritional phase into its new field of operations, which accounts for the many intimate connections between the nutritive and the sexual function. Should this more developed activity meet with an obstacle that forces it to regress, the regression will be to an earlier stage of development ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 206

 

The phase of rhythmic activity generally coincides with the development of mind and speech. I therefore propose to call the period from birth up to the time of the first clear manifestations of sexuality the “presexual stage.” As a rule it falls between the first and the fourth year, and is comparable to the chrysalis stage in butterflies. It is characterized by a varying mixture of elements from the nutritional and sexual phases ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 206

 

They dig a hole in the ground, so shaping it and setting it about with bushes that it looks like a woman’s genitals ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 213

 

Then they dance round this hole all night, holding their spears in front of them in imitation of an erect penis. As they dance round, they thrust their spears into the hole, shouting:. Obscene dances of this kind are found among other tribes as well ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 213

 

In this rite of spring there is enacted a sacramental mating, with the hole in the earth representing the woman, and the spear the man. The hierosgamos was an essential component of many cults and played an important part in various sects ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 213

 

The tensions inside a primitive group are never greater than those involved in the struggle for existence of the group as a whole. Were it otherwise, the group would speedily perish ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 213

 

What does constitute a serious threat to the primitive group is the endogamous tendency, which has to be checked in order to exorcize the danger ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 217

 

The best means to this end seems to be the widespread custom of cross-cousin marriage because it keeps the endogamous (incestuous) and exogamous tendencies balanced ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 217

 

The danger that then threatens the group comes from the very advantages it has gained through checking the endogamous tendency [incest] to which the incest-taboo applies ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 217

 

The group acquires an inner stability, opportunities for expansion, and hence greater security. That is to say, the source of fear does not lie inside the group, but in the very real risks which the struggle for existence entails ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 217

 

Fear of enemies and of hunger predominates even over sexuality, which is, as we know, no problem at all for the primitive, as it is far simpler to get a woman than it is to get food ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 217

 

Fear of the consequences of being unadapted is a compelling reason for checking the instincts ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 217

 

Confronted with disaster, one is obliged to ask oneself how it is to be remedied. The libido that is forced into regression by the obstacle always reverts to the possibilities lying dormant in the individual. A dog, finding the door shut, scratches at it until it is opened, and a man unable to find the answer to a problem rubs his nose, pulls his lower lip, scratches his ear, and so on ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 217

 

If he gets impatient, all sorts of other rhythms appear; he starts drumming with his fingers, shuffles his feet about, and it will not be long before certain distinctly sexual analogies manifest themselves, such as masturbation gestures ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 217

 

Koch-Grünberg, writing on South American rock-paintings, tells us how the Indians sit on the rocks and scratch lines on them with sharp stones while waiting for their canoes to be transported round the rapids ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 217

 

Now when the libido is forced back by an obstacle, it does not necessarily regress to earlier sexual modes of application, but rather to the rhythmic activities of infancy which serve as a model both for the act of nutrition and for the sexual act itself. The material before us does not seem to preclude the possibility that the invention of fire-making came about in the manner suggested, that is, through the regressive reawakening of rhythm ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 218

 

If certain tribes can dance all night long to a monotonous tune of three notes, then, to our way of thinking, the play-element is entirely lacking: it is more like an exercise with a set purpose ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 219

 

This is in the fact the case, for rhythm is a classic device for impressing certain ideas or activities on the mind, and what has to be impressed and firmly organized is the canalization of libido into a new form of activity ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 219

 

Since the rhythmic activity can no longer find an outlet in the act of feeding after the nutritional phase of development is over, it transfers itself not only to the sphere of sexuality in the strict sense, but also to the “decoy mechanisms,” such as music and dancing, and finally to the sphere of work ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 219

 

The close connection which work always has with music, singing, dancing, drumming, and all manner of rhythms in primitive societies, indeed its absolute dependence on these things, is very striking ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 219

 

This [Music] connection forms the bridge to sexuality, thus giving the primitive an opportunity to sidetrack and evade the task in hand ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 219

 

Because diversions of this kind are a frequent occurrence, and are to be found in all spheres of culture, people have been led to believe that there is no differentiated achievement that is not a substitute for some form of sexuality. I regard this as an error, albeit a very understandable one considering the enormous psychological importance of the sexual instinct ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 219

 

The rhythmic tendency does not come from the nutritional phase at all, as if it had migrated from there to the sexual, but that it is a peculiarity of emotional processes in general ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 219

 

Any kind of excitement, no matter in what phase of life, displays a tendency to rhythmic expression, perseveration, and repetition, as can easily be seen from the repetition, assonance, and alliteration of complex-toned reaction words in the association experiment ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 219

 

Rhythmic patterns therefore offer no ground for assuming that the function they affect originated in sexuality ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 219

 

The psychological importance of sexuality and the existence of plausible sexual analogies make a deviation into sex extremely easy in cases of regression, so that it naturally seems as if all one’s troubles were due to a sexual wish that is unjustly denied fulfilment. This reasoning is typical of the neurotic ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 220

 

Primitives seem to know instinctively the dangers of this deviation: when celebrating the heiros gamos, the Wachandi, of Australia, may not look at a woman during the entire ceremony. Among a certain tribe of American Indians, it was the custom for the warriors, before setting out on the warpath, to move in a circle round a beautiful young girl standing naked in the center. Whoever got an erection was disqualified as unfit for military operation ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 220

 

The deviation into sex is used not always, but very frequently as a means of escaping the real problem ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 220

 

One makes oneself and others believe that the problem is purely sexual, that the trouble started long ago and that its causes lie in the remote past ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 220

 

This provides a heaven-sent way out of the problem of the present by shifting the whole question on to another and less dangerous plane. But the illicit gain is purchased at the expense of adaptation, and one gets a neurosis into the bargain ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 220

 

The checking of the instincts can be traced back to fear of the very real dangers of existence in this world ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 221

 

But external reality is not the only source of this instinct-inhibiting fear, for primitive man is often very much more afraid of “inner” reality the world of dreams, ancestral spirits, demons, gods, magicians, and witches ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 221

 

Although we, with our rationalism, think we can block this source of fear by pointing to its unreality, it nevertheless remains one of those psychic realities whose irrational nature cannot be exorcized by rational argument ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 221

 

There is a psychic reality which is just as pitiless and just as inexorable as the outer world, and just as useful and helpful, provided one knows how to circumvent its dangers and discover its hidden treasures ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 221

 

“Magic is the science of the jungle,” a famous explorer once said. Civilized man contemptuously looks down on primitive superstitions, which is about as sensible as turning up one’s nose at the pikes and halberds, the fortresses and tall-spired cathedrals of the Middle Ages ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 221

 

Primitive methods are just as effective under primitive conditions as machine-guns or the radio are under modern conditions ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 221

 

If there is an inhibition of sexuality, a regression will eventually occur in which the sexual energy flowing back from this sphere activates a function in some other sphere. In this way the energy changes its form ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 226

 

Let us take as an example the Wachandi ceremony: in all probability the hole in the earth is an analogy of the mother’s genitals, for when a man is forbidden to look at a woman, his Eros reverts to the mother. But as incest has to be avoided at all costs, the hole in the earth acts as a kind of mother-substitute ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 226

 

Thus, by means of ceremonial exercise, the incestuous energy-component becomes, as it were, desexualized, is led back to an infantile level where, if the operation is successful, it attains another form, which is equivalent to another function ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 226

 

It is to be assumed, however, that the operation is accomplished only with difficulty, for the primary instinct is composed of an endogamous (“incestuous”) tendency and an exogamous one, and must therefore be split into two. This splitting is connected with consciousness and the process of becoming conscious ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 226

 

The regression is always attended by certain difficulties because the energy clings with specific force to its object, and on being changed from one form carries something of its pervious character into the next form. So although the resultant phenomena have the character of a sexual act, it is not a sexual act any longer ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 226

 

In the same way, fire-boring is only an analogy of the sexual act, just as the latter often has to serve as a linguistic analogy for all sorts of other activities. The presexual, early infantile state to which the libido reverts is characterized by numerous possibilities of application, because, once the libido has arrived there, it is restored to its original undifferentiated polyvalency ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 226

 

It is therefore understandable that the libido which regressively “invests” this stage sees itself confronted with a variety of possible applications ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 226

 

Since, in the Wachandi ceremony, the libido is bound to its object sexuality it will carry at least part of this function into the new form as an essential characteristic ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 226

 

But the aim of the action is to bring forth the fruits of the field, and it is magical rather then sexual. Here the regression leads to a reactivation of the mother as the goal of desire, this time as a symbol not of sex but of the giver of nourishment ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 226

 

The libido, forced into regression by the checking of instinct, reactivates the infantile boring and provides it with objective material to work unfittingly called “material” because the object at this stage is the mother (mater) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 227

 

As I have pointed out above, the act of boring requires only the strength and perseverance of an adult man and suitable “material” in order to generate fire ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 227

 

Consequently, the production of fire may have originally occurred as the objective expression of a quasi-masturbatory activity analogous to the aforementioned case of masturbatory boring. Though we can never hope to advance any real proof of our contention, it is at least thinkable that some traces of these first exercises in fire-making may have been preserved. I have succeeded in finding a passage in a monument of Indian literature [the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad] which describes this conversion of libido into fire-making ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 227

 

The pleasure and satisfaction the baby finds in feeding is localized in the mouth, but to interpret this pleasure as sexual is quite unjustified. Feeding is a genuine activity, satisfying in itself, and because it is a vital necessity nature has here put a premium on pleasure ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 229

 

The mouth soon begins to develop another significance as the organ of speech. The extreme importance of speech doubles the significance of the mouth in small children ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 229

 

The rhythmic activities it carries out express a concentration of emotional forces, i.e., of libido, at this point. Thus the mouth (and to a lesser degree the anus) becomes the prime place of origin ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 229

 

According to the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the most important discovery ever made by primitive man, the discovery of fire, came out of the mouth. As we might expect, there are texts which draw a parallel between fire and speech. The Aitareya Upanishad says: From the mouth came speech, and from speech fire ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 229

 

Tejas, therefore, describes the psychological situation covered by the word “libido.” It really denotes subjective intensity. Any thing potent, any content highly charged with energy, therefore has a wide range of symbolic meanings ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 238

 

Agni is the sacrificial flame, the sacrificer and the sacrificed ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 246

 

Just as Christ left behind his redeeming blood, a true pharmakon athanasias [drink of immortality], in the wine, so Agni is the soma, the holy drink of inspiration, the mead of immortality ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 246

 

Soma and fire are identical in Vedic literature. The ancient Hindus saw fire both as a symbol of Agni and as an emanation of the inner libido-fire, and for them the same psychic dynamism was at work in the intoxicating drink (“fire-water,” Soma-Agni as rain and fire). The Vedic definition of soma as “seminal fluid” confirms this view ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 246

 

The “somatic” significance of Agni has its parallel in the Christian interpretation of the Eucharistic Blood as the body of Christ ~Carl Jung, ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 246

 

Soma is also the “nourishing drink.” Its mythological characteristics coincide with those of fire, and so both are united in Agni. The drink of immortality, Amrita, was stirred by the Hindu gods like the fire. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 247

 

The Sanskrit word for fire is agnis (Lat. ignis), personified as Agni, the god of fire, a divine mediator whose symbolism has certain affinities with Christian ideas ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 239

 

Agni, fire, was worshipped as a golden-winged bird ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 271

 

The wise Diotima in Plato’s Symposium has a conception of the divine messenger and mediator. She teaches Socrates that Eros is “the intermediary between mortals and immortals a mighty daemon, dear Socrates; for everything daemonic is the intermediary between God and man” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 242

 

His function is to “interpret and convey messages to the gods from men and to men from the gods, prayers and sacrifices from the one, and commands and rewards from the other, thus bridging the gap between them, so that by his mediation the universe is at one with itself” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 242

 

He is neither mortal nor immortal; but on one and the same day he will live and flourish (when things go well with him), and also meet his death; and then come to life again through the force of his father’s nature ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 242

 

We read in the third chapter of the book of the prophet Daniel that Nabuchodonosor, the King of Babylon, caused three men to be placed in a glowing furnace, and that the king came to the furnace and looked in, and saw with the three a fourth, who was like the Son of God. The three signify for us the Holy Trinity of the person, and the fourth the unity of being. Thus Christ in his transfiguration signified the Trinity of the person and the unity of being ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 244

 

The fiery furnace, like the fiery tripod in Faust, is a mother symbol. From the tripod come Paris and Helen, the royal pair of alchemy, and in popular tradition children are baked in the oven ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 245

 

The alchemical athanor, or melting pot, signifies the body, while the alembic or cucurbita, the Hermetic vessel, represents the uterus ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 245

 

The “fourth” in the fiery furnace appears like a son of God made visible in the fire. Jehovah himself is a fire. Isaiah 10:17 (RSV) says of the saviour of Israel: “And the light of Israel will become a fire, and his Holy One a flame” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 245

 

A hymn of Ephraem the Syrian says of Christ: “Thou who art all fire, have pity on me.” This view is based on the apocryphal saying of our Lord: “He who is near unto me is near unto the fire” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 245

 

So far our exposition has been based on the pramantha component of the Agni sacrifice, and we have concerned ourselves with only one meaning of the word manthami or mathnami, namely with that which expresses the idea of rubbing ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 248

 

It is the custom in the Catholic Church to light a new fire at Easter. So, even in the Occident, fire-making is an element in a religious mystery, which testifies to its symbolical and ambiguous character. The rules of the ritual must be scrupulously observed if it is to have its intended magical effect ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 248

 

Speech and fire-making represent primitive man’s victory over his brutish unconsciousness and subsequently became powerful magical devices for overcoming the ever present “daemonic” forces lurking in the unconscious ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 248

 

The blocking of libido leads to an accumulation of instinctuality and, in consequence, to excesses and aberrations of all kinds. Among them, sexual disturbances are fairly frequent, as we might expect ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 249

 

A particularly instructive example is the psychology of incendiarism: incendiarism is really a regressive act of fire-making, and in certain cases it is combined with masturbation ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 249

 

Schmid tells of an imbecile peasant youth who started numerous fires. On one occasion he aroused suspicion by standing in the door of a house with his hands in his trouser pockets, gazing with delight at the conflagration. Later, under examination, he admitted that he always masturbated while enjoying the spectacle of the fires he had started ( “Zu Psychologie der Brandstifter,” p. 80 ) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 249

 

But there was always a tendency to prepare fire in a mysterious ceremonial manner on special occasions just as with ritual eating and drinking and to do it according to prescribed rules from which no one dared to differ ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 250

 

This ritual serves to remind us of the original numinosity of fire-making, but apart from that it has no practical significance. The anamnesis of fire-making is on a level with the recollection of the ancestors among primitives and of the gods at a more civilized stage ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 250

 

From the psychological point of view the ceremony has the significance of a meaningful institution, inasmuch as it represents a clearly defined procedure for canalizing the libido ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 250

 

It has, in fact, the functional value of a paradigm, and its purpose is to show us how we should act when the libido gets blocked. What we call the “blocking of libido” is, for the primitive, a hard and concrete fact: his life ceases to flow, things lose their glamour, plants, animals, and men no longer prosper ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 250

 

The ancient Chinese philosophy of the I Ching devised some brilliant images for this state of affairs. Modern man, in the same situation, experiences a standstill (“I am stuck”), a loss of energy and enjoyment (“the zestlibidohas gone out of life”), or a depression ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 250

 

One frequently has to tell the patient what is happening to him, for modern man’s powers of introspection leave much to be desired ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 250

 

If, even today, the new fire is kindled at Eastertide, it is in commemoration of the redemptive and saving significance of the first fire-boring. In this way man wrested a secret from nature the Promethean theft of fire. He made himself guilty of an unlawful intervention, incorporating a fragment of the age-old unconscious into the darkness of his mind. With this theft he appropriated something precious and offended against the gods ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 250

 

Anyone who knows the primitive’s fear of innovations and their unforeseen consequences can imagine the uncertainty and uneasy conscience which such a discovery would arouse ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 250

 

This primordial experience finds an echo in the widespread motif of robbery (sun-cattle of Geryon, apples of the Hesperides, herb of immortality). And it is worth remembering that in the cult of Diana at Aricia [Lake Nemi], only he could become her priest who plucked the golden bough from the sacred grove of the goddess ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 250

 

The pramantha, or instrument of the manthana (fire-sacrifice), is conceived under a purely sexual aspect in India ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 210

 

The fire-stick being the phallus or man, and the bored wood underneath the vulva or woman ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 210

 

The fire that results from the boring is the child, the divine son Agni. The two pieces of wood are ritually known as pururavas and urvasi, and, when personified, are thought of as man and woman ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 210

 

The fire is born from the genitals of the woman. Weber gives the following account of the fire-producing ceremony: ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 210

 

A sacrificial fire is kindled by rubbing two fire-sticks together ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 210

 

One of the fire-sticks is taken up with the words: “Thou art the birthplace of fire,” and two blades of grass are placed upon it: “Ye are the two testicles” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 210

 

The priest then places on them the adhararani (the underlying piece of wood), saying: “Thou art Urvasi,” and anoints the uttararani (uppermost piece) with butter: “Thou art the power” (semen) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 210

 

This is then placed on the adhararani, with the words: “Thou art Pururavas.” Rubbing them together three times the priest says: “I rub thee with the Gayatrimetrum: I rub thee with the Trishtubhmetrum: I rub thee with the Jagatimetrum” (Weber, Indische Studien, I, p. 197, cited in Kuhn, p. 71 ) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 210

 

The sexual symbolism is unmistakable. We find the same idea and symbolism in a hymn of the Rig-Veda ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 211

 

These examples, coming from different periods of history and from different peoples, prove the existence of a widespread tendency to equate fire-making with sexuality ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 213

 

The ceremonial or magical repetition of this age-old discovery shows how persistently the human mind clings to the old forms, and how-deep rooted is the memory of fire-boring ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 213

 

The finest of all symbols of the libido is the human figure, conceived as a demon or hero. Here the symbolism leaves the objective, material realm of astral and meteorological images and takes on human form, changing into a figure who passes from joy to sorrow, from sorrow to joy, and, like the sun, now stands high at the zenith and now is plunged into darkest night only to rise again in new splendour ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 251

 

Hence the beautiful name of the sun-hero Gilgamesh, “The Man of Joy and Sorrow,” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 251

 

Just as the sun, by its own motion and in accordance with its own inner law, climbs from morn till noon, crosses the meridian and goes its downward way towards evening, leaving its radiance behind it, and finally plunges into all-enveloping night, so man sets his course by immutable laws and, his journey over, sinks into darkness to rise again in his children and begin the cycle anew ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 251

 

The symbolic transition from sun to man is easily made, and the third and last creation of the Miller Fantasies follows this pattern. She calls it “Chiwantopel, A hypnogogic drama” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 251

 

These, so far as psychological experience is concerned, are the archetypal contents of the (collective) unconscious, the archaic heritage of humanity, the legacy left behind by all differentiation and development and bestowed upon all men like sunlight and air ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 259

 

But in loving this inheritance men love that which is common to all; they turn back to the mother of humanity, to the psyche, which was before consciousness existed, and in this way they make contact with the source and regain something of that mysterious and irresistible power which comes from the feeling of being part of the whole ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 259

 

It is the problem of Antaeus, who could only keep his giant strength through contact with mother earth. This temporary withdrawal into oneself seems, within certain limits, to have a favourable effect upon the psychic well-being of the individual ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 259

 

The concrete reality of religious figures assists the canalization of libido into the equivalent symbols, provided that the worship of them does not get stuck at the outward object ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 259

 

But even if it does, it at least remains bound to the representative human figure and loses its original primitive form, even though it does not attain the desired symbolic form ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 259

 

These, so far as psychological experience is concerned, are the archetypal contents of the (collective) unconscious, the archaic heritage of humanity, the legacy left behind by all differentiation and development and bestowed upon all men like sunlight and air ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 259

 

But in loving this inheritance men love that which is common to all; they turn back to the mother of humanity, to the psyche, which was before consciousness existed, and in this way they make contact with the source and regain something of that mysterious and irresistible power which comes from the feeling of being part of the whole ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 259

 

Dreams are full of these theriomorphic representations of libido. Hybrids and monsters, like the one found here, are not at all infrequent. Bertschinger has given us a series of illustrations in which the lower (animal) half in particular is represented theriomorphically. The libido so represented is the “animal” instinct which has got repressed ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 261

 

It is therefore conceivable that my patient was damaging his instinct precisely through his manifest lack of sexual repression. His fear of my imposing some medical prohibition on him is reflected a little too faithfully in the dream for the latter to be altogether above suspicion ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 261

 

Dreams which repeat the real situation too emphatically, or insist too plainly in some anticipated reality, are making use of conscious contents as a means of expression ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 261

 

His dream is really expressing a projection: he projects the killing of the animal on to the doctor. That is the way it appears to him, because he does not know that he himself is injuring his instinct ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 261

 

The pointed instrument generally means the needle of the intellect, with which insects are pinned down and classified ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 261

 

He has “modern” ideas about sex, and does not know that he has an unconscious fear of my taking his pet theories away from him. This possibility is rightly feared, for if it were not in him he would hardly have had this dream ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 261

 

Thus the theriomorphic symbols always refer to unconscious manifestations of libido ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 261

 

Repression, as we have seen, is not directed solely against sexuality, but against the instincts in general which are the vital foundations, the laws governing all life ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 263

 

The regression caused by repressing the instincts always leads back to the psychic past, and consequently to the phase of childhood where the decisive factors appear to be, and sometimes actually are, the parents ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 263

 

But the inborn instincts of the child play a distinct role aside from the parents, as can be seen from the fact that the parents do not exercise a uniform influence on their children, who each react to them in a different way. They [inborn instincts] must, therefore, possess individual determinants ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 263

 

Yet, to the empty consciousness of the child, it must seem as if all the determining influences came from outside, because children cannot distinguish their own instincts from the influence and will of their parents ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 263

 

This lack of discrimination in the child makes it possible for the animals which represent the instincts to appear at the same time as attributes of the parents, and for the parents to appear in animal form, the father as a bull, the mother as a cow, and so on ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 263

 

If the regression goes still further back, beyond the phase of childhood to the preconscious, prenatal stage, then archetypal images appear, no longer connected with the individual’s memories, but belonging to the stock of inherited possibilities of representation that are born anew in every individual ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 264

 

It is from them [archetypal images] that there arise those images of “divine” beings which are part animal, part human. The guise in which these figures appear depend on the attitude of the conscious mind: if it is negative towards the unconscious, the animals will be frightening: if positive, they appear as the “helpful animals” of fairytale and legend ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 264

 

It frequently happens that if the attitude towards the parents is too affectionate and too dependent, it is compensated in dreams by frightening animals, who represent the parents just as much as the helpful animals did. The Sphinx is a fear-animal of this kind and still shows clear traces of a mother derivative ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 264

 

Oedipus, thinking he had overcome the Sphinx sent by the mother-goddess merely because he had solved her childishly simple riddle, fell victim to matriarchal incest and had to marry Jocasta, his mother, for the throne and the hand of the widowed queen belonged to him who freed the land from the plague of the Sphinx. This had all those tragic consequences which could easily have been avoided if only Oedipus had been sufficiently intimidated by the frightening appearance of the terrible' ordevouring’ Mother whom the Sphinx personified ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 264

 

It is evident that a factor of such magnitude cannot be disposed of by solving a childish riddle. The riddle was, in fact, the trap which the Sphinx laid for the unwary wanderer. Overestimating his intellect in a typically masculine way, Oedipus walked right into it, and all unknowingly committed the crime of incest. The riddle of the Sphinx was herself the terrible mother-imago, which Oedipus would not take as a warning ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 265

 

Echidna was a monster with the top half of a beautiful maiden, and a hideous serpent below ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 265

 

This double-being corresponds to the mother-imago: above, the lovely and attractive human half; below, the horrible animal half, changed into a fear-animal by the incest prohibition ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 265

 

Echidna was born of the All-Mother, Mother Earth, Gaia, who conceived her with Tartarus, the personification of the underworld ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 265

 

Echidna herself was the mother of all terrors, of the Chimera, Scylla, the Gorgon, of frightful Cerberus, of the Nemean lion, and of the eagle that devoured the liver of Prometheus ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 265

 

She also gave birth to a number of dragons. One of her sons was Orthrus, the dog of the monster Geryon, who was slain by Heracles. With this dog, her own son, Echidna incestuously begat the Sphinx ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 265

 

The act of naming is, like baptism, extremely important as regards the creation of personality, for a magical power has been attributed to the name since time immemorial ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 274

 

To know the secret name of a person is to have power over him. A well-known example of this is the tale of Rumpelstiltskin. In an Egyptian myth, Isis permanently robs the sun-god Ra of his power by compelling him to tell her his real name ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 274

 

Therefore, to give a name means to give power, to invest with a definite personality or soul. Hence the old custom of giving children the names of saints ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 274

 

The anal region is very closely connected with veneration. An Oriental fairy-tale relates that the Crusaders used to anoint themselves with the excrement of the Pope in order to make themselves more formidable ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 276

 

One of my patients, who had a special veneration for her father, had a fantasy in which she saw her father sitting on a commode in a dignified manner, while people filed past greeting him effusively ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 276

 

We might also mention the intimate connection between excrement and gold: the lowest value allies itself to the highest ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 276

 

The alchemists sought their prima materia in excrement, one of the arcane substances from which it was hoped that the mystic figure of the filius philosophorum would emerge (“in stercore invenitur”). A very religiously brought-up young patient once dreamt that she saw the Crucifix formed of excrement on the bottom of a blue-flowered chamber-pot ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 276

 

The contrast is so enormous that one can only assume that the valuations of childhood are totally different from ours. And so, indeed, they are ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 276

 

Children bring to the act of defecation and its products an interest such as is later evinced only by the hypochondriac ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 276

 

We can only begin to understand this interest when we realize that the young child connects defecation with a theory of propagation. This puts a somewhat different complexion on the matter. The child thinks: that is how things are produced, how they “come out” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 276

 

In popular humour excrement is often regarded as a monument or souveniran idea related to anal birth or creation by throwing something behind oneself ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 279

 

The two-horned derives from an Arabic term referring to the strength of the sun-bull. Alexander is often found on coins with the horns of Jupiter Ammon.This is one of the identifications of the legendary ruler with the spring sun in the sign of the Ram. There can be no doubt that mankind felt a great need to eliminate everything personal and human from its heroes so as to make them equal to the sun, i.e., absolute libido-symbols, through a kind of metastasis ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 283

 

Dhulqarnein brought his “friend” Khidr to the source of life, that he might drink of immortality. Alexander himself bathed in the stream of life and performed the ritual ablutions ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 288

 

There are, therefore, two figures who resemble one another but are nevertheless distinct ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 288

 

The analogous situation in Christianity is the scene by the Jordan, where John leads Christ to the source of life ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 288

 

Christ, as the baptized, is here the subordinate, while John plays the superior role, as in the case of Dhulqarnein and Khidr, or Khidr and Moses, and Khidr and Elias ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 288

 

The god, Tages, bore the epithet `the fresh-ploughed boy,’ because, according to legend, he sprang out of a furrow behind a peasant ploughing his fields. This image illustrates the Mondamin motif very clearly; the plough has the well-known phallic meaning, and the furrow, as in India, stands for the woman ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 527

 

Psychologically this image is a symbolical equivalent of copulation, the son being the edible fruit of the field ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 527

 

The Etruscan Tages, the boy who sprang from the freshly ploughed furrow, was also a teacher of wisdom. In the Litaolane myth of the Basuto, we are told how a monster devoured all human beings and left only one woman alive, who gave birth to a son, the hero, in a cowshed (instead of a cave). Before she could prepare a bed of straw for the infant, he was already grown up and spoke “words of wisdom” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 291

 

The rapid growth of the hero, a recurrent motif, seems to indicate that the birth and apparent childhood of the hero are extraordinary because his birth is really a rebirth, for which reason he is able to adapt so quickly to his heroic role ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 291

 

The journey of Moses with his servant Joshua is a life-journey (it lasted eighty years). They grow old together and lose the life-force, i.e., the fish, which “in wondrous wise took its way to the sea” (setting of the sun) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 291

 

When the two notice their loss, they discover at the place where the source of life is found (where the dead fish revived and sprang into the sea) Khidr wrapped in his mantle, sitting on the ground ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 291

 

Where the fish vanished Khidr, the Verdant One, was born as a “son of the watery deep,” his head veiled, proclaiming divine wisdom ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 291

 

They form a pair of brothers whose characters are revealed by the symbolic position of the torches. Cumont not unjustly connects then with the sepulchral Erotes, who as genies with inverted torches have a traditional meaning. One would stand for death, the other for life ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 294

 

There are certain points of resemblance between the Mithraic sacrifice (where the bull in the center is flanked on either side by dadophors) and the Christian sacrifice of the lamb (or ram). The Crucified is traditionally flanked by two thieves, one of whom ascends to paradise while the other descends to hell ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 294

 

The two dadophors are, as Cumont has offshoots from the main figure of Mithras, who was supposed to have a secret triadic character. Dionysius the Areopagite reports that the magicians held a feast in honor of(the threefold Mithras) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 294

 

As Cumont observes Cautes and Cautopates sometimes carry in their hands the head of a bull and of a scorpion respectively ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 295

 

Taurus and Scorpio are equinoctial signs, and this is a clear indication that the sacrifice was primarily connected with the sun cycle: the rising sun that sacrifices itself at the summer solstice, and the setting sun. Since it was not easy to represent sunrise and sunset in the sacrificial drama, this idea had to be shown outside it ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 295

 

We have already pointed out that the Dioscuri represent a similar idea in somewhat different form: one sun is mortal, the other immortal. As this whole solar mythology is psychology projected into the heavens, the underlying idea could probably be paraphrased thus: just as man consists of a mortal and an immortal part, so the sun is a pair of brothers, one of whom is mortal (the setting sun), the other immortal (the ever-renewing sun). Man is mortal, yet there is something immortal in us ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 296

 

Thus the gods, or figures like Khidr and the Comte de Saint-Germain, are our immortal part which continue intangibly to exist 296

 

The sun comparison tells us over and over again that the dynamic of the gods is psychic energy. This is our immortality, the link through which man feels inextinguishably one with the continuity of all life. The life of the psyche is the life of mankind. Welling up from the depths of the unconscious, its springs gush forth from the root of the whole human race, since the individual is, biologically speaking, only a twig broken off from the mother and transplanted ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 296

 

Both possibilities are found on a late Babylonian gem from Lajard’s collection. In the middle stands an androgynous deity. On the masculine side there is a snake with a sun halo round its head; on the feminine side another snake with a sickle moon above it ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 297

 

This picture has a symbolic sexual nuance: on the masculine side there is a lozenge, a favourite symbol of the female genitals, and on the feminine side a wheel without its rim. The spokes are thickened at the ends into knobs, which, like the fingers we mentioned earlier, have a phallic meaning ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 297

 

It seems to be a phallic wheel such as was not unknown in antiquity. There are obscene gems on which Cupid is shown turning a wheel consisting entirely of phalli. As to what the sun signifies, I discovered in the collection of antiquities at Verona a late Roman inscription ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 297

 

The symbolism is plain: sun = phallus, moon = vessel (uterus). This interpretation is confirmed by another monument from the same collection. The symbols are the same, except that the vessel has been replaced by the figure of a woman ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 298

 

Certain symbols on coins can probably be interpreted in a similar manner. In Lajard’s Recherches sur la culte de Vénus there is a coin from Perga, showing Artemis as a conical stone flanked by a masculine figure (alleged to be the deity Men) and a female figure (alleged to be Artemis). Men (otherwise called Lunus) appears on an Attic bas-relief with a spear, flanked by Pan with a club, and a female figure. From this it is clear that sexuality as well as the sun can be used to symbolize the libido ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 298

 

Sex being one of the most obvious examples of instinctuality, it is sex which is liable to be most affected by these sacrificial measures, i.e., through abstinence ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 299

 

Just as Attis unmans himself for the sake of his mother, and his effigy was hung on the pine-tree in memory of this deed, so Christ hangs on the tree of life, on the wood of martyrdom, the and mother, and ransoms creation from death ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 671

 

Attis also wears the pileus [or “Phrygian cap”] like Men, Mithras, and the dadophors ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 29

 

The hero himself appears as a being of more than human stature. He is distinguished from the very beginning by his godlike characteristics ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 612

 

Since he is psychologically an archetype of the Self, his divinity only confirms that the Self is numinous, a sort of god, or having some share in the divine nature ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 612

 

The hero is the protagonist of God’s transformation in man; he corresponds to what I call the “mana personality.” The mana personality has such an immense fascination for the conscious mind that the ego all too easily succumbs to the temptation to identify with the hero, thus bringing on a psychic inflation with all its consequences. For this reason the repugnance felt by certain ecclesiastical circles for the “inner Christ” is understandable enough, at least as a preventive measure against the danger of psychic inflation which threatens the Christian European ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 612

 

Heroes are usually wanderers, and wandering is a symbol of longing, of the restless urge which never finds its object, of nostalgia for the lost mother. The sun comparison can easily be taken in this sense: the heroes are like the wandering sun, from which it is concluded that the myth of the hero is a solar myth ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 299

 

It seems to us, rather, that he is first and foremost a self-representation of the longing of the unconscious, of its unquenched and unquenchable desire for the light of consciousness. But consciousness, continually in danger of being led astray by its own light and of becoming a rootless will o’ the wisp, longs for the healing power of nature, for the deep wells of being and for unconscious communion with life in all its countless forms ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 299

 

It is not man as such who has to be regenerated or born again as a renewed whole, but, according to the statements of mythology, it is the hero or god who rejuvenates himself. These figures are generally expressed or characterized by libido-symbols (light, fire, sun, etc.), so that it looks as if they represented psychic energy. They are, in fact, personifications of the libido ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 388

 

The hero is a hero just because he sees resistance to the forbidden goal in all life’s difficulties and yet fights that resistance with the whole-hearted yearning that strives towards the treasure hard to attain, and perhaps unattainable yearning that paralyses and kills the ordinary man ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 510

 

The hero is an extraordinary being who is inhabited by a daemon, and it is this that makes him a hero. That is why the mythological statements about heroes are so typical and so impersonal ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 536

 

The treasure which the hero fetches from the dark cavern is life: it is himself, new-born from the dark maternal cave of the unconscious where he was stranded by the introversion or regression of libido. Hence the Hindu fire-bringer is called Matarisvan, he who swells in the mother. The hero who clings to the mother is the dragon, and when the hero is reborn from the mother he becomes the conqueror of the dragon) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 580

 

He [the hero] shares this paradoxical nature with the snake. According to Philo the snake is the most spiritual of all creatures; it is of a fiery nature, and its swiftness is terrible. It has a long life and sloughs off old age with its skin. In actual fact the snake is a cold-blooded creature, unconscious and unrelated. It is both toxic and prophylactic, equally a symbol of the good and bad daemon (the Agathodaimon), of Christ and the devil. Among the Gnostics it was regarded as an emblem of the brain-stem and spinal cord, as is consistent with its predominantly reflex psyche. It is an excellent symbol for the unconscious, perfectly expressing the latter’s sudden and unexpected manifestations, its painful and dangerous intervention in our affairs, and its frightening effects ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 580

 

Taken purely as a psychologem the hero represents the positive, favourable action of the unconscious, while the dragon is its negative and unfavourable action not birth, but a devouring; not a beneficial and constructive deed, but greedy retention and destruction ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 580

 

The hero who sets himself the task of renewing the world and conquering death personifies the world-creating power which, brooding on itself in introversion, coiled round its own egg like a snake, threatens life with its poisonous bite, so that the living may die and be born again from the darkness ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 592

 

The hero is himself the snake, himself the sacrificer and the sacrificed, which is why Christ rightly compares himself with the healing Moses- and why the saviour of the Christian Ophites was a serpent, too. It is both Agathodaimon and Cacodaimon. In German legend we are told that the heroes have snake’s eyes ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 593

 

It is therefore understandable that the three mother-goddesses, Rhea, Cybele, and Diana, all wear the mural crown. The Old Testament treats the cities of Jerusalem, Babylon, etc. just as if they were women ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 303

 

The Boeotian city of Thebes founded by Cadmus received on that account the cognomen “Ogygian.” This cognomen was also applied to the great Flood, which was called “Ogygian” because it happened under Ogyges. We shall see later on that this coincidence can hardly be accidental ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 306

 

The fact that the city and the wife of Ogyges both have the same name indicates that there must be some relation between the city and the woman, which is not difficult to understand because the city is identical with the woman ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 306

 

There is a similar idea in Hindu mythology, where Indra appears as the husband of Urvara. But Urvara means the “fertile land.” In the same way the seizure of a country by the king was regarded as his marriage with the land ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 306

 

Similar ideas must also have existed in Europe. Princes at their accession had to guarantee a good harvest. The Swedish king Domaldi was actually killed as a result of failure of the crops. In the Hindu Ramayana, the hero Rama marries Sita, the furrow ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 306

 

To the same circle of ideas belongs the Chinese custom of the emperor’s having to plough a furrow on ascending the throne ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 306

 

The motif of continuous cohabitation is expressed in the well-known lingam symbol found everywhere in Indian temples: the base is a female symbol, and within it stands the phallus (fig. 258.25) . This symbol is rather like the phallic baskets and chests of the Greeks ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 306

 

The chest or casket is a female, i.e., the womb, a common enough conception in the older mythologies. The chest, barrel, or basket with its precious contents was often thought of as floating on the water, thus forming an analogy to the course of the sun. The sun sails over the sea like an immortal god who every evening is immersed in the maternal waters and is born anew in the morning ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 306

 

Another form of the same motif is the Persian idea of the tree of life, which stands in the lake of rain, Vouru-Kasha. The seeds of this tree were mixed with the water and so maintained the fertility of the earth. The Vendidad, says that the waters flow “to the sea Vouru-Kasha, towards the well-watered tree, whereon grow the seeds of my plants of every kind” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 306

 

It is easy to see what the battle with the sea monster means: it is the attempt to free the ego-consciousness from the deadly grip of the unconscious. The making of a fire in the monster’s belly suggests as much, for it is a piece of apotropaic magic aimed at dispelling the darkness of unconsciousness ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 539

 

The bird probably signifies the renewed ascent of the sun, the rebirth of the phoenix, and is at the same time one of those “helpful animals” who render supernatural aid during the birth: birds as aerial beings, symbolize spirits or angels ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 538

 

Divine messengers frequently appear at these mythological births, as can be seen from the use we still make of god-parents ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 538

 

The sun-symbol of the bird rising from the water is preserved etymologically in the idea of the singing swan. Swan' derives from the root sven, likesun’ and `sound’ ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 538

 

This ascent signifies rebirth, the bringing forth of life from the mother, and the ultimate conquest of death, which, according to an African Negro myth, came into the world through the carelessness of one old woman: when the season of universal skin-casting came round again (for in those days people renewed themselves by casting their skins like snakes), she was absent-minded enough to put on her old skin instead of the new one, and in consequence died ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 538

 

The myth often spans a period of three-days. The “three-days” are a stereotyped expression for the “night sea imprisonment” (December 21-24). Christ, too, spent three days in the underworld ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 512

 

The myth is exemplified in the battle of Hiawatha with Mishe-Nahma, the fish-king.Mishe-Nahma is a monster fish who lives at the bottom of the waters. Challenged to battle by Hiawatha, he swallows the hero together with his boat 537

 

Just as Hera, in her role of the pursuing mother, is the real source of the mighty deeds performed by Heracles, so Nokomis allows Hiawatha no rest, but piles up new difficulties in his path, hazardous adventures in which the hero may be victorious, but may also meet with his death ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 540

 

Man with his consciousness is always a long way behind the goals of the unconscious; unless his libido calls him forth to new dangers he sinks into slothful inactivity, or in the prime of life he is overcome with longing for the past and is paralysed ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 540

 

A Polynesian myth tells how the hero, in the belly of Kombili, the King Fish, seized his obsidian knife and cut open the fish’s belly. “He slipped out and beheld a splendour. Then he sat down and began to think. `I wonder where I am?’ he said to himself” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 311

 

In the light of these ideas we can understand the mythological statements about Ogyges: it is he who possesses the mother, the city, and is thus united with the mother; therefore under him came the great flood, for it is typical of the sun myth that the hero, once he is united with the woman “hard to attain,” is exposed in a cask and thrown out to sea, and then lands on a distant shore to begin a new life ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 312

 

The middle section, the night sea journey in the ark, is lacking in the Ogyges tradition. But the rule in mythology is that the typical parts of a myth can be fitted together in every conceivable variation, which makes it extraordinarily difficult to interpret one myth without a knowledge of all the others ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para312

 

The meaning of this cycle of myths is clear enough: it is the longing to attain rebirth through a return to the womb, and to become immortal like the sun. This longing for the mother is amply expressed in the literature of the Bible ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 312

 

The symbol-creating process substitutes for the mother the city, the well, the cave, the Church, etc. This substitution is due to the fact that the regression of libido reactivates the ways and habits of childhood, and above all the relation to the mother; but what was natural and useful to the child is a psychic danger for the adult, and this is expressed by the symbol of incest ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 313

 

Because the incest taboo opposes the libido and blocks the path to regression, it is possible for the libido to be canalized into the mother analogies thrown up by the unconscious ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 313

 

In that way the libido becomes progressive again, and even attains a level of consciousness higher than before ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 313

 

The meaning and purpose of this canalization are particularly evident when the city appears in place of the mother: the infantile attachment (whether primary or secondary) is a crippling limitation for the adult, whereas attachment to the city fosters his civic virtues and at least enables him to lead a useful existence ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 313

 

In primitives the tribe takes the place of the city ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 313

 

The birds are soul-images, by which are meant the souls of the damned and evil spirits. Thus the mother becomes the underworld, the City of the Damned ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 315

 

In this primordial image of the woman on the dragon we recognize Echidna, the mother of every hellish horror ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 315

 

Babylon is the symbol of the Terrible Mother, who leads the peoples into whoredom with her devilish temptations and makes them drunk with her wine. Here the intoxicating drink is closely associated with fornication, for it too is a libido symbol, as we have already seen in the soma-fire-sun parallel ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 31

 

From water comes life; hence, of the two deities who here interest us most, Christ and Mithras, the latter is represented as having been born beside a river, while Christ experienced his “rebirth” in the Jordan ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 319

 

Christ, moreover, was born of the, the sempiternal fons amoris or Mother of God, whom pagan-Christian legend turned into a nymph of the spring ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 319

 

The spring is also found in Mithraism. A Pannonian dedication reads “Fonti perenni.” An inscription from Apulum is dedicated to the “Fons aeternus.” In Persian, Ardvisura is the fount of the water of life ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 319

 

Ardvisura-Anahita is a goddess of water and love (just as Aphrodite is the “foam-born”) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 319

 

In the Vedas, the waters are called matritamah, `most maternal.’ All living things rise, like the sun, from water, and sink into it again at evening ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 319

 

Born of springs, rivers, lakes, and seas, man at death comes to the waters of the Styx, and there embarks on the “night sea journey.” Those black waters of death are the water of life, for death with its cold embrace is the maternal womb, just as the sea devours the sun but brings it forth again ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 319

 

The projection of the mother-imago upon water endows the water with a number of numinous or magical qualities peculiar to the mother. A good example of this is the baptismal water symbolism in the Church ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 320

 

The maternal aspect of water coincides with the nature of the unconscious, because the unconscious (particularly in men) can be regarded as the mother or matrix of consciousness ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 320

 

Numerous myths say that human beings came from trees, and many of them tell how the hero was enclosed in the maternal tree-trunk, like the dead Osiris in the cedar-tree, Adonis in the myrtle, ecocar Jung, CW 5, Para 321

 

Hence when Attis castrates himself under a pine-tree, he did so because the tree has a maternal significance ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 321

 

Not only the gods, but the goddesses, too, are libido-symbols, when regarded from the point of view of their dynamism. The libido expresses itself in images of sun, light, fire, sex, fertility, and growth ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 324

 

In this way the goddesses, as we have seen, come to possess phallic symbols, even though the latter are essentially masculine. One of the main reasons for this is that, just as the female lies hidden in the male (fig. 258.29) , so the male lies hidden in the female ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 324

 

The feminine quality of the tree that represents the goddesses contaminated with the phallic symbolism, as is evident from the genealogical tree that grows out of Adam’s body. In my Psychology and Alchemy I have reproduced, from a manuscript in Florence, a picture of Adam showing the membrum virile as a tree  Thus the tree has a bisexual character, as is also suggested by the fact that in Latin the names of trees have masculine endings and feminine gender ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 324

 

She was in a garden, where she found an exotic-looking tree with strange red fleshy flowers or fruits. She picked and ate them. Then, to her horror, she felt that she was poisoned ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 325

 

It is the tree of libido, which here represents the feminine as well as the masculine side, because it simply expresses the relationship of the two to one another ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 326

 

The various meanings of the treesun, tree of Paradise, mother, phallus are explained by the fact that it is a libido-symbol and not an allegory of this or that concrete object. Thus a phallic symbol does not denote the sexual organ, but the libido, and however clearly it appears as such, it does not mean itself but is always a symbol of the libido ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 329

 

Symbols are not signs or allegories for something known; they seek rather to express something that is little known or completely unknown. The tertium comparationis [the `third for comparison’] for all these symbols is the libido, and the unity of meaning lies in the fact that they are all analogies of the same thing. In this realm the fixed meaning of things comes to an end ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 329

 

The sole reality is the libido, whose nature we can only experience through its effect on us. Thus, it is not the mother who is symbolized, but the libido of the son, whose object was once the mother ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 329

 

We take mythological symbols much too concretely and are puzzled at every turn by the endless contradictions of myths. But we always forget that it is the conscious creative force which wraps itself in images ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 329

 

When, therefore, we read: “His mother was a wicked witch,” we must translate it as: the son is unable to detach his libido from the mother-imago, he suffers from resistances because he is tied to the mother ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 329

 

One of the simplest ways would be to impregnate the mother and beget oneself in identical form all over again. But here the incest prohibition intervenes; consequently the sun myths and rebirth myths devise every conceivable kind of mother-analogy for the purpose of canalizing the libido into new forms and effectively preventing it from regressing to actual incest ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 332

 

The effect of the incest-taboo and of the attempts at canalization is to stimulate the creative imagination, which gradually opens up possible avenues for the self-realization of libido. In this way the libido becomes imperceptibly spiritualized ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 332

 

The power which “always desires evil” thus creates spiritual life. That is why the religions exalt this procedure into a system. It is instructive to see the pains they take to further the translation into symbols ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 332

 

To the above, I would add that it is hardly possible to restrict this impulse to sexuality. It is primarily a question of primitive instinctuality, of insufficiently differentiated libido which prefers to take a sexual form. Sexuality is by no means the only form of the “full feeling of life.” There are some passions that cannot be derived from sex ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 332

(q)

It is not possible to discuss the problem of symbol-formation without reference to the instinctual processes, because it is from them that the symbol derives its motive power. It has no meaning whatever unless it strives against the resistance of instinct, just as undisciplined instincts would bring nothing but ruin to man if the symbol does not give them form ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 338

 

Vollers compares Khidr and Elias on the one hand with Gilgamesh and his primitive brother Eabani or Enkidu, and on the other hand with the Dioscuri, one of whom was mortal and the other immortal (Vollers, “Chidher,” pp. 234-84 ) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 288

 

The god, Tages, bore the epithet `the fresh-ploughed boy,’ because, according to legend, he sprang out of a furrow behind a peasant ploughing his fields. This image illustrates the Mondamin motif very clearly; the plough has the well-known phallic meaning, and the furrow, as in India, stands for the woman ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 527

 

Psychologically this image is a symbolical equivalent of copulation, the son being the edible fruit of the field ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 527

 

The Etruscan Tages, the boy who sprang from the freshly ploughed furrow, was also a teacher of wisdom. In the Litaolane myth of the Basuto, we are told how a monster devoured all human beings and left only one woman alive, who gave birth to a son, the hero, in a cowshed (instead of a cave). Before she could prepare a bed of straw for the infant, he was already grown up and spoke “words of wisdom” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 291

 

The rapid growth of the hero, a recurrent motif, seems to indicate that the birth and apparent childhood of the hero are extraordinary because his birth is really a rebirth, for which reason he is able to adapt so quickly to his heroic role ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 291

 

The journey of Moses with his servant Joshua is a life-journey (it lasted eighty years). They grow old together and lose the life-force, i.e., the fish, which “in wondrous wise took its way to the sea” (setting of the sun) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 291

 

When the two notice their loss, they discover at the place where the source of life is found (where the dead fish revived and sprang into the sea) Khidr wrapped in his mantle, sitting on the ground ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 291

 

Where the fish vanished Khidr, the Verdant One, was born as a “son of the watery deep,” his head veiled, proclaiming divine wisdom ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 291

 

They form a pair of brothers whose characters are revealed by the symbolic position of the torches (fig. 258.20bc) . Cumont not unjustly connects then with the sepulchral Erotes, who as genies with inverted torches have a traditional meaning. One would stand for death, the other for life ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 294

 

There are certain points of resemblance between the Mithraic sacrifice (where the bull in the center is flanked on either side by dadophors) and the Christian sacrifice of the lamb (or ram). The Crucified is traditionally flanked by two thieves, one of whom ascends to paradise while the other descends to hell ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 294

 

The two dadophors are, as Cumont has offshoots from the main figure of Mithras, who was supposed to have a secret triadic character. Dionysius the Areopagite reports that the magicians held a feast in honor of(the threefold Mithras) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 294

 

As Cumont observes Cautes and Cautopates sometimes carry in their hands the head of a bull and of a scorpion respectively ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 295

 

Taurus and Scorpio are equinoctial signs, and this is a clear indication that the sacrifice was primarily connected with the sun cycle: the rising sun that sacrifices itself at the summer solstice, and the setting sun. Since it was not easy to represent sunrise and sunset in the sacrificial drama, this idea had to be shown outside it ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 295

 

We have already pointed out that the Dioscuri represent a similar idea in somewhat different form: one sun is mortal, the other immortal. As this whole solar mythology is psychology projected into the heavens, the underlying idea could probably be paraphrased thus: just as man consists of a mortal and an immortal part, so the sun is a pair of brothers, one of whom is mortal (the setting sun), the other immortal (the ever-renewing sun). Man is mortal, yet there is something immortal in us ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 296

 

Thus the gods, or figures like Khidr and the Comte de Saint-Germain, are our immortal part which continue intangibly to exist 296

 

The sun comparison tells us over and over again that the dynamic of the gods is psychic energy. This is our immortality, the link through which man feels inextinguishably one with the continuity of all life. The life of the psyche is the life of mankind. Welling up from the depths of the unconscious, its springs gush forth from the root of the whole human race, since the individual is, biologically speaking, only a twig broken off from the mother and transplanted ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 296

 

Both possibilities are found on a late Babylonian gem from Lajard’s collection. In the middle stands an androgynous deity. On the masculine side there is a snake with a sun halo round its head; on the feminine side another snake with a sickle moon above it ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 297

 

This picture has a symbolic sexual nuance: on the masculine side there is a lozenge, a favourite symbol of the female genitals, and on the feminine side a wheel without its rim. The spokes are thickened at the ends into knobs, which, like the fingers we mentioned earlier, have a phallic meaning ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 297

 

It seems to be a phallic wheel such as was not unknown in antiquity. There are obscene gems on which Cupid is shown turning a wheel consisting entirely of phalli. As to what the sun signifies, I discovered in the collection of antiquities at Verona a late Roman inscription ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 297

 

The symbolism is plain: sun = phallus, moon = vessel (uterus). This interpretation is confirmed by another monument from the same collection. The symbols are the same, except that the vessel has been replaced by the figure of a woman ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 298

 

Certain symbols on coins can probably be interpreted in a similar manner. In Lajard’s Recherches sur la culte de Vénus there is a coin from Perga, showing Artemis as a conical stone flanked by a masculine figure (alleged to be the deity Men) and a female figure (alleged to be Artemis). Men (otherwise called Lunus) appears on an Attic bas-relief with a spear, flanked by Pan with a club, and a female figure. From this it is clear that sexuality as well as the sun can be used to symbolize the libido ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 298

 

Sex being one of the most obvious examples of instinctuality, it is sex which is liable to be most affected by these sacrificial measures, i.e., through abstinence ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 299

 

Just as Attis unmans himself for the sake of his mother, and his effigy was hung on the pine-tree in memory of this deed, so Christ hangs on the tree of life, on the wood of martyrdom, the and mother, and ransoms creation from death ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 671

 

Attis also wears the pileus [or “Phrygian cap”] like Men, Mithras, and the dadophors ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 29

 

The hero himself appears as a being of more than human stature. He is distinguished from the very beginning by his godlike characteristics ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 612

 

Since he is psychologically an archetype of the Self, his divinity only confirms that the Self is numinous, a sort of god, or having some share in the divine nature ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 612

 

The hero is the protagonist of God’s transformation in man; he corresponds to what I call the “mana personality.” The mana personality has such an immense fascination for the conscious mind that the ego all too easily succumbs to the temptation to identify with the hero, thus bringing on a psychic inflation with all its consequences. For this reason the repugnance felt by certain ecclesiastical circles for the “inner Christ” is understandable enough, at least as a preventive measure against the danger of psychic inflation which threatens the Christian European ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 612

 

Heroes are usually wanderers, and wandering is a symbol of longing, of the restless urge which never finds its object, of nostalgia for the lost mother. The sun comparison can easily be taken in this sense: the heroes are like the wandering sun, from which it is concluded that the myth of the hero is a solar myth ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 299

 

It seems to us, rather, that he is first and foremost a self-representation of the longing of the unconscious, of its unquenched and unquenchable desire for the light of consciousness. But consciousness, continually in danger of being led astray by its own light and of becoming a rootless will o’ the wisp, longs for the healing power of nature, for the deep wells of being and for unconscious communion with life in all its countless forms ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 299

 

It is not man as such who has to be regenerated or born again as a renewed whole, but, according to the statements of mythology, it is the hero or god who rejuvenates himself. These figures are generally expressed or characterized by libido-symbols (light, fire, sun, etc.), so that it looks as if they represented psychic energy. They are, in fact, personifications of the libido ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 388

 

The hero is a hero just because he sees resistance to the forbidden goal in all life’s difficulties and yet fights that resistance with the whole-hearted yearning that strives towards the treasure hard to attain, and perhaps unattainable yearning that paralyses and kills the ordinary man ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 510

 

The hero is an extraordinary being who is inhabited by a daemon, and it is this that makes him a hero. That is why the mythological statements about heroes are so typical and so impersonal ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 536

 

The treasure which the hero fetches from the dark cavern is life: it is himself, new-born from the dark maternal cave of the unconscious where he was stranded by the introversion or regression of libido. Hence the Hindu fire-bringer is called Matarisvan, he who swells in the mother. The hero who clings to the mother is the dragon, and when the hero is reborn from the mother he becomes the conqueror of the dragon) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 580

 

He [the hero] shares this paradoxical nature with the snake. According to Philo the snake is the most spiritual of all creatures; it is of a fiery nature, and its swiftness is terrible. It has a long life and sloughs off old age with its skin. In actual fact the snake is a cold-blooded creature, unconscious and unrelated. It is both toxic and prophylactic, equally a symbol of the good and bad daemon (the Agathodaimon), of Christ and the devil. Among the Gnostics it was regarded as an emblem of the brain-stem and spinal cord, as is consistent with its predominantly reflex psyche. It is an excellent symbol for the unconscious, perfectly expressing the latter’s sudden and unexpected manifestations, its painful and dangerous intervention in our affairs, and its frightening effects ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 580

 

Taken purely as a psychologem the hero represents the positive, favourable action of the unconscious, while the dragon is its negative and unfavourable action not birth, but a devouring; not a beneficial and constructive deed, but greedy retention and destruction ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 580

 

The hero who sets himself the task of renewing the world and conquering death personifies the world-creating power which, brooding on itself in introversion, coiled round its own egg like a snake, threatens life with its poisonous bite, so that the living may die and be born again from the darkness ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 592

 

The hero is himself the snake, himself the sacrificer and the sacrificed, which is why Christ rightly compares himself with the healing Moses- and why the saviour of the Christian Ophites was a serpent, too. It is both Agathodaimon and Cacodaimon. In German legend we are told that the heroes have snake’s eyes ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 593

 

It is therefore understandable that the three mother-goddesses, Rhea, Cybele, and Diana, all wear the mural crown. The Old Testament treats the cities of Jerusalem, Babylon, etc. just as if they were women ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 303

 

The Boeotian city of Thebes founded by Cadmus received on that account the cognomen “Ogygian.” This cognomen was also applied to the great Flood, which was called “Ogygian” because it happened under Ogyges. We shall see later on that this coincidence can hardly be accidental ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 306

 

The fact that the city and the wife of Ogyges both have the same name indicates that there must be some relation between the city and the woman, which is not difficult to understand because the city is identical with the woman ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 306

 

There is a similar idea in Hindu mythology, where Indra appears as the husband of Urvara. But Urvara means the “fertile land.” In the same way the seizure of a country by the king was regarded as his marriage with the land ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 306

 

Similar ideas must also have existed in Europe. Princes at their accession had to guarantee a good harvest. The Swedish king Domaldi was actually killed as a result of failure of the crops. In the Hindu Ramayana, the hero Rama marries Sita, the furrow ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 306

 

To the same circle of ideas belongs the Chinese custom of the emperor’s having to plough a furrow on ascending the throne ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 306

 

The motif of continuous cohabitation is expressed in the well-known lingam symbol found everywhere in Indian temples: the base is a female symbol, and within it stands the phallus (fig. 258.25) . This symbol is rather like the phallic baskets and chests of the Greeks ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 306

 

The chest or casket is a female, i.e., the womb, a common enough conception in the older mythologies. The chest, barrel, or basket with its precious contents was often thought of as floating on the water, thus forming an analogy to the course of the sun. The sun sails over the sea like an immortal god who every evening is immersed in the maternal waters and is born anew in the morning ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 306

 

Another form of the same motif is the Persian idea of the tree of life, which stands in the lake of rain, Vouru-Kasha. The seeds of this tree were mixed with the water and so maintained the fertility of the earth. The Vendidad, says that the waters flow “to the sea Vouru-Kasha, towards the well-watered tree, whereon grow the seeds of my plants of every kind” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 306

 

Frobenius describes the hero’s journey as going through eight stages: ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 310

 

It is easy to see what the battle with the sea monster means: it is the attempt to free the ego-consciousness from the deadly grip of the unconscious. The making of a fire in the monster’s belly suggests as much, for it is a piece of apotropaic magic aimed at dispelling the darkness of unconsciousness ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 539

 

The bird probably signifies the renewed ascent of the sun, the rebirth of the phoenix, and is at the same time one of those “helpful animals” who render supernatural aid during the birth: birds as aerial beings, symbolize spirits or angels ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 538

 

Divine messengers frequently appear at these mythological births, as can be seen from the use we still make of god-parents ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 538

 

The sun-symbol of the bird rising from the water is preserved etymologically in the idea of the singing swan. Swan' derives from the root sven, likesun’ and `sound’ ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 538

 

This ascent signifies rebirth, the bringing forth of life from the mother, and the ultimate conquest of death, which, according to an African Negro myth, came into the world through the carelessness of one old woman: when the season of universal skin-casting came round again (for in those days people renewed themselves by casting their skins like snakes), she was absent-minded enough to put on her old skin instead of the new one, and in consequence died ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 538

 

The myth often spans a period of three-days. The “three-days” are a stereotyped expression for the “night sea imprisonment” (December 21-24). Christ, too, spent three days in the underworld ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 512

 

The myth is exemplified in the battle of Hiawatha with Mishe-Nahma, the fish-king.Mishe-Nahma is a monster fish who lives at the bottom of the waters. Challenged to battle by Hiawatha, he swallows the hero together with his boat 537

 

Just as Hera, in her role of the pursuing mother, is the real source of the mighty deeds performed by Heracles, so Nokomis allows Hiawatha no rest, but piles up new difficulties in his path, hazardous adventures in which the hero may be victorious, but may also meet with his death ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 540

 

Man with his consciousness is always a long way behind the goals of the unconscious; unless his libido calls him forth to new dangers he sinks into slothful inactivity, or in the prime of life he is overcome with longing for the past and is paralysed ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 540

 

A Polynesian myth tells how the hero, in the belly of Kombili, the King Fish, seized his obsidian knife and cut open the fish’s belly. “He slipped out and beheld a splendour. Then he sat down and began to think. `I wonder where I am?’ he said to himself” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 311

 

In the light of these ideas we can understand the mythological statements about Ogyges: it is he who possesses the mother, the city, and is thus united with the mother; therefore under him came the great flood, for it is typical of the sun myth that the hero, once he is united with the woman “hard to attain,” is exposed in a cask and thrown out to sea, and then lands on a distant shore to begin a new life ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 312

 

The middle section, the night sea journey in the ark, is lacking in the Ogyges tradition. But the rule in mythology is that the typical parts of a myth can be fitted together in every conceivable variation, which makes it extraordinarily difficult to interpret one myth without a knowledge of all the others ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para312

 

The meaning of this cycle of myths is clear enough: it is the longing to attain rebirth through a return to the womb, and to become immortal like the sun. This longing for the mother is amply expressed in the literature of the Bible ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 312

 

The symbol-creating process substitutes for the mother the city, the well, the cave, the Church, etc. This substitution is due to the fact that the regression of libido reactivates the ways and habits of childhood, and above all the relation to the mother; but what was natural and useful to the child is a psychic danger for the adult, and this is expressed by the symbol of incest ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 313

 

Because the incest taboo opposes the libido and blocks the path to regression, it is possible for the libido to be canalized into the mother analogies thrown up by the unconscious ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 313

 

In that way the libido becomes progressive again, and even attains a level of consciousness higher than before ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 313

 

The meaning and purpose of this canalization are particularly evident when the city appears in place of the mother: the infantile attachment (whether primary or secondary) is a crippling limitation for the adult, whereas attachment to the city fosters his civic virtues and at least enables him to lead a useful existence ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 313

 

In primitives the tribe takes the place of the city ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 313

 

The birds are soul-images, by which are meant the souls of the damned and evil spirits. Thus the mother becomes the underworld, the City of the Damned ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 315

 

In this primordial image of the woman on the dragon we recognize Echidna, the mother of every hellish horror ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 315

 

Babylon is the symbol of the Terrible Mother, who leads the peoples into whoredom with her devilish temptations and makes them drunk with her wine. Here the intoxicating drink is closely associated with fornication, for it too is a libido symbol, as we have already seen in the soma-fire-sun parallel ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 31

 

From water comes life; hence, of the two deities who here interest us most, Christ and Mithras, the latter is represented as having been born beside a river, while Christ experienced his “rebirth” in the Jordan ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 319

 

Christ, moreover, was born of the, the sempiternal fons amoris or Mother of God, whom pagan-Christian legend turned into a nymph of the spring ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 319

 

The spring is also found in Mithraism. A Pannonian dedication reads “Fonti perenni.” An inscription from Apulum is dedicated to the “Fons aeternus.” In Persian, Ardvisura is the fount of the water of life ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 319

 

Ardvisura-Anahita is a goddess of water and love (just as Aphrodite is the “foam-born”) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 319

 

In the Vedas, the waters are called matritamah, `most maternal.’ All living things rise, like the sun, from water, and sink into it again at evening ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 319

 

Born of springs, rivers, lakes, and seas, man at death comes to the waters of the Styx, and there embarks on the “night sea journey.” Those black waters of death are the water of life, for death with its cold embrace is the maternal womb, just as the sea devours the sun but brings it forth again ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 319

 

The projection of the mother-imago upon water endows the water with a number of numinous or magical qualities peculiar to the mother. A good example of this is the baptismal water symbolism in the Church ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 320

 

The maternal aspect of water coincides with the nature of the unconscious, because the unconscious (particularly in men) can be regarded as the mother or matrix of consciousness ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 320

 

Numerous myths say that human beings came from trees, and many of them tell how the hero was enclosed in the maternal tree-trunk, like the dead Osiris in the cedar-tree, Adonis in the myrtle, ecocar Jung, CW 5, Para 321

 

Hence when Attis castrates himself under a pine-tree, he did so because the tree has a maternal significance ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 321

 

Not only the gods, but the goddesses, too, are libido-symbols, when regarded from the point of view of their dynamism. The libido expresses itself in images of sun, light, fire, sex, fertility, and growth ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 324

 

In this way the goddesses, as we have seen, come to possess phallic symbols, even though the latter are essentially masculine. One of the main reasons for this is that, just as the female lies hidden in the male (fig. 258.29) , so the male lies hidden in the female ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 324

 

The feminine quality of the tree that represents the goddesses contaminated with the phallic symbolism, as is evident from the genealogical tree that grows out of Adam’s body. In my Psychology and Alchemy I have reproduced, from a manuscript in Florence, a picture of Adam showing the membrum virile as a tree  Thus the tree has a bisexual character, as is also suggested by the fact that in Latin the names of trees have masculine endings and feminine gender ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 324

 

She was in a garden, where she found an exotic-looking tree with strange red fleshy flowers or fruits. She picked and ate them. Then, to her horror, she felt that she was poisoned ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 325

 

It is the tree of libido, which here represents the feminine as well as the masculine side, because it simply expresses the relationship of the two to one another ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 326

 

The various meanings of the treesun, tree of Paradise, mother, phallus are explained by the fact that it is a libido-symbol and not an allegory of this or that concrete object. Thus a phallic symbol does not denote the sexual organ, but the libido, and however clearly it appears as such, it does not mean itself but is always a symbol of the libido ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 329

 

Symbols are not signs or allegories for something known; they seek rather to express something that is little known or completely unknown. The tertium comparationis [the `third for comparison’] for all these symbols is the libido, and the unity of meaning lies in the fact that they are all analogies of the same thing. In this realm the fixed meaning of things comes to an end ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 329

 

The sole reality is the libido, whose nature we can only experience through its effect on us. Thus, it is not the mother who is symbolized, but the libido of the son, whose object was once the mother ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 329

 

We take mythological symbols much too concretely and are puzzled at every turn by the endless contradictions of myths. But we always forget that it is the conscious creative force which wraps itself in images ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 329

 

When, therefore, we read: “His mother was a wicked witch,” we must translate it as: the son is unable to detach his libido from the mother-imago, he suffers from resistances because he is tied to the mother ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 329

 

One of the simplest ways would be to impregnate the mother and beget oneself in identical form all over again. But here the incest prohibition intervenes; consequently the sun myths and rebirth myths devise every conceivable kind of mother-analogy for the purpose of canalizing the libido into new forms and effectively preventing it from regressing to actual incest ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 332

 

The effect of the incest-taboo and of the attempts at canalization is to stimulate the creative imagination, which gradually opens up possible avenues for the self-realization of libido. In this way the libido becomes imperceptibly spiritualized ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 332

 

The power which “always desires evil” thus creates spiritual life. That is why the religions exalt this procedure into a system. It is instructive to see the pains they take to further the translation into symbols ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 332

 

To the above, I would add that it is hardly possible to restrict this impulse to sexuality. It is primarily a question of primitive instinctuality, of insufficiently differentiated libido which prefers to take a sexual form. Sexuality is by no means the only form of the “full feeling of life.” There are some passions that cannot be derived from sex ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 332

 

It is not possible to discuss the problem of symbol-formation without reference to the instinctual processes, because it is from them that the symbol derives its motive power. It has no meaning whatever unless it strives against the resistance of instinct, just as undisciplined instincts would bring nothing but ruin to man if the symbol does not give them form ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 338

 

Jung believed that the causal explanation was incorrect because the so-called “incest prohibition” which is supposed to operate here is not in itself a primary phenomenon, but goes back to something much more fundamental, namely the primitive system of marriage classes which, in its turn, is a vital necessity in the organization of the tribe ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 332

 

So it is more a question of phenomena requiring a teleological explanation than of simple causalities. Moreover it must be pointed out that the basis of the “incestuous” desire is not cohabitation, but, as every sun myth shows, the strange idea of becoming a child again, of returning to the parental shelter, and of entering into the mother in order to be reborn through her. But the way to this goal lies through incest, i.e., the necessity of finding some way into the mother’s body ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 332

 

One of the simplest ways would be to impregnate the mother and beget oneself in identical form all over again. But here the incest prohibition intervenes; consequently the sun myths and rebirth myths devise every conceivable kind of mother-analogy for the purpose of canalizing the libido into new forms and effectively preventing it from regressing to actual incest ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 332

 

It is not incestuous cohabitation that is desired, but rebirth. The incest prohibition acts as an obstacle and makes the creative fantasy inventive: for instance, there are attempts to make the mother pregnant by means of fertility magic ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 332

 

The effect of the incest-taboo and of the attempts at canalization is to stimulate the creative imagination, which gradually opens up possible avenues for the self-realization of libido. In this way the libido becomes imperceptibly spiritualized  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 332

 

The power which “always desires evil” thus creates spiritual life. That is why the religions exalt this procedure into a system. It is instructive to see the pains they take to further the translation into symbols ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 332

 

It is not possible to discuss the problem of symbol-formation without reference to the instinctual processes, because it is from them that the symbol derives its motive power. It has no meaning whatever unless it strives against the resistance of instinct, just as undisciplined instincts would bring nothing but ruin to man if the symbol does not give them form ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 338

 

It is less than two thousand years since the cult of sex was in full bloom. In those days, of course, they were heathens and did not know any better, but the nature of the symbol-creating forces does not change from age to age ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 339

 

If one has any conception of the sexual content of those ancient cults, and if one realizes that the experience of union with God was understood in antiquity as a more or less concrete coitus, then one can no longer pretend that the forces motivating the production of symbols have suddenly become different since the birth of Christ ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 339

 

The fact that primitive Christianity resolutely turned away from nature and the instincts in general, and, through its asceticism, from sex in particular, clearly indicates the source from which its motive forces came ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 339

 

So it is not surprising that this transformation has left noticeable traces in Christian symbolism. Had it not done so, Christianity would never have been able to transform libido. It succeeded in this largely because its archetypal analogies were for the most part in tune with the instinctual forces it wanted to transform ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 339

 

At a time when a large part of mankind is beginning to discard Christianity, it may be worth our while to try to understand why it was accepted in the first place ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 341

 

It was accepted as a means of escape from the brutality and unconsciousness of the ancient world. As soon as we discard it [Christianity], the old brutality returns in force, as has been made overwhelmingly clear by contemporary events ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 341

 

He who throws Christianity overboard and with it the whole basis of morality, is bound to be confronted with the age old problem of brutality. We have had bitter experience of what happens when a whole nation finds the moral mask too stupid to keep up. The beast breaks loose, and a frenzy of demoralization sweeps over the civilized world ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 341

 

Today there are countless neurotics who are neurotic simply because they do not know why they cannot be happy in their own way they do not even know that the fault lies with them ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 342

 

Besides these neurotics there are many more normal people, men and women of the better kind, who feel restricted and discontented because they have no symbol which would act as an outlet for their libido ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 342

 

For all these people a reductive analysis down to the primal facts should be undertaken, so that they can become acquainted with their primitive personality and learn how to take due account of it. Only in this way can certain requirements be fulfilled and others rejected as unreasonable because of their infantile character ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 342

 

We like to imagine that our primitive traits have long since disappeared without trace. In this we are cruelly disappointed, for never before has our civilization been so swamped with evil. Mere faith cannot be counted as an ethical ideal either, because it too is an unconscious transformation of libido. Faith is a charisma for those who possess it, but it is no way for those who need to understand before they can believe. This is a matter of temperament and cannot be discounted as valueless. For, ultimately, even the believer believes that God gave man reason, and for something better than to lie and cheat with ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 342

 

Although we naturally believe in symbols in the first place, we can also understand them, and this is indeed the only viable way for those who have not been granted the charisma of faith ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 342

 

Psychological truth by no means excludes metaphysical truth, though psychology, as a science, has to hold aloof from all metaphysical assertions. Its subject is the psyche and its contents. Both are realities, because they work ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 344

 

Though we do possess a physics of the soul, and are not even able to observe it and judge it from some Archimedean point “outside” ourselves, and can therefore know nothing objective about it since all knowledge of the psyche is itself psychic, in spite of all this the soul is the only experiment of life and existence ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 344

 

It is, in fact, the only immediate experience we can have and the sine qua non of the subjective reality of the world. The symbols it creates are always grounded in the unconscious archetype, but their manifest forms are moulded by the ideas acquired by the conscious mind ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 344

 

The archetypes are the numinous, structural elements of the psyche and possess a certain autonomy and specific energy which enables them to attract, out of the conscious mind, those contents which are best suited to themselves ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 344

 

The symbols act as transformers, their function to convert libido from a “lower” into a “higher” form. This function is so important that feeling accords it the highest values ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 344

 

The symbol works by suggestion; that is to say, it carries conviction and at the same time expresses the content of the conviction. It is able to do this because of the numen, the specific energy stored up in the archetype. Experience of the archetype is not only impressive, it seizes and possesses the whole personality, and is naturally productive of faith ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 344

 

Rhea was pregnant with Osiris and his twin sister Isis, and they mated together even in their mother’s womb (night sea journey with incest) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 349

 

Isis is said to have been born in the “All-Wetness”, and of Osiris it is related that a certain Pamyles of Thebes, whilst drawing water, heard a voice from the temple of Zeus which commanded him to proclaim that Osiris, “the great and beneficent king”, was born. In honour of this Pamyles the Pamylia were celebrated, similar to the Phallophoria ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 349

 

Pamyles seems, therefore, to have been originally a phallic daimon, like Dionysus. In his phallic form he represents the creative power which “draws” things out of the unconscious (i.e., the water) and begets the god (Osiris) as a conscious content ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 349

 

This process can be understood both as an individual experience: Pamyles drawing water, and as a symbolic act or experience of the archetype: a drawing up from the depths ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 349

 

What is drawn up is a numinous, previously unconscious content which would remain dark were it not interpreted by the voice from above as the birth of a god. This type of experience recurs in the baptism [Christ’s] in the Jordan ( Matthew 3 : 17 ) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 349

 

Typical of the trees found in myth is the tree of paradise, or tree of life; most people know of the pine-tree of Attis, the tree or trees of Mithras, and the word-ash Yggdrasill of Nordic mythology, and so on ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 349

 

The hanging of Attis, in effigy, on a pine-tree, the hanging of Marsyas, which became a popular theme for art, the hanging of Odin, the Germanic hanging sacrifices and the whole series of hanged gods all teach us that the hanging of Christ on the Cross is nothing unique in religious mythology, but belongs to the same circle of ideas ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 349

 

In this world of images the Cross is the Tree of Life and at the same time a Tree of Death coffin (fig. 258.36) . Just as the myths tell us that human beings were descended from trees, so there were burial customs where people were buried in hollow tree-trunks, whence the German Totenbaum, `tree of death,’ for coffin, which is still in use today ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 349

 

If we remember that the tree is predominantly a mother-symbol, then the meaning of this mode of burial becomes clear. The dead are delivered back to the mother for rebirth ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 349

 

Osiris was killed in a crafty manner by the god of the underworld, Set (Typhon in Greek) who locked him in a chest ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 350

 

After completing the night sea journey, the coffer containing Osiris was cast ashore at Byblos and came to rest in the branches of a cedar-tree which shot up and enclosed the coffer in its trunk (fig. 023) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 353

 

The king of the country, admiring the splendid tree, caused it to be cut down and made into a pillar supporting the roof of his house time that coincides with the age-old lament for the dead god ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 353

 

Isis collected the pieces together again with the help of the jackal-headed Anubis. Here the dogs and jackals, devourers of corpses by night, assist in the reconstitution or reproduction of Osiris. To this necrophagous function the Egyptian vulture probably owes its symbolic mother significance ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 354

 

Although Isis had managed to collect the pieces of the body, its resuscitation was only partially successful because the phallus could not be found; it had been eaten by the fishes, and the reconstituted body lacked vital force ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 356

 

The phantom Osiris lay once more with Isis, but the fruit of their union was Harpocrates [the young Horus] who was weak “in the lower limbs,” i.e., in the feet ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 356

 

Osiris, although only a phantom, now makes the young sun (his son Horus), ready for battle with Set, the evil spirit of darkness ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 356

 

Osiris and Horus represent the father-son symbolism mentioned at the beginning. Osiris is thus flanked by the comely Horus and the misshapen Harpocrates, who is mostly shown as a cripple, sometimes distorted to the point of freakishness ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 356

 

The serpent symbolizes the mysterious numen of the “mother” (and of other daimonia) who kills, but who is at the same time man’s only security against death, as she is the source of life. Accordingly, only the mother can cure him who is sick unto death, and the hymn goes on to describe how the gods were called together to take counsel: ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 452

 

Finally Ra decides to utter his true name. He was only partially cured, just as Osiris was only incompletely reconstituted, and in addition he lost his power and finally had to retire on the back of the heavenly cow ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 454

 

From this wound Ra never recovered, so that he finally had to retire on the back of the heavenly cow. But the cow was the cow-headed mother-goddess (fig. 258.30b) , just as Osiris was the bull Apis. The mother is accused as though she were the cause of his having to fly to her in order to be cured of the wound she herself had inflicted ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 351

 

So when the sun-god Ra retires on the back of the heavenly cow, it means that he is going back into the mother in order to rise again as Horus. In the morning the goddess is the mother, at noon she is the sister-wife, and at evening once more the mother who takes back the dead into her womb ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 360

 

The poisonous worm is a deadly form of libido instead of an animating form. The “true name” is Ra’s soul and magic power (his libido). What Isis demands is the transference of libido to the mother. This request is fulfilled to the letter, for the aging god returns to the heavenly cow, the symbol of the mother ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 455

 

But the real cause of the wound is the incest-taboo, which cuts a man off from the security of childhood and early youth, from all those unconscious, instinctive happenings that allow the child to live without responsibility as an appendage of his parents ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 351

 

It is significant that it is “evil” which lures Osiris into the chest; for, in the light of teleology, the motif of containment signifies the latent state that precedes regeneration ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 351

 

Actually Isis collected the pieces of Osiris’ body together with the help of the jackal-headed Anubis. Here the dogs and jackals, devourers of corpses by night, assist in the reconstitution or reproduction of Osiris. To this necrophagous function the Egyptian vulture probably owes its symbolic mother significance ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 354

 

In ancient times the Persians used to throw out their corpses for the dogs to devour, just as, today in Tiber, the dead are left to the vultures, and in Bombay, where the Parsis expose their corpses on the “tower of silence” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 354

 

The Persians had the custom of leading a dog to the bedside of a dying man, who then had to give the dog a morsel to eat. This custom suggests that the morsel should belong to the dog, so that he will spare the body of the dying man, just as Cerberus was pacified with the honey-cakes which Heracles gave him on his journey to hell ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 354

 

Hence the bringing in of the dog would have a compensatory significance, death being made equal to the sun at its highest point. This is a thoroughly psychological interpretation, as can be seen from the fact that death is quite commonly regarded as an entry into the mother’s womb (for rebirth) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 354

 

The interpretation would seem to be supported by the otherwise enigmatic function of the dog in the Mithraic sacrifice. In the monuments a dog is often shown leaping upon the bull killed by Mithras. In the light of the Persian legend, and on the evidence of the monuments themselves, this sacrifice should be conceived as the moment of supreme fruitfulness ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 354

 

This moment of supreme fruitfulness is most beautifully portrayed in the Mithraic relief at Heddernheim. On one side of a large (formerly rotating) stone slab there is a stereotyped representation of the overthrow and sacrifice of the bull, while on the other side stand Sol with a bunch of grapes in his hand, Mithras with the cornucopia, and the dadophors bearing fruits, in accordance with the legend that from the dead bull comes all fruitfulness: fruits from his horns, wine from his blood, corn from his tail, cattle from his semen, garlic from his nostrils, and so forth. Over this scene stands Sylvanus, the beasts of the forest leaping away from him ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 354

 

In this context the dog might very well have the significance suspected by Creuzer. Moreover the goddess of the underworld, Hecate, is dog-headed, like Anubis. As Canicula, she received dog sacrifices to keep away the pest ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 355

 

Hecate’s close relation to the moon-goddess suggests that she was a promoter of growth. Hecate was the first to bring Demeter news of her stolen daughter, another reminder of Anubis ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 355

 

Dog sacrifices were also offered to Eileithyia, the goddess of birth, and Hecate herself (fig. 258.58) is, on occasion, a goddess of marriage and birth ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 355

 

The dog is also the regular companion of Aesculapius, the god of healing, who, while still a mortal, raised a man from the dead and was struck by a thunderbolt as a punishment. These associations help to explain the following passage in Petronius: I earnestly beseech you to paint a small dog round the foot of my statue so that by your kindness I may attain to life after death ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 355

 

Diocletian dedicated a crypt to Hecate, with 365 steps leading down to it. Cave mysteries in her honor seem also to have been celebrated in Samothrace. The Hecate mysteries flourished in Rome towards the end of the fourth century ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

Hecate plays an important part in Greek syncretism, being confused with Artemis, who was also called the, ‘far-hitting,’ or `she who hits at will,’ a name that once more reveals her superordinate power. Artemis is the huntress with hounds, and Hecate too is the wild huntress prowling at night ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

The goddess of the underworld, Hecate, is sometimes represented with a horse’s head As goddess of the underworld, Hecate, is dog-headed, like Anubis. As Canicula, she received dog sacrifices to keep away the pest ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 355

 

As guardian of the gate of Hades and as the triple-bodied goddess of dogs, she is more or less identical with Cerberus. Thus, in bringing up Cerberus, Heracles was really bringing the vanquished mother of death to the upper world ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

It is she who sends that horrible and fearful night-time apparition, the Empusa, which Aristophanes says comes wrapped in a bladder swollen with blood. According to Libanius, the mother of Aischines was also called Empusa, because she “rushed out upon women and children from dark places” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

As an incubus or vampire she appears in the form of Empusa, or as a man-eating lamia or again in that more beautiful guise, the “Bride of Corinth”. The Empusa had peculiar feet: one foot was of brass, the other of ass’s dung ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

Hecate is a real spook-goddess of the night and phantoms, a nightmare; she is sometimes shown riding a horse, and in Hesiod she is counted the patron goddess of riders ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

She [Hecate] is the mother of all witchcraft and witches, the patron goddess of Medea, because the power of the Terrible Mother is irresistible, coming as it does from the unconscious ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

The pillory where criminals were scourged was also known as the Hekate; and to her, as to the Roman Trivia, were dedicated junctions of three roads, forked roads, and crossroads. Where the roads branch off or meet, dog-sacrifices were offered to her, and there too were thrown the bodies of the executed: the sacrifice occurs at the point of union ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

Where the roads cross and enter into one another, thereby symbolizing the union of opposites, there is the “mother,” the object and epitome of all union ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

Where the roads divide, where there is parting, separation, splitting, there we find the “division,” the cleft the symbol of the mother and at the same time the essence of what the mother means for us, namely cleavage and farewell. Accordingly, the meaning of a sacrifice on this spot would be: propitiation of the mother in both senses ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

Hecate is a birth-goddess(),the `multiplier of cattle,’ and goddess of marriage. In Orphic cosmogony, she occupies the centre of the world as Aphrodite and Gaia, if not as the world-soul itself ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

In Tralles, Hecate appears side by side with Priapus; there is also a Hecate Aphrodisias ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

The identification of Hecate with Brimo as the underworldly mother is understandable, also her identification with Persephone and Rhea, the primitive All-Mother. Her maternal significance also explains her confusion with Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

In the Hecate mysteries a wand, named the(`white leaved’) was broken. This wand protected the purity of virgins and caused madness in anyone who touched it. We recognize here the motif of the sacred tree, the mother who might not be touched. Only a madman would attempt to do so ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

Her close relation to the moon-goddess suggests that she was a promoter of growth. Hecate was the first to bring Demeter news of her stolen daughter, another reminder of Anubis. Hecate herself is, on occasion, a goddess of marriage and birth ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 355

 

As the “spirit-mother” she sends madness, the moon sickness. This idea is perfectly sensible, because most forms of lunacy consist of affections which amount to an invasion by the unconscious and an inundation of the conscious mind ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

Nun is therefore invoked as “Amon, the primordial waters, which was in the beginning.” He is also called the father of fathers, the mother of mothers ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 358

 

The word nun means `young, fresh, new,’ and also the new flood-waters of the Nile. In a metaphorical sense it is used for the chaotic waters of the beginning, and for the birth-giving primary substance, which is personified as the goddess Naunet ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 359

 

From her sprang Nut, the sky-goddess, who is represented with a starry body or as a heavenly cow dotted with stars ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 359

 

A primitive myth tells of a sun-hero who has to be freed from a creeping plant. The girl dreams that her lover has fallen into the water; she tries to rescue him, but first has to pull seaweed out of the water, then she catches him ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 362

 

In an African myth the hero, after his deed, has to be disentangled from the seaweed ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 362

 

In a Polynesian story the hero’s canoe is caught in the tentacles of a giant polyp, just as Ra’s barge was entwined by the nocturnal serpent on the night sea journey ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 362

 

The motif of entwining also occurs in Sir Edwin Arnold’s poetic version of the story of Buddha’s birth:

 

Queen Maya stood at noon, her days fulfilled,

Under a palsa in the palace-grounds,

A stately trunk, straight as a temple-shaft,

With crown of glossy leaves and fragrant blooms;

And, knowing the time come for all things knew

The conscious tree bent down its boughs to make

A bower about Queen Maya’s majesty:

And Earth put forth a thousand sudden flowers

To spread a couch; while, ready for the bath,

The rock hard by gave out a limpid stream

Of crystal flow. So brought she forth her child (The Light of Asia, p. 5) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 362

 

There is a very similar motif in the cult-legend of the Samian Hera. Every year her image “disappeared” from the temple, attached itself to a lygos-tree somewhere on the seashore, and was entwined in its branches ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 363

 

In Plataea and Argos a wedding procession was staged in their honour with bridesmaids, wedding feast, etc. The festival took place in the “wedding month” of Gamelion (beginning of February). The image was carried to a lonely spot in the woods, which is in keeping with Plutarch’s story that Zeus kidnapped Hera and hid her in a cave on Mount Cithaeron ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 363

 

After our previous remarks we have to conclude that there is still another train of thought connected with the hierosgamos, namely, rejuvenation magic. The disappearance and hiding of the image in the wood, in the cave, on the seashore, its twining-about by the lygos-treefall this points to death and rebirth. The early springtime, Gamelion, fits in very well with this theory. In fact, Pausanias tells us that the Argive Hera became a virgin again by taking a yearly dip in the fountain of Kanathos ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 363

 

The motif of “devouring” which Frobenius has shown to be one of the commonest components of the sun myth, is closely connected with embracing and entwining ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 365

 

The “whale-dragon” always “devours” the hero, but the devouring can also be partial. For instance, a six-year-old girl who hated going to school once dreamt that her leg was encircled by a large red worm. Contrary to what might be expected, she evinced a tender interest in the creature ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 365

 

The motif of entwining is a mother-symbol. The entwining trees are at the same time birth-giving mothers, as in the Greek myth where there ash-trees, the mothers of the men of the Bronze Age. According to a Nordic myth, God created man by breathing life into a substance called tre (tree, wood) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 367

 

In the wood of the world-ash Yggdrasill a human pair hide themselves at the end of the world, and from them will spring a new race of men. At the moment of universal destruction the world-ash becomes the guardian mother, the tree pregnant with death and life ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 367

 

The regenerative function of the world-ash helps to explain the image in the chapter of the Egyptian Book of the Dead called “The Gate of Knowledge of the Souls of the East”: ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 367

 

The hero often has to steer his ship between two rocks that clash together. (A similar idea is that of the biting door or the snapping tree-trunk.) In its passage the stern of the ship (or the tail of the bird) is pinched off, another reminder of the mutilation motif (twisting out the arm) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 367

 

The 19th-cent. German poet J. V. von Scheffel uses this image in his poem “A herring loved an oyster.” The poem ends with the oyster nipping off the herring’s head in a kiss. The doves which bring Zeus his ambrosia have to pass through the clashing rocks ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 367

 

Frobenius points out that these rocks are closely connected with the rocks or caves that only open at a magic word. The most striking illustration of this is a South African myth: “You must call the rock by name and cry loudly: `Rock Untunjambili, open, so that I may enter.’” But if the rock does not want to open, it answers: “The rock will not open to children, it opens to the swallows that fly in the air” ( Frobenius, Zeitalter p. 407 ) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 367

 

The remarkable thing is that no human power can open the rock, only the magic word or a bird. This formulation implies that opening the rock is an undertaking that can never be accomplished in reality, it can only be wished. Wünschen (wish) in Middle High German means the “power to do something extraordinary.” The bird is a symbol of “wishful thinking” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 367

 

The idea is that Ra rises up, born from the tree. The representations of the sun-god Mithras should probably be interpreted in the same way ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

In the Heddernheim Relief, Mithras is shown with half his body rising from the top of a tree, and in other monuments half his body is stuck in the rock, which clearly points to the rock-birth ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

Often there is a stream near Mithras’ birthplace. This conglomeration of symbols is also found in the birth of Aschanes, the first Saxon king, who grew from the Harz rocks in the middle of a wood near a fountain ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

Nor is it surprising that Christian legend transformed the tree of death, the Cross, into the Tree of Life, so that Christ is often shown hanging on a green tree among the fruit ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

The derivation of the Cross from the Tree of Life, which was an authentic religious symbol even in Babylonian times, is considered entirely probable by Zöckler, an authority on the history of the Cross. The pre-Christian meaning of so universal a symbol does not contradict this view; quite the contrary, for its meaning is life ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

Nor does the existence of the cross in the sun-cult (where the regular cross and the swastika represent the sun-wheel) and in the cult of the love-goddesses in any way contradict its historical significance. Christian legend has made abundant use of this symbolism ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

The student of medieval art will be familiar with the representation of the Cross growing from Adam’s. The legend says that Adam was buried on Golgotha, and that Seth planted on his grave a twig from the tree of Paradise, which grew into Christ’s Cross, the Tree of Death ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

As we know, it was through Adam’s guilt that sin and death came into the world, and Christ through his death redeemed us from the guilt. If we ask, In what did Adam’s guilt consist? the answer is that the unpardonable sin to be punished by death was that he dared to eat of the tree of Paradise ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

The consequences of this are described in a Jewish legend: one who was permitted to gaze into Paradise after the Fall saw the tree and the four streams, but the tree was withered, and in its branches lay a babe. The “mother” had become pregnant ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

According to German legend, the saviour will be born when he can be rocked in a cradle made from the wood of a tree that is now but a feeble shoot sprouting from a wall ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

The formula runs: “A lime tree shall be planted, that shall throw out two plantschen [boughs] above, and out of their wood is a poie [buoy] to be made; the first child that therein lies is doomed to be brought from life to death by the sword, and then will salvation ensue” ( Grimm, III, p. 969 ) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

The legend relates that Lilith rose up into the air through the magic of God’s name and hid herself in the sea. Adam forced her to come back with the help of three angels, whereupon Lilith changed into a nightmare or lamia who haunted pregnant women and kidnapped new-born infants ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 369

 

The original legend is that Lamia seduced Zeus, but the jealous Hera caused her to bring only dead children into the world. Ever since then, the raging Lamia has persecuted children, whom she destroys whenever she can ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 369

 

This motif is a recurrent one in fairytales, where the mother often appears as a murderess or eater of human flesh; a well-known German paradigm is the story of Hansel and Gretel. Lamia is also the name of a large, voracious fish, which links up with the whale-dragon motif worked out by Frobenius. Once again we meet the idea of the Terrible Mother in the form of a voracious fish, a personification of death ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 369

 

As mentioned above, Adam forced Lilith to come back with the help of three angels. Here we may discern, perhaps, the motif of the “helpful bird “angels are really birds. Cf. the feather-dress of the “soul-birds” in the underworld ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 369

 

In the Mithraic sacrifice the messenger of the gods the “angel “was a raven; the messenger is winged (Hermes) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 369

 

In Jewish tradition angels are masculine. The symbolism of the three angels is important because it signifies the upper, aerial, spiritual triad in conflict with the one lower, feminine power ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 369

 

The riding takes on a special aspect in the light of researches into child psychology: the two contributions of Freud and myself have established the fear-significance of horses on the one hand, and the sexual meaning of riding fantasies on the other ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 370

 

The essential feature is the rhythm, which assumes a sexual significance only secondarily. If we take these factors into account, it will not surprise us to hear that the maternal world-ash Yggdrasill is called the Schreckross (terrible horse) in German ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 370

 

Cannegieter says of nightmares: Even today the peasants drive away these female spirits (mother-goddesses, moirae) by throwing the bone of a horse’s head upon the roof, and you can often see such bones on peasant houses hereabouts. But at night lamias are believed to ride at the time of the first sleep and to tire out the horses for long journeys ( Epistola de ara ad Noviomagum reperta, p. 25 ) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 370

 

A synonym for the nightmare is the troll or “treader.” The treading movement has been verified by the experience of Freud and myself with children, which shows that a secondary sexual meaning attaches to stamping or kicking, though the rhythm is obviously primary ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 370

 

May it perhaps point back to the great primordial image of the mother, who was once our only world and later became the symbol of the whole world? ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 373

 

Goethe says of the Mothers that they are “thronged round with images of all creation.” Even the Christians could not refrain from reuniting their Mother of God with the water: “Ave maris stella” are the opening words of a hymn to Mary ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 373

 

It is probably significant that the infantile word ma-ma (mother’s breast) is found in all languages, and that the mothers of two religious heroes were called Mary and Maya ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 373

 

Horus vanquished the wicked Set who had murdered his father Osiris, but Isis set him free again ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 374

 

Outraged, Horus lifted his hand against his mother and snatched the royal diadem from her head, in place of which Thoth gave her a cow’s head. Horus then vanquished Set for a second time ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 374

 

In the Greek legend, Typhon (Set) is a dragon. But even without this confirmation it is evident that Horus’ fight is the typical fight of the sun-hero with the “whale dragon” who, as we know, is a symbol of the Terrible Mother, of the voracious maw, the jaws of death in which men are crunched and ground to pieces ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 374

 

Whoever conquers this monster wins to eternal youth. But to this end, defying all danger, he must descend into the belly of the monster (“journey to hell”) and sojourn there for some time (“night sea imprisonment:” Frobenius) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 374

 

The fight with the “nocturnal serpent” accordingly signifies conquest of the mother, who is suspected of an infamous crime, namely the betrayal of her son. Complete confirmation of all this is furnished by the fragments of the Babylonian Creation Epic discovered by George Smith, most of which come from the library of Assurbanipal. The text dates from about the time of Hammurabi ( 2000 B.C. ) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 375

 

From this account of the Creation we learn that Ea, the son of the watery deep and god of wisdom, has overthrown Apsu. Apsu is the progenitor of the great gods, so Ea has conquered the father. But Tiamat, the mother of the gods, plots revenge, and arrays herself for battle against them ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 375

 

Against the fearful hosts of Tiamat the gods finally put up Marduk, the god of spring, who represents the victorious sun. Marduk prepares himself for battle and forges his invincible weapons ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 376

 

Since he [Marduk] is psychologically an archetype of the Self, his divinity only confirms that the Self is numinous, a sort of god, or having some share in the divine nature ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 612

 

The hero is the protagonist of God’s transformation in man; he corresponds to what I call the “mana personality.” The mana personality has such an immense fascination for the conscious mind that the ego all too easily succumbs to the temptation to identify with the hero, thus bringing on a psychic inflation with all its consequences. For this reason the repugnance felt by certain ecclesiastical circles for the “inner Christ” is understandable enough, at least as a preventive measure against the danger of psychic inflation which threatens the Christian European ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 612

 

Heroes are usually wanderers, and wandering is a symbol of longing, of the restless urge which never finds its object, of nostalgia for the lost mother. The sun comparison can easily be taken in this sense: the heroes are like the wandering sun, from which it is concluded that the myth of the hero is a solar myth ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 299

 

It seems to us, rather, that he is first and foremost a self-representation of the longing of the unconscious, of its unquenched and unquenchable desire for the light of consciousness. But consciousness, continually in danger of being led astray by its own light and of becoming a rootless will o’ the wisp, longs for the healing power of nature, for the deep wells of being and for unconscious communion with life in all its countless forms ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 299

 

It is not man as such who has to be regenerated or born again as a renewed whole, but, according to the statements of mythology, it is the hero or god who rejuvenates himself. These figures are generally expressed or characterized by libido-symbols (light, fire, sun, etc.), so that it looks as if they represented psychic energy. They are, in fact, personifications of the libido ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 388

 

The hero is a hero just because he sees resistance to the forbidden goal in all life’s difficulties and yet fights that resistance with the whole-hearted yearning that strives towards the treasure hard to attain, and perhaps unattainable yearning that paralyses and kills the ordinary man ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 510

 

The hero is an extraordinary being who is inhabited by a daemon, and it is this that makes him a hero. That is why the mythological statements about heroes are so typical and so impersonal ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 536

 

The treasure which the hero fetches from the dark cavern is life: it is himself, new-born from the dark maternal cave of the unconscious where he was stranded by the introversion or regression of libido. Hence the Hindu fire-bringer is called Matarisvan, he who swells in the mother. The hero who clings to the mother is the dragon, and when the hero is reborn from the mother he becomes the conqueror of the dragon ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 580

 

He [the hero] shares this paradoxical nature with the snake. According to Philo the snake is the most spiritual of all creatures; it is of a fiery nature, and its swiftness is terrible. It has a long life and sloughs off old age with its skin. In actual fact the snake is a cold-blooded creature, unconscious and unrelated. It is both toxic and prophylactic, equally a symbol of the good and bad daemon (the Agathodaimon), of Christ and the devil. Among the Gnostics it was regarded as an emblem of the brain-stem and spinal cord, as is consistent with its predominantly reflex psyche. It is an excellent symbol for the unconscious, perfectly expressing the latter’s sudden and unexpected manifestations, its painful and dangerous intervention in our affairs, and its frightening effects ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 580

 

The hero who sets himself the task of renewing the world and conquering death personifies the world-creating power which, brooding on itself in introversion, coiled round its own egg like a snake, threatens life with its poisonous bite, so that the living may die and be born again from the darkness ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 592

 

The hero is himself the snake, himself the sacrificer and the sacrificed, which is why Christ rightly compares himself with the healing Moses-serpent and why the saviour of the Christian Ophites was a serpent, too. It is both Agathodaimon and Cacodaimon. In German legend we are told that the heroes have snake’s eyes ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 593

 

Thus Khnum, the maker,' thepotter,’ the `builder,’ shapes his egg on the potter’s wheel, for he is “immortal growth, his own generation and his own self-birth, the creator of the egg that came out of the primeval waters” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 389

 

The Egyptian Book of the Dead says: “I have risen like the mighty hawk that comes forth from his egg,” and: “I am the creator of Nun, who has taken up his abode in the underworld. My nest is not seen and my egg is not broken” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 389

 

Yet another passage speaks of “that great and glorious god in his egg, who created himself for that which came forth from him”. Therefore the god is also called Nagaga-uer, the “Great Cackler.” ( Book of the Dead 98:2: “I cackle like the goose, and whistle like the hawk”) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 389

 

The legend says that all creatures had pledged themselves not to harm Baldur; only the mistletoe was forgotten, because she was supposed to be too young ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 392

 

Mistletoe was also a sovereign remedy against barrenness. In Gaul, it was only after offering sacrifice that the Druid was allowed, amid solemn ceremonies, to climb the sacred oak and cut the ritual branch of mistletoe ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 392

 

That which grows on the tree is the child, or oneself, in renewed and rejuvenated form; and that is precisely what one cannot have, because the incest prohibition forbids it ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 392

 

We are told that the mistletoe which killed Baldur was “too young”; hence this clinging parasite could be interpreted as the “child of the tree” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 392

 

But as the tree signifies the origin in the sense of the mother, it represents the source of life, of that magical life-force whose yearly renewal was celebrated in primitive times by the homage paid to a divine son, a puer aeternus ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 392

 

The graceful Baldur is such a figure. This type is granted only a fleeting existence, because he is never anything but an anticipation of something desired and hoped for ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 392

 

This is so literally true that a certain type of “mother’s son” actually exhibits all the characteristics of the flower-like, youthful god, and even dies an early death ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 392

 

The reason is that he only lives on and through the mother and can strike no roots in the world, so that he finds himself in a state of permanent incest. He is, as it were, only a dream of the mother, an ideal which she soon takes back to herself, as we can see from the Near Eastern “son-gods,” like Tammuz, Attis, Adonis, and Christ ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 392

 

The mistletoe, like Baldur, represents the “child of the mother,” the longed-for, revivified life-force that flows from her ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 392

 

But, separated from its host, the mistletoe dies. Therefore, when the Druid cuts it, he kills it and by this act symbolically repeats the fatal self-castration of Attis and the wounding of Adonis by the boar’s tusk ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 392

 

This is the dream of the mother in matriarchal times, when there was as yet no father to stand by the side of the son ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 392

 

But why should the mistletoe kill Baldur, since it is, in a sense, his sister or brother? The lovely apparition of the puer aeternus is, alas, a form of illusion. In reality he is a parasite on the mother, a creature of her imagination, who only lives when rooted in the maternal body ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 393

 

In actual psychic experience the mother corresponds to the collective unconscious, and the son to consciousness, which fancies itself free but must ever again succumb to the power of sleep and a deadening unconsciousness ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 393

 

The mistletoe, however, corresponds to the shadow brother, and whom the psychotherapist regularly meets as a personification of the personal unconscious. Just as, at evening, the shadows lengthen and finally engulf everything, so the mistletoe betokens Baldur’s end. Being an equivalent of Baldur himself, it is fetched down from the tree like the “treasure hard to attain “The shadow becomes fatal when there is too little vitality or too little consciousness in the hero for him to complete his heroic task ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 393

 

The “son of the mother” as a mere mortal, dies young, but as a god he can do that which is forbidden and superhuman: he commits the magical incest and thus obtains immortality. In the myths the hero does not die; instead, he has to overcome the dragon of death ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 394

 

The black horse Apaosha also has this meaning in the old Persian Song of Tishtriya, where he blocks up the sources of the rain-lake. The white horse, Tishtriya, makes two futile attempts to vanquish Apaosha; at the third attempt he succeeds with the help of Ahura-Mazda. Whereupon the sluices of heaven are opened and the fertilizing rain pours down upon the earth ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 395

 

In this symbolism we can see very clearly how libido fights against libido, instinct against instinct, how the unconscious is in conflict with itself, and how mythological man perceived the unconscious in all the adversities and contrarieties of external nature without ever suspecting that he was gazing at the paradoxical background of his own consciousness ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 395

 

The dragon represents the negative mother-imago and thus expresses resistance to incest or fear of it. Dragon and snake are symbolic representations of the fear of the consequences of breaking the taboo and regressing to incest. It is therefore understandable that we should come over and over again upon the motif of the tree and the snake. Snakes and dragons are especially significant as guardians or defenders of the treasure ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 395

 

The tree entwined by the snake may therefore be taken as the symbol of the mother who is protecting against incest by fear. This symbol is frequently found on Mithraic monuments. The rock with a snake coiled round it has a similar meaning, for Mithras was born from a rock, as was the god Men ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 396

 

This fact points to the father as the cause of the fear, which as we know prompted Freud to his famous aetiological myth of the primal horde with the jealous old patriarch at the top ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 396

 

The immediate model for this is obviously the jealous Yahweh, struggling to protect his wife Israel from whoredoms with strange gods ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 396

 

The father represents the world of moral commandments and prohibitions, although, for lack of information about conditions in prehistoric times, it remains an open question how far the first moral laws arose from dire necessity rather than from the family preoccupations of the tribal father. At all events it would be easier to keep one’s eye on a box full of spiders than on the females of a primal horde ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 396

 

The father is the representative of the spirit, whose function it is to oppose pure instinctuality. That is his archetypal role, which falls to him regardless of his personal qualities; hence he is very often an object of neurotic fears for the son ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 396

 

Accordingly, the monster to be overcome by the son frequently appears as a giant who guards the treasure ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 396

 

An excellent example of this is the giant Humbaba in the Gilgamesh Epic, who guards the garden of Ishtar. Gilgamesh conquers the giant and wins Ishtar, whereupon Ishtar immediately makes sexual advances to her deliverer. These facts should be sufficient to explain the role played by Horus in Plutarch, and especially the violent treatment of Isis ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 396

 

Here the bull has the same significance as the monster and may be compared with the bull that was conquered by Gilgamesh. He represents the father who paradoxically enforces the incest prohibition as a giant and dangerous animal ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 396

 

The paradox lies in the fact that, like the mother who gives life and takes it away again as the “terrible” or “devouring” mother, the father apparently lives a life of unbridled instinct and yet is the living embodiment of the law that thwarts instinct ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 396

 

There is, however, a subtle though important distinction to be made here: the father commits no incest, whereas the son has tendencies in that direction. The paternal law is directed against incest with all the violence and fury of the uninhibited instinct. Freud overlooks the fact that the spirit too is dynamic, as indeed it must be if the psyche is not to lose its self-regulating equilibrium ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 396

 

But as the “father,” the representative of moral law, is not only an objective fact, but a subjective psychic factor in the son himself, the killing of the bull clearly denotes an overcoming of animal instinct, and at the same time a secret and furtive overcoming of the power of the law, and hence a criminal usurpation of justice. Since the better is always the enemy of the good, every drastic innovation is an infringement of what is traditionally right, and may sometimes even be a crime punishable by death ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 396

 

As we know, this dilemma played an important part in the psychology of early Christianity, at the time when it came into conflict with Jewish law. In the eyes of the Jews, Christ was undoubtedly a law-breaker. Not unjustly is he called Adam Secundus; for just as the first Adam became conscious through sin, through eating of the tree of knowledge, so the second Adam broke through to the necessary relation with a fundamentally different God ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 396

 

A third image shows Mithras reaching for the nimbus on the head of Sol. This act recalls the Christian idea that those who have conquered win the crown of eternal life ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 397

 

In the fourth image Sol kneels before Mithras These last two pictures [3 and 4], show that Mithras has arrogated to himself the strength of the sun and become its lord. He has conquered his animal nature (the bull). Animals represent instinct, and also the prohibition of instinct, so that man becomes human through conquering his animal instinctuality. Mithras has thus sacrificed his animal naturae solution already anticipated in the Gilgamesh Epic by the hero’s renunciation of the terrible Ishtar ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 398

 

In the Mithraic sacrifice the conquest of instinctuality no longer takes the archaic form of overpowering the mother, but of renouncing one’s own instinctive desires. The primitive idea of reproducing oneself by entering into the mother’s body has become so remote that the hero, instead of committing incest, is now sufficiently far advanced in the domestic virtues to seek immortality through the sacrifice of the incest tendency ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 398

 

This significant change finds its true fulfillment only in the symbol of the crucified God. In atonement for Adam’s sin a bloody human sacrifice is hung upon the tree of life. Although the tree of life has a mother significance, it is no longer the mother, but a symbolic equivalent to which the hero offers up his life. One can hardly imagine a symbol which expresses more drastically the subjugation of instinct ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 398

 

Underlying all fertility magic is the thought of renewal, which in turn is intimately connected with the cross. The idea of union expressed in the cross symbol is found in Plato’s Timaeus, where the demiurge joins the parts of the world-soul together by means of two sutures, which form a X (chi) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 404

 

A peculiar use is made of the cross symbol by the Muyscas Indians, of Peru; two ropes are stretched crosswise over the surface of the water (pool or stream), and fruits, oil, and precious stones are thrown in as a sacrifice at the point of intersection ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 407

 

Here the divinity is evidently the water, not the cross, which only signifies the place of sacrifice. The symbolism is somewhat obscure. Water, and particularly deep water, usually has a maternal significance, roughly corresponding to “womb.” The point of intersection of the two ropes is the point of union where the “crossing” takes place ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 407

 

It is clear from all this that the cross is a many-faceted symbol, and its chief meaning is that of the “tree of life” and the “mother.” Its symbolization in human form is therefore quite understandable ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 411

 

Underlying all fertility magic is the thought of renewal, which in turn is intimately connected with the cross. The idea of union expressed in the cross symbol is found in Plato’s Timaeus, where the demiurge joins the parts of the world-soul together by means of two sutures, which form a X (chi) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 404

 

It is important to know something about the attributes of this life-giving god. Tum of On-Heliopolis bears the name “the father of his mother,” and his attendant goddess, Jusas or Nebit-Hotpet, is called sometimes the mother, sometimes the daughter, and sometimes the wife of the god ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 408

 

The first day in autumn is known in the Heliopolitan inscriptions as the “feast-day of the goddess Jusasit,” as the arrival of the “sister who makes ready to unite herself with her father.” It is the day on which “the goddess Mehnit completes her work, so that the god Osiris may enter the left eye.” It is also called “the day for filling the sacred eye with what it needs” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 408

 

In the autumn equinox the heavenly cow with the moon-eye, Isis, receives the seed that begets Horus (the moon being the guardian of the seed) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 408

 

The “eye” evidently stands for the female genitals, as is clear from the myth of Indra, who, as a punishment for his wantonness, was smitten with yonis all over his body, but was so far pardoned by the gods that the shameful yonis were changed into eyes ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 408

 

The little image reflected in the eye, the “pupilla,” is a “child.” The great god becomes a child again: he enters into the mother’s womb for self-renewal ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 408

 

Tum of Pithum-Heroopolis not only carries the crux ansata as a symbol, but even has this emblem as the commonest of his titles, ankh or ankhi, which means life' or theLiving One’ ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 410

 

Tum was chiefly worshipped as the Agathodaimon serpent, of whom it was said: “The sacred Agathodaimon serpent goes forth from the city of Nezi.” The snake, because it casts its skin, is a symbol of renewal, like the scarab beetle, a sun-symbol, which was believed to be of masculine sex only and to beget itself ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 410

 

“Khnum” (another name for Tum, but always the sun-god is meant) comes from the verb num, `to combine or unite.’ Khnum appears as the potter and maker of his own egg ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 410

 

The various forms of the crux ansata have the meaning of “life” and “fruitfulness,” and also of “union,” which can be interpreted as the hierosgamos of the god with his mother for the purpose of conquering death and renewing life. This mythologem, it is plain, has passed into Christianity CW~Carl Jung, CW 5, 411

 

The separation of the son from the mother signifies man’s leave-taking from animal unconsciousness. It was only the power of the “incest prohibition” that created the self-conscious individual, who before had been mindlessly one with the tribe; and it was only then that the idea of the final death of the individual became possible ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 415

 

Thus through Adam’s sin, which lay precisely in his becoming conscious, death came into the world ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 415

 

The neurotic who cannot leave his mother has good reasons for not doing so: ultimately, it is the fear of death that holds him there. It seems as if no idea and no word were powerful enough to express the meaning of this conflict ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 415

 

Certainly the struggle for expression which has continued through the centuries cannot be motivated by what is narrowly and crudely conceived as “incest” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 415

 

We ought rather to conceive the law that expresses itself first and last in the “incest prohibition” as the impulse to domestication, and regard the religious systems as institutions which take up the instinctual forces of man’s animal nature, organize them, and gradually make them available for higher cultural purposes ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 415

 

Incest prohibition is more a question of phenomena requiring a teleological explanation than of simple causalities ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 332

 

The incest prohibition acts as an obstacle and makes the creative fantasy inventive: for instance, there are attempts to make the mother pregnant by means of fertility magic ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 332

 

It does not constitute a primary phenomenon [as Freud believed] in the process of symbol-formation, but goes back to something more fundamental, namely the primitive system of marriage classes ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 332

 

His [Faust] equally importunate longing for the beauties of this world plunged him into renewed ruin, doubt and wretchedness, which culminated in the tragedy of Gretchen’s death ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 119

 

Faust’s mistake was that he made the worst of both worlds by blindly following the urge of his libido, like a man overcome by strong and violent passions. Faust’s conflict is a reflection of the collective conflict at the beginning of the Christian era, but in him, curiously enough, it takes the opposite course ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 119

 

Faust takes the opposite road; for him the ascetic ideal is sheer death. He struggles for liberation and wins life by binding himself over to evil, thereby bringing about the death of what he loves most: Gretchen ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 120

 

He [Faust] tears himself away from his grief, and sacrifices his life in unceasing work, thus saving many lives. His double mission as saviour and destroyer had been hinted at from the beginning ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 120

 

Faust’s desire, like that of every hero, is a yearning for the mystery of rebirth, for immortality; therefore his way leads out to sea and down into the maw of death, that frighteningly narrow “passage” which signals the new day ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 417

 

We have already seen that the libido directed towards the mother actually symbolizes her as a horse. The mother-imago is a libido-symbol and so is the horse; at some points the meaning of the two symbols overlaps. But the factor common to both is the libido ~Carl Jung, CW 5 Para 421

 

The steeds of mythology are always invested with great significance and very often appear anthropomorphized. Thus Men’s horse has human forelegs, Balaam’s ass human speech, and the bull upon whose back Mithras springs to deliver the death blow is a life-giving deity ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 421

 

In the Iliad, the horse prophesies evil. They hear the words the corpse utters on its way to the grave words which no human can hear. Caesar was told by his human-footed horse (probably derived from an identification of Caesar with the Phrygian Men) that he would conquer the world ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 421

 

An ass prophesied to Augustus the victory of Actium. Horses also see ghosts. All these things are typical manifestations of the unconscious. We can therefore see why the horse, as a symbol of the animal component in man, has numerous connections with the devil ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 421

 

The devil has a horse’s hoof and sometimes a horse’s form. At critical moments he shows the proverbial cloven hoof, just as, during the abduction of Hadding, Sleipnir suddenly looked out from behind Wotan’s mantle. The devil, like the nightmare, rides the sleeper; hence it is said that those who have nightmares are ridden by the devil. In Persian lore the devil is the steed of God. He represents the sexual instinct; consequently at the Witches’ Sabbath he appears in the form of a goat or horse ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 421

 

The sexual nature of the devil is imparted to the horse as well, so that this symbol is found in contexts where the sexual interpretation is the only one that fits. Loki propagates in the form of a horse, and so does the devil, as an ancient god of fire ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 421

 

Lightning, too, is represented theriomorphically as a horse. An uneducated hysterical patient once told me that as a child she was terrified of thunderstorms, because after each flash of lightning she saw a huge black horse rearing up to the sky. Indian legend tells of the black thunder-horse of Yama, the god of death, who dwells in the south, the mythical place of storms. In German folklore the devil is a god of lightning who hurls the horse’s hoof lightning on the rooftops ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 421

 

In accordance with the primitive idea that thunder fertilizes the earth, lightning and horses’ hoofs both have a phallic meaning. An uneducated woman patient who had been violently forced by her husband to have coitus with him often dreamt that a wild horse leapt over her and kicked her in the abdomen with his hind foot ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 421

 

Pegasus struck the fountain of Hippocrene from the earth with his hoof. A Corinthian statue of Bellerophon, which was also a fountain, was made so that the water flowed from the hoof of the horse. Baldur’s horse struck forth a spring with his kick. The horse’s foot is therefore the dispenser of fruitful moisture ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 421

 

In German legend, Mother Holle, the goddess of childbirth, comes on horseback. Pregnant women nearing confinement would often give oats to a white horse from their aprons and ask him for a speedy delivery. Originally it was the custom for the horse to nuzzle the woman’s genitals ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 421

 

The horse, like the ass, has the significance of a priapic animal. Hoof-marks were once worshipped as dispensers of blessings and fertility; they also established the right of possession and were of importance in determining boundaries, like the Priapic statues of Latin antiquity ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 421

 

It was a horse who, like the Dactyls, discovered the mineral wealth of the Harz Mountains with his hoof. The horse-shoe, an equivalent for the horse’s foot, brings luck and has an apotropaic meaning. In the Netherlands, a hoof is hung up in the stable to ward off sorcery. The analogous effect of the phallus is well known; hence the phalli on gates. The shank in particular is supposed to keep off lightning, on the principle that like cures like ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 421

 

The goddess of the underworld, Hecate, is sometimes represented with a horse’s head. Demeter and Philyra, wishing to escape the attentions of Kronos or Poseidon, change themselves into mares ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 421

 

Witches can easily change into horses, hence the nail-marks of the horseshoe may be seen on their hands. The devil rides on the witch’s horse, and priests’ housekeepers are changed after death into horses ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 421

 

On account of their speed, horses signify wind, and here again the tertium comparationis is the libido-symbol. German legend knows the wind as the wild huntsman in lustful pursuit of the maiden. Wotan gallops along in a storm after the wind-bride (Frigg) fleeing before him ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 422

 

Storm-centres often get their names from horses, e.g., the Schimmelberge (`white horse hills’) on Lüneburg heath. The centaurs are, among other things, wind-gods ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 422

 

We have already seen that the horse is connected through Yggdrasill with the symbolism of the tree. The horse too is a “tree of death;” for instance in the Middle Ages the bier was called “St. Michael’s Horse,” and the modern Persian word for coffin means `wooden horse.’ The horse also plays the part of a psychopomp who leads the way to the other world the souls of the dead are fetched by horsewomen, the Valkyries. Modern Greek songs speak of Charon as riding on a horse ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 427

 

Finally, the horse symbol appears in yet another form: sometimes the devil rides on a three-legged horse. The goddess of death, Hel, rides on a three-legged horse in time of pestilence ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 428

 

In the Bundahish there is a monstrous three-legged ass who stands in the heavenly rain-lake Vouru-Kasha; his urine purifies its waters, and at his cry all useful animals become pregnant and all harmful animals drop their young. The contrasting symbolism of Hel is fused into one image in the ass of Vouru-Kasha. The libido is fructifying as well as destructive ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 428

 

Mithras springs upon the bull to deliver the death blow the bull being a life-giving deity ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 421

 

The conquered bull has the same significance as the monster conquered by Gilgamesh who represents the father as a giant and dangerous animal ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 396

 

Hector’s horses were called Xanthos (yellow, glaring), Podargus (swift-footed), Lampos (shining), and Aithon (burning) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 423

 

Siegfried leaps over the wall of fire on the thunder-horse Grani, who was sired by Sleipnir and was the only one capable of taking the fiery hedge ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 423

 

The idea is that Ra rises up, born from the tree. The representations of the sun-god Mithras should probably be interpreted in the same way ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

In the Heddernheim Relief, Mithras is shown with half his body rising from the top of a tree, and in other monuments half his body is stuck in the rock, which clearly points to the rock-birth ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

Often there is a stream near Mithras’ birthplace. This conglomeration of symbols is also found in the birth of Aschanes, the first Saxon king, who grew from the Harz rocks in the middle of a wood near a fountain ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

Here all the mother symbols are united earth, wood, and water. So it is only logical that in the Middle Ages the tree was poetically addressed with the honorific title of “Lady” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

Nor is it surprising that Christian legend transformed the tree of death, the Cross, into the Tree of Life, so that Christ is often shown hanging on a green tree among the fruit ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

The derivation of the Cross from the Tree of Life, which was an authentic religious symbol even in Babylonian times, is considered entirely probable by Zöckler, an authority on the history of the Cross. The pre-Christian meaning of so universal a symbol does not contradict this view; quite the contrary, for its meaning is life ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

Nor does the existence of the cross in the sun-cult (where the regular cross and the swastika represent the sun-wheel) and in the cult of the love-goddesses in any way contradict its historical significance. Christian legend has made abundant use of this symbolism ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

The student of medieval art will be familiar with the representation of the Cross growing from Adam’s grave (fig. 258.37) . The legend says that Adam was buried on Golgotha, and that Seth planted on his grave a twig from the tree of Paradise, which grew into Christ’s Cross, the Tree of Death ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

As we know, it was through Adam’s guilt that sin and death came into the world, and Christ through his death redeemed us from the guilt. If we ask, In what did Adam’s guilt consist? the answer is that the unpardonable sin to be punished by death was that he dared to eat of the tree of Paradise ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

The consequences of this are described in a Jewish legend: one who was permitted to gaze into Paradise after the Fall saw the tree and the four streams, but the tree was withered, and in its branches lay a babe. The “mother” had become pregnant ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

According to German legend, the saviour will be born when he can be rocked in a cradle made from the wood of a tree that is now but a feeble shoot sprouting from a wall ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

The formula runs: “A lime tree shall be planted, that shall throw out two plantschen [boughs] above, and out of their wood is a poie [buoy] to be made; the first child that therein lies is doomed to be brought from life to death by the sword, and then will salvation ensue” ( Grimm, III, p. 969 ) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

It is remarkable that in the German legends the heralding of the future event is connected with a budding tree. Christ was sometimes called a “branch” or a “rod” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 368

 

In mythology, too, the blossoming and withering of the tree of life denotes the turning point, the beginning of a new age ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 423

 

The highest god always drives his chariot round in a circle. The chariot is drawn by four horses, and the outside horse moves very quickly. He has a shining coat, bearing on it the sign of the zodiac and the constellations ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 423

 

The horses represent the four elements. The catastrophe signifies world conflagration and the deluge, after which the division of God into Many ceases, and the divine One is restored ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 423

 

As the name indicates, he is a time-symbol, and is composed entirely of libido-images. The lion, the zodiacal sign for the torrid heat of summer, is the symbol of concupiscentia effrenata, `frenzied desire.’ (“My soul roars with the voice of a hungry lion,” says Mechthild of Magdeburg) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 425

 

In the Mithraic mysteries the snake is often shown as the antagonist of the lion, in accordance with the myth of the sun’s fight with the dragon. In the Egyptian Book of the Dead, Tum is addressed as a tom-cat, because in that form he fought the Apophis-serpent. To be “entwined” or embraced is the same as to be “devoured,” which as we saw means entering into the mother’s womb ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 425

 

So time, this empty and purely formal concept, is expressed in the mysteries through transformations of the creative force, libido, just as time in physics is identical with the flow of the energic process ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 425

 

The hero Chiwantopel represents her ideal, who is here projected as a masculine figure; for Miss Miller is still youthful enough to see her ideal in a man. She has evidently received no salutary disappointments in this respect, but is still enjoying her illusions ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 432

 

She does not yet know that her ideal figure ought really to be feminine, because such a figure might touch her too closely. So long as the ideal is portrayed in the person of a man, it does not commit her to anything; it merely stimulates her fantastic demands ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 432

 

This yearning for death anticipates the inevitable end of the illusion that the other person is the ideal. Miss Miller’s ideal figure is evidently about to change his psychic localization he might even take up his abode in the author herself. That would mark a very critical point in her career ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 432

 

For when such a vitally important figure as the ideal is about to change, it is as though that figure had to die. It then creates in the individual all sorts of unaccountable and apparently unfounded presentiments of death romantic world weariness. Her infantile world wants to come to an end and be replaced by the adult phase ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 432

 

The wish of young girls to die is often only an indirect expression of this, but it remains a pose even if they really do die, for even death can be dramatized. Such an outcome merely makes the pose more effective ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 432

 

That the highest summit of life can be expressed through the symbolism of death is a well-known fact, for any growing beyond oneself means death ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 432

 

As an infantile person Miss Miller cannot realize what her task is in life; she cannot set herself any goal or standard for which she feels responsible. Therefore she is not yet prepared to accept the problem of love either, for this demands full consciousness and responsibility, circumspection and foresight. It is a decision in favour of life, at whose end death stands. Love and death have not a little to do with one another ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 432

 

It is a well-known fact that hysterics substitute a physical pain for a psychic pain which is not felt because repressed. Catherina Emmerich’s biographer has understood this more or less correctly, but her own interpretation of the pain is based, as usual, on a projection: it is always the others who secretly say all sorts of wicked things about her, and this is the cause of her pains ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 436

 

The facts of the matter are rather different: the renunciation of all life’s joys, this fading before the flower, is always painful, and especially painful are the unfulfilled desires and the attempts of nature to break through the barrier of repression, without which no such differentiation would be possible ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 436

 

It is a well-known fact that scenes of mystic union with the Saviour are strongly tinged with erotic libido. Stigmatization amounts to an incubation with the Saviour, a slight modification of the ancient conception of the unio mystica as cohabitation with the god ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 438

 

[Dr. Jung acknowledges the work of Sabina Spielrein] Spielrein, Sabina: on archaic definitions of words, in paranoia,

140; on death-instinct, 32871; on symbols, 141; case, 13972, 28172, 43777; allusions to dismemberment, 237; “arrows from God.” 353; association of boring with fire and procreation, 153; communion, 40972; God’s ray, 412; images, 30277; sickness, 3017?; snake, 437; splitting the earth, 28872; wine and water, 37672 ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 549

 

“To make sharp arrows” is an Arabic expression for begetting valiant sons. To announce the birth of a son the Chinese used to hang a bow and arrow in front of the house. Accordingly the Psalms declare ( 127 : 4, RV ): “As arrows in the hand of a mighty man, so are the children of youth” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 439

 

A similar significance attaches to the lance: men are descended from the lance; the ash is the mother of lances; therefore the men of the Bronze Age are derived from her ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 439

 

Kaineus commanded that his lance was to be worshipped. Pindar says of this Kaineus that, in the legend, “he descended into the depths, splitting the earth with a straight foot.” Originally he is supposed to have been a maiden named Kainis, who, as a reward for her submissiveness, was changed by Poseidon into an invulnerable man ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 439

 

“Iron is used for boring into the earth With iron you can make menthe earth is split, burst open, man is divided Man is cut up and put together again In order to put a stop to being buried alive, Jesus told his disciples to bore into the earth” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 439

 

Mithras shoots water from the rock with his arrow in order to stop the drought. On Mithraic monuments the knife, otherwise used as the sacrificial instrument for killing the bull, is sometimes found stuck in the earth ( Cumont, Textes, I, pp. 115, 116, 165 ) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 439

 

In other words, they remained stuck in the mother and were lost to the upper world. Later Theseus was rescued by Heracles, who appeared in the role of the death-conquering hero. The Theseus myth is therefore a representation of the individuation process ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 449

 

When the libido leaves the bright upper world, whether from choice, or from inertia, or from fate, it sinks back into its own depths, into the source from which it originally flowed, and returns to the point of cleavage, the navel, where it first entered the body. This point of cleavage is called the mother, because from her the current of life reached us ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 449

 

Whenever some great work is to be accomplished, before which a man recoils, doubtful of his strength, his libido streams back to the fountainhead and that is the dangerous moment when the issue hangs between annihilation and new life ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 449

 

For if the libido gets stuck in the wonderland of this inner world, then for the upper world man is nothing but a shadow, he is already moribund or at least seriously ill ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 449

 

But if the libido manages to tear itself loose and force its way up again, something like a miracle happens: the journey to the underworld was a plunge into the fountain of youth, and the libido, apparently dead, wakes to renewed fruitfulness ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 449

 

Vishnu sank into a profound trance, and in his slumber brought forth Brahma who, enthroned on a lotus, rose out of Vishnu’s navel, bringing with him the Vedas, which he diligently read (Birth of creative thought from introversion) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 449

 

But through Vishnu’s ecstatic absentmindedness a mighty flood came upon the world (Devouring and destruction of the world through introversion) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 449

 

For if the libido gets stuck in the wonderland of this inner world, then for the upper world man is nothing but a shadow, he is already moribund or at least seriously ill ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 449

 

A state of introversion. What this means we already know: the libido sinks “into its own depths” (a favourite image of Nietzsche’s), and discovers in the darkness a substitute for the upper world it has abandoned the world of memories (“Amidst a hundred memories”), the strongest and most influential of which are the earliest ones ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 448

 

It is the world of the child, the paradisal state of early infancy, from which we are driven out by the relentless law of time. In this subterranean kingdom slumber sweet feelings of home and the hopes of all that is to be ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 448

 

The deadly arrows do not strike the hero from without; it is himself who hunts, fights, and tortures himself. In him, instinct wars with instinct; therefore the poet says, “Thyself pierced through,” which means that he is wounded by his own arrow. As we know that the arrow is a libido-symbol, the meaning of this “piercing” is clear: it is the act of union with oneself, a sort of self-fertilization, and also a self-violation, a self-murder ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 447

 

These are the primordial images, the archetypes, which have been so enriched with individual memories through the introversion of libido as to become perceptible to the conscious mind, in much the same way as the crystalline structure latent in the saturated solution takes visible shape from the aggregation of molecules ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 450

 

Since these introversions and regressions only occur at moments when a new orientation and a new adaptation are necessary, the constellated archetype is always the primordial image of the need of the moment ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 450

 

Although the changing situations of life must appear infinitely various to our way of thinking, their possible number never exceeds certain natural limits; they fall into more or less typical patterns that repeat themselves over and over again ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 450

 

The archetypal structure of the unconscious corresponds to the average run of events. When therefore a distressing situation arises, the corresponding archetype will be constellated in the unconscious ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 450

 

Since this archetype is numinous, i.e., possesses a specific energy, it will attract to itself the contents of consciousness conscious ideas that render it perceptible and hence capable of conscious realization. Its passing over into consciousness is felt as an illumination, a revelation, or

 

Repeated experience of this process has had the general result that, whenever a critical situation arises, the mechanism of introversion is made to function artificially by means of ritual actions which bring about a spiritual preparation, e.g., magical ceremonies, sacrifices, invocations, prayers, and suchlike. The aim of these ritual actions is to direct the libido towards the unconscious and compel it to introvert ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 450

 

If the libido connects with the unconscious, it is as though it were connecting with the mother, and this raises the incest-taboo. But as the unconscious is infinitely greater than the mother and is only symbolized by her, the fear of incest must be conquered if one is to gain possession of those “saving” contents the treasure hard to attain ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 450

 

Since the son is not conscious of his incest tendency, it is projected upon the mother or her symbol. But the symbol of the mother is not the mother herself, so in reality there is not the slightest possibility of incest, and the taboo can therefore be ruled out as a reason for resistance. In so far as the mother represents the unconscious, the incest tendency, particularly when it appears as the amorous desire of the mother (e.g., Ishtar and Gilgamesh) or of the anima (e.g., Chryse and Philoctetes), is really only the desire of the unconscious to be taken notice of ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 450

 

The rejection of the unconscious usually has unfortunate results; its instinctive forces, if persistently disregarded, rise up in opposition: Chryse changes into a venomous serpent ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 450

 

The more negative the attitude of the conscious towards the unconscious, the more dangerous does the latter become. Chryse’s curse was fulfilled so completely that Philoctetes, on approaching her altar, wounded himself in the foot with his own poison-tipped arrow, or, according to other versions which are in fact better attested, was bitten in the foot by a poisonous snake, and fell into a decline ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 450

 

So when the sun-god Ra retires on the back of the heavenly cow, it means that he is going back into the mother in order to rise again as Horus. In the morning the goddess is the mother, at noon she is the sister-wife, and at evening once more the mother who takes back the dead into her womb ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 360

 

The poisonous worm is a deadly form of libido instead of an animating form. The “true name” is Ra’s soul and magic power (his libido). What Isis demands is the transference of libido to the mother. This request is fulfilled to the letter, for the aging god returns to the heavenly cow, the symbol of the mother  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 455

 

But the real cause of the wound is the incest-taboo, which cuts a man off from the security of childhood and early youth, from all those unconscious, instinctive happenings that allow the child to live without responsibility as an appendage of his parents  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 351

 

The more a person shrinks from adapting himself to reality, the greater becomes the fear which increasingly besets his path at every point. Thus a vicious circle is formed: fear of life and people causes more shrinking back, and this in turn leads to infantilism and finally “into the mother” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 456

 

The reasons for this are generally projected outside oneself: the fault lies with external circumstances, or else the parents are made responsible  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 456

 

And indeed, it remains to be found out how much the mother is to blame for not letting the son go. The son will naturally try to explain everything by the wrong attitude of the mother, but he would do better to refrain from all such futile attempts to excuse his own ineptitude by laying the blame on his parents  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 456

 

This fear of life is not just an imaginary bogy, but a very real panic, which seems disproportionate only because its real source is unconscious and therefore projected: the young, growing part of the personality, if prevented from living or kept in check, generates fear and changes into fear  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 457

 

The fear seems to come from the mother, but actually it is the deadly fear of the instinctive, unconscious, inner man who is cut off from life by the continual shrinking back from reality  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 457

 

If the mother is felt as the obstacle, she then becomes the vengeful pursuer. Naturally it is not the real mother, although she too may seriously injure her child by the morbid tenderness with which she pursues it into adult life, thus prolonging the infantile attitude beyond the proper time  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 457

 

It is rather the mother-imago that has turned into a lamia. The mother-imago, however, represents the unconscious, and it is as much a vital necessity for the unconscious to be joined to the conscious as it is for the conscious not to lose contact with the unconscious  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 457

 

Nothing endangers this connection more in a man than a successful life; it makes him forget his dependence on the unconscious. The case of Gilgamesh is instructive in this respect: he was so successful that the gods, the representatives of the unconscious, saw themselves compelled to deliberate how they could best bring about his downfall. Their efforts were unavailing at first, but when the hero had won the herb of immortality (fig. 258.19) and was almost at his goal, a serpent stole the elixir of life from him while he slept  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 457

 

Apparently it is a hostile demon who robs him of energy, but in actual fact it is his own unconscious whose alien tendencies are beginning to check the forward striving of the conscious mind  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 458

 

The cause of this process is often extremely obscure, the more so as it is complicated by all kinds of external factors and subsidiary causes, such as difficulties in work, disappointments, failures, reduced efficiency due to age, depressing family problems, and so on and so forth  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 458

 

According to the myths it is the woman who secretly enslaves a man, so that he can no longer free himself from her and becomes a child again. It is also significant that Isis, the sister-wife of the sun-god, creates the poisonous serpent from his spittle, which, like all bodily secretions, has a magical significance, being a libido equivalent. She creates the serpent from the libido of the god, and by this means weakens him and makes him dependent on her  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 458

 

Delilah acts in the same way with Samson: by cutting off his hair, the sun’s rays, she robs him of his strength  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 458

 

This demon-woman of mythology is in truth the “sister-wife-mother,” the woman in the man, who unexpectedly turns up during the second half of life and tries to effect a forcible change of personality  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 458

 

I have dealt with certain aspects of this change in my essay on “The Stages of Life.” It consists in a partial feminization of the man and a corresponding masculinization of the woman. Often it takes place under very dramatic circumstances: the man’s strongest quality, his Logos principle, turns against him and as it were betrays him  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 458

 

The same thing happens with the Eros of the woman. The man becomes rigidly set in his previous attitude, while the woman remains caught in her emotional ties and fails to develop her reason and understanding, whose place is then taken by equally obstinate and inept “animus” opinions  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 458

 

The fossilization of the man shrouds itself in a smoke-screen of moods, ridiculous irritability, feelings of distrust and resentment, which are meant to justify his rigid attitude  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 458

 

It seems like an unwelcome accident or a disagreeable positive catastrophe, which one would naturally rather avoid. In most cases the conscious personality rises up against the assault of the unconscious and resists its demands, which, it is clearly felt, are directed not only against all the weak spots in the man’s character, but also against his chief virtue (the differentiated function and the ideal) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 459

 

It is evident from the myths of Heracles and Gilgamesh that this assault can become the source of energy for a heroic conflict; indeed, so obvious is this impression that one has to ask oneself whether the apparent enmity of the maternal archetype is not a ruse on the part of Mater Natura for spurring on her favored child to his highest achievement  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 459

 

The vengeful Hera would then appear as the stern “Mistress Soul,” who imposes the most difficult labors on her hero and threatens him with destruction unless he plucks up courage for the supreme deed and actually becomes what he always potentially was  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 459

 

The hero’s victory over the “mother,” or over her daemonic representative (dragon, etc.), is never anything but temporary. What must be regarded as a regression in a young person feminization of the man (partial identity with the father)acquired different meaning in the second half of life  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 459

 

The assimilation of contrasexual tendencies then becomes a task that must be fulfilled in order to keep the libido in a state of progression. The task consists in integrating the unconscious, in bringing together “conscious” and “unconscious.” I have called this the individuation process. At this stage the mother-symbol no longer connects back to the beginnings, but points towards the unconscious as the creative matrix of the future. “Entry into the mother” then means establishing a relationship between the ego and the unconscious  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 459

 

The way of this passion leads to the cave in which the bull is sacrificed. So, too, Christ had to bear the Cross to the place of sacrifice, where, according to the Christian version, the Lamb was slain in the form of the god, and was then laid to earth in the sepulchre  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 460

 

The cross, or whatever other heavy burden the hero carries, is himself, or rather the Self, his wholeness, which is both God and animal not merely the empirical man, but the totality of his being, which is rooted in his animal nature and reaches out beyond the merely human towards the divine  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 460

 

His wholeness implies a tremendous tension of opposites paradoxically at one with themselves, as in the cross, their most perfect symbol  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 460

 

Ixion first murdered his father-in-law but was afterwards absolved from guilt by Zeus and blessed with his favour  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 460

 

Ixion, with gross ingratitude, then tried to seduce Hera, but Zeus tricked him by getting the cloud-goddess Nephele to assume Hera’s shape. From this union the centaurs are said to have sprung  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 460

 

Ixion boasted of his deed, but as a punishment for his crimes Zeus cast him into the underworld, where he was bound on a wheel that turned forever in the wind ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 460

 

Samson carried the gate-posts of the city of Gaza, and died between the pillars of the temple of the Philistines  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 460

 

Heracles carried his pillars to Gades (Cadiz), where, according to the Syrian version of the legend, he died. The Pillars of Hercules mark the point in the west where the sun sinks into the sea  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 460

 

The cross of Heracles may well be the sun-wheel, for which the Greeks used the symbol of the cross  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 460

 

The fantasy of the arrow-shot is part of this struggle for personal independence. As yet, however, the need for such a decision has not penetrated to the conscious mind of the dreamer: the fatal arrow of Cupid has not yet found its mark  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 462

 

Chiwantopel, playing the role of the author, is not yet wounded or killed. He is the bold adventurer who dares to do what Miss Miller obviously shrinks from doing: he offers himself, of his own free will, as a target for the fatal arrow-shot ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 462

 

The fact that this gesture of self-exposure is projected upon a masculine figure is direct proof that the dreamer is quite unconscious of its necessity  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 462

 

Chiwantopel is a typical animus-figure, that is to say, a personification of the masculine side of the woman’s psyche. He is an archetypal figure who becomes particularly active when the conscious mind refuses to follow the feelings and instincts prompted by the unconscious: instead of love and surrender there is mannishness, argumentativeness, obstinate self-assertion, and the demon of opinion in every possible shape and form (power instead of love) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 462

 

The animus is not a real man at all; he is a slightly hysterical, infantile hero whose longing to be loved shows through the gaps in his armour. It is in this garb that Miss Miller has dressed the critical decisions of her life, or rather these decisions have not yet got beyond the stage of unconscious fantasy and are still not recognized by her conscious mind as her own decisions (fig. 258.17) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 462

 

Chiwantopel is a significant relation for Miss Miller where the hero is her brother-beloved, her “ghostly lover,” she being his life-snake ultimately bringing death to him  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 679

 

The hero as an animus-figure acts vicariously for the conscious individual; that is to say, he does what the subject ought, could, would like to do, but does not do. All the things that could happen in conscious life, but do not happen, are acted out in the unconscious and consequently appear in projection  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 469

 

Chiwantopel is characterized as the hero who leaves his family and his ancestral home in order to seek his psychic counterpart. He thus represents what in the normal course of events ought to happen  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 469

 

The fact that this appears as a fantasy-figure shows how little the author is doing it herself. What happens in fantasy is therefore compensatory to the situation or attitude of the conscious mind. This is also the rule in dreams  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 469

 

The animus, a typical “son”-hero, true to his ancient prototype, is seeking the mother. This youthful hero is always the son-lover of the mother-goddess and is doomed to an early death (fig. 020) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 466

 

The libido that will not flow into life at the right time regresses to the mythical world of the archetypes, where it activates images which, since the remotest times, have expressed the non-human life of the gods, whether of the upper world or the lower  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 466

 

He is therefore sure of his success and cuts out all possible rivals. He wins the soul of the dreamer, not in order to lead her back to normal life, but to her spiritual destiny  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 468

 

For he is a bridegroom of death, one of the son-lovers who die young because they have no life of their own but are only fast-fading flowers on the maternal tree. Their meaning and their vitality begin and end in the mother-goddess  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 468

 

The original concrete meaning of words like comprehend, comprendre, begreifen, erfassen (grasp, seize), etc., is literally to seize hold of something with the hands and hold it tight in the arms  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 465

 

That is just what the mother does with her child when it asks for help or protection, and what binds the child to its mother ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 465

 

The older the child grows, the greater becomes the danger of this kind of “comprehension” hindering its natural development. Instead of adapting itself, as is necessary, to its new surroundings, the libido of the child regresses to the sheltering ease of the mother’s arms and fails to keep pace with the passing of time  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 465

 

I observed that the dance-step of the Pueblo Indians consisted in a “calcare terram” a persistent, vigorous pounding of the earth with the heels. (:“with unfettered foot now we are to beat on the ground”) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 480

 

Kaineus, as we saw, descended into the depths, “splitting the earth with a straight foot.” Faust reached the Mothers by stamping on the ground: “Stamping descend, and stamping rise up again!” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 480

 

The heroes in the sun-devouring myths often stamp or kick in the gullet of the monster. Thor stamped clean through the bottom of the boat in his struggle with the monster and touched the bottom of the sea  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 481

 

The regression of libido makes the ritual act of treading out the dance-step seem like a repetition of the infantile “kicking.” Kicking is associated with the mother and with pleasurable sensations, and recapitulates a movement that was already practised inside the mother’s womb. The foot and the treading movement are invested with a phallic significance, or with that of re-entry into the womb, so that the rhythm of the dance transports the dancer into an unconscious state. The Dancing Dervishes and other primitive dancers offer confirmation of this  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 481

 

The comparison of the water flowing from Gitche Manito’s footprints with a comet means that it is a light- or libido-symbol for the fertilizing moisture (sperma) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 481

 

According to a note in Humboldt’s Cosmos, certain South American Indian tribes call meteors the “piss of the stars” ( Humboldt, Cosmos, I, p. 99. n. ) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 481

 

We should also mention that Gitche Manito is a fire-maker: he blows upon a forest so that the trees rub against one another and burst into flame. Hence this god too is a libido-symbol, since he produces not only water but fire  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 481

 

The answer to this question is that the hero is not born like an ordinary mortal because his birth is a rebirth from the mother-wife. That is why the hero so often has two mothers  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 494

 

One would think it possible for a hero to be born in the normal manner, and then gradually to grow out of his humble and homely surroundings, perhaps with a great effort and in face of many dangers. (This motif is by no means uncommon in the hero-myths) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 493

 

As a general rule, however, the story of his origins is miraculous. The singular circumstances of his procreation and birth are part and parcel of the hero-myth. What is the reason for these beliefs? ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 493

 

As Rank ( The Myth of the Birth of the Hero ), has shown with a wealth of examples, the hero is frequently exposed and then reared by foster-parents. In this way he gets two mothers  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 494

 

An excellent example of this is the relation of Heracles to Hera. In the Hiawatha epic, Wenonah dies after giving birth, and her place is taken by Nokomis. Buddha, too, was brought up by a foster-mother  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 494

 

The foster-mother is sometimes an animal, e.g., the she-wolf mother of Romulus and Remus, etc. (fig. 258.02) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 494

 

The immaculate conception tells us that a content of the unconscious (“child”) has come into existence without the help of a human father, (i.e., consciousness) (fig. 258.08) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 497

 

It tells us, on the contrary, that some god has begotten the son, and further that the son is identical with the father, which in psychological language means that a central archetype, the God image, has renewed itself (“been reborn”) and become “incarnate” in a way perceptible to consciousness  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 497

 

The “mother” corresponds to the “virgin anima,” who is not turned towards the outer world and therefore not corrupted by it. She is turned rather to the “inner sun,” the archetype of transcendent wholeness the Self  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 497

 

This is typical of Hiawatha’s deeds. Whatever he kills generally lies by or in the water, or better still, half in water and half on land. His subsequent adventures will explain why this is so. Further, the roebuck was no ordinary animal, but a magic one with an unconscious (i.e., symbolical) significance  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 503

 

Hiawatha made himself gloves and moccasins from its hide: the gloves gave such power to his arms that he could crumble rocks to dust, and the moccasins had the virtue of seven-leagued boots. By clothing himself in the hide he became a sort of giant  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 503

 

Therefore the roebuck killed at the ford was a “doctor animal,” a magician who had changed his shape, or a daemonic being a symbol, that is to say, which points to the “animal” and other such powers of the unconscious  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 503

 

That is why it was killed at the ford, i.e., at the crossing, on the border-line between conscious and unconscious. The animal is a representative of the unconscious, and the unconscious, as the matrix of consciousness, has a maternal significance, which explains why the mother was also represented by the bear  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 503

 

All animals belong to the Great Mother (fig. 258.51) , and the killing of any wild animal is a transgression against the mother. Just as the mother seems a giantess to the small child, so the attribute of size passes to the archetypal Great Mother, Mother Nature  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 503

 

Whoever succeeds in killing the “magic” animal, the symbolic representative of the animal mother, acquires something of her gigantic strength. This is expressed by saying that the hero clothes himself in the animal’s skin and in this way obtains for the magic animal a sort of resurrection  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 503

 

At the Aztec human sacrifices criminals played the part of gods: they were slaughtered and flayed, and the priests then wrapped themselves in the dripping pelts in order to represent the gods’ resurrection and renewal  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 503

 

In killing his first roebuck, therefore, Hiawatha was killing the symbolic representative of the unconscious, i.e., his own participation mystique with animal nature, and from that comes his giant strength  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 504

 

He now sallies forth to do battle with Mudjekeewis, the father, in order to avenge his mother Wenonah. (Cf. Gilgamesh’s fight with the giant Humbaba.) In this fight the father may also be represented by some sort of magic animal which has to be overcome, but he can equally well be represented by a giant or a magician or a wicked tyrant  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 504

 

Mutatis mutandis the animals can be interpreted as the “mother,” as the “mater saeva cupidinum,” or again as that amiable Isis who laid a horned viper in her husband’s path in short, they can be interpreted as the Terrible Mother who devours and destroys, and thus symbolizes death itself  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 504

 

I remember the case of a mother who kept her children tied to her with unnatural love and devotion. At the time of the climacteric she fell into a depressive psychosis and had delirious states in which she saw herself as an animal, especially as a wolf or pig, and acted accordingly, running about on all fours, howling like a wolf or grunting like a pig. In her psychosis she had herself become the symbol of the all-devouring mother  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 504

 

The imagos are representations which have arisen from the conjunction of parental peculiarities with the individual disposition of the child  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 505

 

The imagos are activated and varied in every possible manner by an energy which likewise pertains to the individual; it derives from the sphere of instinct and expresses itself as instinctuality. This dynamism is represented in dreams by theriomorphic symbols  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 505

 

All the lions, bulls, dogs, and snakes that populate our dreams represent an undifferentiated and as yet untamed libido, which at the same time forms part of the human personality and can therefore fittingly be described as the anthropoid psyche  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 505

 

The archetype of the wise old man first appears in the father, being a personification of meaning and spirit in its procreative sense ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 515

 

The hero’s father is often a master carpenter or some kind of artisan. According to an Arabian legend, Terah, the father of Abraham, was a master craftsman who could cut a shaft from any bit of wood, which means in Arabic usage that he was a begetter of excellent sons. In addition, he was a maker of images ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 515

 

Tvashtri, the father of Agni, was the cosmic architect, a smith and carpenter, and the inventor of fire-boring ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 515

 

Joseph, the father of Jesus, was a carpenter, and so was Cinyras, the father of Adonis, who was supposed to have invented the hammer, the lever, roof-building and mining ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 515

 

The father of the many-faced Hermes, Hephaestus, was a cunning technician and sculptor ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 515

 

In fairytales, the hero’s father is, more modestly, the traditional woodcutter ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 515

 

In the Rig-Veda the world is hewn from a tree by the cosmic architect, Tvashtri ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 515

 

To say that Hiawatha’s father-in-law was an arrowsmith means, therefore, that the mythological attribute otherwise characteristic of the hero’s father has been transferred to the father-in-law. This corresponds to the psychological fact that the anima always stands in the relationship of a daughter to the wise old man. Nor is it uncommon to find the father-in-law so much emphasized that he replaces the real father ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 515

 

Finally, father-attributes may occasionally fall to the son himself, i.e., when it has become apparent that he is of one nature with the father. The hero symbolizes a man’s unconscious Self, and this manifests itself empirically as the sum total of all archetypes and therefore includes the archetype of the father and of the wise old man. To that extent the hero is his own father and his own begetter ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 516

 

This combination of motifs can be found in the legend of Mani. He performs his great deeds as a religious teacher, then goes into hiding for years in a cave, dies, and is skinned, stuffed, and hung up. Besides that, he is an artist and has a crippled foot. There is a similar combination of motifs in Wieland the Smith ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 516

 

The question of nourishment has to be considered here because regression to the mother is bound to revive the memory of the “alma mater,” the mother as the nourishing source. Incest is not the only aspect characteristic of regression: there is also the hunger that drives the child to its mother ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 519

 

Whoever gives up the struggle to adapt and regresses into the bosom of the family, which in the last resort is the mother’s bosom, expects not only to be warmed and loved, but also to be fed. If the regression has an infantile character, it aims without of course admitting it at incest and nourishment ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 519

 

When the regression is only apparent, and is in reality a purposive introversion of libido directed towards a goal, then the endogamous relationship, which is in any case prohibited by the incest-taboo, will be avoided, and the demand for nourishment replaced by intentional fasting ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 519

 

Solitude and fasting have from time immemorial been the best-known means of strengthening any meditation whose purpose is to open the doors to the unconscious ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 519

 

Mondamin is the maize, the Indian corn. Hiawatha’s introversion gives birth to a god who is eaten. His hunger in the twofold sense his longing for the nourishing mother, calls forth from the unconscious another hero, an edible god, the maize, son of the Earth Mother ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 522

 

The Christian parallel is obvious. It is hardly necessary to suppose any Christian influence here, since Fray Bernardino de Sahagún had already described the eucharist of Huitzilopochtli among the Aztecs early in the sixteenth century. This god, too, was ceremonially eaten ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 522

 

Mondamin, the “friend of man,” challenges Hiawatha to single combat in the glow of evening. In the “purple twilight” of the setting sun (i.e., in the western land) there now ensues the mythological struggle with the god who has sprung out of the unconscious like a transformed reflection of Hiawatha’s introverted consciousness ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 522

 

As a god or god-man he is the prototype of Hiawatha’s heroic destiny; that is to say, Hiawatha has in himself the possibility, indeed the necessity, of confronting his daemon ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 522

 

On the way to this goal he conquers the parents and breaks his infantile ties. But the deepest tie is to the mother. Once he has conquered this by gaining access to her symbolic equivalent, he can be born again ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 522

 

In this tie to the maternal source lies the strength that gives the hero his extraordinary powers, his true genius, which he frees from the embrace of the unconscious by his daring and sovereign independence. Thus the god is born in him ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 522

 

The mystery of the “mother” is divine creative power, which appears here in the form of the corn-god Mondamin ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 522

 

w the remarkable thing here is that it is not Hiawatha who passes through death and emerges reborn, as might be expected, but the god. It is not man who is transformed into a god, but the god who undergoes transformation in and through man. It is as though he had been asleep in the “mother,” i.e., in Hiawatha’s unconscious, and had then been roused and fought with so that he should not overpower his host, but should, on the contrary, himself experience death and rebirth and reappear in the corn in a new form beneficial to mankind 524

 

Consequently he [the god] appears at first in hostile form, as an assailant with whom the hero has to wrestle. This is in keeping with the violence of all unconscious dynamism. In this manner the god manifests himself and in this form he must be overcome. The struggle has its parallel in Jacob’s wrestling with the angel at the ford Jabbok ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 524

 

The onslaught of instinct then becomes an experience of divinity, provided that man does not succumb to it and follow it blindly, but defends his humanity against the animal nature of the divine power ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 524

 

This ravenous hunger aptly describes man’s repressive instinctuality at the stage where the parents have a predominantly nutritive significance ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 526

 

Christ wrestles with himself in Gesthemene in order to complete his work ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 526

 

Mithras has to fight the bull ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 526

 

Christ carries the Cross (the “transitus”) and in so doing carries himself to the grave ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 526

 

Mithras carries the bull (the “transitus”) into the cave (grave) where he kills it ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 526

 

From Christ’s death comes a divinity who is eaten in the Lord’s Supper, i.e., the mystical food ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 526

 

From the death of Mithras’ bull comes fruitfulness, especially things to eat (fig. 010) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 526

 

The Christian images express the same fundamental thought: that Christ is a divinity who is eaten in the Last Supper. His death transforms him into bread and wine, which we relish as mystical food ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 526

 

The relation of Agni to the soma-drink and of Dionysus to the wine should not pass without mention here ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 526

 

Another parallel is Samson’s strangling of the lion, and the subsequent inhabitation of the dead lion by a swarm of bees, which gave rise to the riddle: “Out of the eater came forth meat, and out of the strong came forth sweetness” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para  526

 

The image of Iacchus was carried at the head of the great Eleusinian procession. It is not easy to say exactly what god Iacchus is, but he was probably a boy or a new-born son, similar perhaps to the Etruscan Tages, who bore the epithet “the fresh-ploughed boy,” because, according to legend, he sprang out of a furrow behind a peasant ploughing his fields ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 527

 

The lexicographers called him “Demeter’s daimon.” He was identified with Dionysus, especially with the Thracian Dionysus-Zagreus, who is supposed to have undergone the typical fate of being reborn  ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 527

 

Hera, we are told, had stirred up the Titans against Zagreus, who tried to escape them by changing into various shapes. In the end they caught him when he had taken on the form of a bull. They then killed him, cut him in pieces, and threw the pieces into a cauldron; but Zeus slew the Titans with a thunderbolt and swallowed the still-throbbing heart of Zagreus. In this manner he was regenerated, and Zagreus stepped forth again as Iacchus ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 527

 

Another thing carried in the Eleusinian procession was the winnowing-basket, the cradle of Iacchus (,mystica vannus Iacchi). The Orphic legend relates that Iacchus was reared by Persephone in the underworld, where after slumbering for three years, he awoke in the winnowing-basket. The 20th of Boedromion (the month of Boedromion lasted from about September 5 to October 5) was called Iacchus, in honour of the hero ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 528

 

In the Eleusinian procession the 20th of Boedromion (the month of Boedromion lasted from about September 5 to October 5) was called Iacchus, in honour of the hero. On the evening of this day a great torchlight procession was held on the sea-shore, where the search and lament of Demeter were re-enacted ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 527

 

The part of Demeter, who, abstaining from food and drink, wanders over the face of the earth seeking her lost daughter, has, in the American Indian epic, been taken over by Hiawatha. He turns to all creatures, but receives no answers ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 528

 

Just as Demeter first gets news of her daughter from the moon-goddess Hecate, so Hiawatha only finds the one he is looking for Mondamin through profound introversion, by a descent into the darkness of night, to the Mothers ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 528

 

The priestess of Demeter seems to have represented the earth-goddess, or possibly the ploughed furrow ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 528

 

The parallel to the motif of dying and rising again is that of being lost and found again. It appears ritually at exactly same place, in connection with the hierosgamos-like spring festivities, where the image of the god was hidden and then found again ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 531

 

There is an uncanonical tradition that Moses left his father’s house at the age of twelve in order to instruct mankind ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 531

 

Similarly, Christ was lost by his parents, and they found him teaching wisdom in the temple, just as in the Mohammedan legend Moses and Joshua, lose the fish and find in its stead Khidr, the teacher of wisdom ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 531

 

So, too, does the corn-god, lost and believed dead, suddenly spring from the earth in the splendor of youth ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 531

 

The believer descends into the grave in order to rise again from the dead with the hero. It can scarcely be doubted that the underlying meaning of the Church is the mother’s womb. The Tantric texts interpret the interior of the temple as the interior of the body, and the adyton is called “garbha griha,” the seeding-place or uterus ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 536

 

We can see this quite plainly in the worship of the Holy Sepulchre, a good example being the Holy Sepulchre of San Stefano in Bologna ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 536

 

The church itself, an extremely ancient polygonal building, was built from the remains of a temple to Isis. Inside, there is an artificial spelaeum, known as the Holy Sepulchre, into which one creeps through a tiny door. Worshippers in such a spelaeum could hardly help identifying themselves with him who died and rose again, i.e., with the reborn ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 536

 

trees are anointed with sweet-smelling waters, sprinkled with powder, adorned with garlands and draperies ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 545

 

Just as the people pierce their ears as an apotropaic charm against death, so they pierce the sacred tree ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 545

 

Of all the trees in India there is none more sacred to the Hindus than the peepul or aswatha (Ficus religiosa). It is known to them as Vriksha Raja (king of trees). Brahma, Vishnu, and Maheswar live in it, and the worship of it is the worship of the Triad. Almost every Indian village has an aswatha ( Negelein, ed., Der Traumschlüssel des Jaggadeva, p. 256 ) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 545

 

The woodpecker owes his special significance to the fact that he hammers holes in trees. Hence we can understand why he was honoured in Roman legend as an ancient king of the country, who was the possessor or ruler of the sacred tree, and the prototype of the pater familias ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 547

 

An old fable relates that Circe, the wife of king Picus, changed him into Picus martius, the woodpecker. She killed and magically transformed him into a soul-bird ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 547

 

Picus was also regarded as a wood demon and incubus, and a soothsayer. He was sometimes equated with Picumnus, the inseparable companion of Pilumnus, both of whom were called infantium dii, `gods of small children.’ Pilumnus especially was said to protect new-born infants from the wicked attacks of the wood-imp Sylvanus ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 547

 

This helpful little bird now counsels our hero [Hiawatha] to aim under the magician’s topknot, the only vulnerable spot. It is situated on the crown of the head, at the point where the mythical “head birth” takes place, which even today figures among the birth-theories of children ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 547

 

There Hiawatha shoots in three arrows and so makes an end of Megissogwon. He then steals the magic belt of wampum which makes him invisible; the dead magician he leaves lying in the water ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 547

 

He is the spirit of regression, who threatens us with bondage to the mother and with dissolution and extinction in the unconscious (cf. fig. 035) and (fig. 258.62) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 551

 

For the hero, fear is a challenge and a task, because only boldness can deliver from fear ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 551

 

If the risk is not taken, the meaning of life is somehow violated, and the whole future is condemned to hopeless staleness, to a drab grey lit only by will-o’-the wisps
 ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 551

 

This image is undoubtedly a primordial one, and there was profound justification for its becoming a symbolical expression of human fate ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 553

 

In the morning of life the son tears himself loose from the mother, from the domestic hearth, to rise through battle to his destined heights ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 553

 

Always he imagines his worst enemy in front of him, yet he carries the enemy within himself a deadly longing for the abyss, a longing to drown in his own source, to be sucked down to the realm of the Mothers ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 553

 

His life is a constant struggle against extinction, a violent yet fleeting deliverance from ever-lurking night. This death is no external enemy, it is his own inner longing for the stillness and profound peace of all-knowing non-existence, for all-seeing sleep in the ocean of coming-to-be and passing away ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 553

 

Even in his highest strivings for harmony and balance, for the profundities of philosophy and the raptures of the artist, he seeks death, immobility, satiety, rest ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 553

 

If, like Peirithous, he tarries too long in this abode of rest and peace, he is overcome by apathy, and the poison of the serpent paralyses him for all time ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 553

 

If he is to live, he must fight and sacrifice his longing for the past in order to rise to his own heights. And having reached the noonday heights, he must sacrifice his love for his own achievement, for he may not loiter ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 553

 

The sun, too, sacrifices its greatest strength in order to hasten onward to the fruits of autumn, which are the seeds of rebirth ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 553

 

The natural course of life demands that the young person should sacrifice his childhood and his childish dependence on the physical parents, lest he remain caught body and soul in the bonds of unconscious incest ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 553

 

This regressive tendency has been consistently opposed from the most primitive times by the great psychotherapeutic systems which we know as the religions. They seek to create an autonomous consciousness by weaning mankind away from the sleep of childhood ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 553

 

It is well known that Brünhilde, the Valkyrie, looked with favour on the brother-sister incest [of Sigmund and Sieglinde] that gave birth to Siegfried. But whereas Sieglinde is the human mother, Brünhilde acts the part of the symbolic mother, the “spirit-mother” (mother-imago), not as a persecutor, like Hera with the infant Heracles, but as a helper ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 555

 

The sin of incest, of which she makes herself guilty by her complicity, is the reason for her banishment by Wotan. Siegfried’s birth from the sister-wife characterizes him as a Horus, the reborn sun, a reincarnation of the aging sun-god ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 555

 

The birth of the young sun, the god-man, stems from human partners, but they are really only vehicles for cosmic symbols. The spirit-mother therefore lends it her protection; she sends Sieglinde forth, with the child in her womb, on the night sea journey to the East ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 555

 

The persecution motif is not connected here with the mother, but with Wotan, as in the Linus legend, where the father is the vengeful pursuer. Brünhilde stands in a peculiar relation to her father Wotan ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 559

 

Brünhilde is a sort of “split-off” from Wotan, part of his personality, just as Pallas Athene was an emanation of Zeus. She is, as it were, Wotan’s emissary or agent, and therefore corresponds to the angel of Yahweh, to the “eye of Ahura” or Vohu Manah, God’s good thought in Persian legend, or to the Babylonian Nabu, the word of fate, or to Hermes, the messenger of the gods, whom the philosophers equated with Reason and Logos ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 560

 

In Assyria the role of Logos falls to the fire god, Gibil. That Wagner should have put the designs of so martial a god as Wotan into the hands of a feminine agent is somewhat remarkable, despite the Greek precedent of Pallas Athene ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 560

 

Wagner’s Brünhilde is one of the numerous anima-figures who are attributed to masculine deities, and who without exception represent a dissociation in the masculine psychea “split-off” with a tendency to lead an obsessive existence of its own ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 563

 

This tendency to autonomy causes the anima to anticipate the thoughts and decisions of the masculine consciousness, with the result that the masculine consciousness is constantly confronted with unlooked-for situations which it has apparently done nothing to provoke ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 563

 

Brünhilde’s sin was her support of Siegmund, but behind that lies the incest which was projected into the brother-sister pair Siegmund and Sieglinde. The symbolical meaning, however, is that Wotan, the father, has entered into his own daughter in order to rejuvenate himself ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 565

 

This archaic fact is expressed here in a rather veiled way. In the legend of the “Entkrist” it is expressed openly by the devil, the father of the Anti-Christ ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 565

 

Wotan is justly indignant with Brünhilde, for she has taken over the role of Isis and through the birth of a son has deprived the old man of his power ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 565

 

Wotan beats off the first herald of doom, Siegmund, and smashes his sword, but Siegmund rises again in the grandson, Siegfried. And the instrument of fate is always the woman, who knows and reveals his secret thoughts; hence the impotent rage of Wotan, who cannot bring himself to recognize his own contradictory nature ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 565

 

At Siegfried’s birth Sieglinde dies, as is proper. The foster-parent who brings him up is not a woman, but a chthonic god, Mime, a crippled dwarf who belongs to a race that has abjured love. Similarly, the god of the Egyptian underworld, the crippled shadow of Osiris (who underwent a sorry resurrection in Harpocrates), brings up the infant Horus to avenge the death of his father ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 566

 

Meanwhile Brünhilde lies in enchanted slumber on the mountain where Wotan has put her to sleep with the magic thorn (Edda), surrounded by a curtain of fire that keeps off all who approach and at the same time symbolizes the fiery longing of the hero for the forbidden goal ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 567

 

But Siegfried’s conversation with the bird lures Fafner out of the cave. Siegfried’s longing for the mother-imago has unwittingly exposed him to danger of looking back to his childhood and to the human mother, who immediately changes into the death-dealing dragon. He has conjured up the evil aspect of the unconscious, its devouring nature (cf. fig. 259.32b) and (fig. 258.34) , personified by the cave-dwelling terror of the woods ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 569

 

Fafner is the guardian of the treasure; in his cave lies the hoard, the source of life and power. The mother apparently possesses the libido of the son (the treasure she guards so jealously), and this is in fact true so long as the son remains unconscious of himself ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 569

 

In psychological terms this means that the “treasure hard to attain” lies hidden in the mother-imago, i.e., in the unconscious. This symbol points to one of life’s secrets which is expressed in countless symbolical ways in mythology. When such symbols occur in individual dreams, they will be found on examination to be pointing to something like a centre of the total personality, of the psychic totality which consists of both conscious and unconscious. Here I must refer the reader to my later works, where I deal at some length with the symbol of the Self ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 569

 

The rewards of this battle with Fafner are glowingly described in the Siegfried legend. According to the Edda, Siegfried eats Fafner’s heart, the seat of life ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 569

 

He wins the magic cap through whose power Alberich had changed himself into a serpentan allusion to the motif of rejuvenation by casting the skin. Another lucky cap is the caul that is occasionally found over the heads of new-born children ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 569

 

In addition, by drinking the dragon’s blood Siegfried learns to understand the language of birds, and thus enjoys a peculiar relationship to nature, which he now dominates by knowledge ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 569

 

Last but not least, Siegfried wins the hoard ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 569

 

Life is put together again from the broken pieces (miracle of Medea). Just as a blacksmith welds the broken pieces together, so the dismembered corpse is reconstituted ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 556

 

This comparison also occurs in Plato’s Timaeus: the world’s parts are joined together with pegs. In the Rig-Veda the world creator Brahmanaspati is a blacksmith ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 556

 

We have already seen that pastries in the form of snakes and phalli were flung into a pit at the Arrhetophoria. We mentioned this in connection with the earth fertilization ceremonies ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 571

 

It is significant that the deadly flood flowed off into the fissure, back into the mother again, for it was from the mother that death came into the world in the first place. The Deluge is simply the counterpart of the all-vivifying and all-producing water, of “the ocean, which is the origin of all things” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 571

 

Honeycakes are offered to the mother that she may spare one from death. In Rome money-offerings were thrown every year into the lacus Curtius, formerly a chasm that had been closed through the sacrificial death of Curtius. He was the hero who went down to the underworld in order to conquer the danger that threatened the Roman state after the opening of the chasm ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 571

 

In the Anphiaraion at Oropos those healed through incubation in the temple threw their money-offerings into the sacred well. Pausanias says: ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 571

 

Near Eleusis, there was a gorge through which Aidoneus came up and into which he descended after kidnapping the Kore ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 572

 

There were crevasses in the rocks where the souls could ascend to the upper world ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 572

 

Behind the temple of Chthonia in Hermione lay a spot sacred to Pluto, with a chasm through which Heracles came up with Cerberus ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 572

 

There was also an “Acherusian” lake. This chasm, therefore, was the entrance to the place where death had been conquered ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 572

 

The chasm on the Areopagus in Athens was believed to be the seat of the dwellers in the underworld ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 572

 

Similar ideas are suggested by an old Greek custom: girls used to be sent for a virginity test to a cave where there lived a poisonous serpent. If they were bitten, it was a sign that they were no longer chaste ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 572

 

The Self, as a symbol of wholeness, is a coincidentia oppositorum, and therefore contains light and darkness simultaneously (cf. fig. 039), (fig. 258.09), and (fig. 258.60) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 576

 

In the Christ-figure the opposites which are united in the archetype are polarized into the “light” son of God on the one hand and the devil on the other. The original unity of opposites is still discernible in the original unity of Satan and Yahweh. Christ and the dragon of the Anti-Christ lie very close together so far as their historical development and cosmic significance are concerned ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 576

 

The dragon legend concealed under the myth of the Anti-Christ is an essential part of the hero’s life and is therefore immortal ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 576

 

Nowhere in the latter-day myths are the paired opposites so palpably close together as in the figures of Christ and Anti-Christ. (Here I would refer the reader to Merezhkovsky’s admirable account of this problem in his novel Leonardo da Vinci) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 576

 

It is a convenient rationalistic conceit to say that the dragon is only “artificial,” thus banishing the mysterious gods with a word ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 576

 

Schizophrenic patients often make use of this mechanism for apotropaic purposes. “It’s all a fake,” they say, “all artificially made up.” The following dream of a schizophrenic is typical: ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 576

 

Sun and moon, as divine equivalents of the parent archetype, possess a tremendous psychic power that has to be weakened apotropaically, because the patient is already far too much under the power of the unconscious ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 576

 

Thus the crevice at Delphi with the Castalian spring was the habitation of the chthonic Python who was vanquished by the sun-hero Apollo. The Python, incited by Hera, had pursued Apollo’s mother, Leto, when he was still in her womb; but she fled to the floating island of Delos on a “night sea journey” and was there safely delivered of her child, who later slew the Python ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

In Hierapolis (Edessa) a temple was built over the earth where the flood subsided, and in Jerusalem the foundation-stone of the temple was laid over the great abyss, in the same way that Christian churches are often built over caves, grottoes, wells, etc. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

We find the same motif in the Grotto of Mithras and the various other cave-cults, including the Christian catacombs, which owe their importance not to legendary persecutions but to the cult of the dead ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

Even the burial of the dead in consecrated ground (“garden of the dead,” cloisters, crypts, etc.) is a rendering back to the mother with the hope of resurrection which such burials presuppose ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

Hence the Attic custom of giving the dead man the(same as honey-cakes), with which to pacify the hound of hell, the three-headed monster guarding the door of the underworld ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

A substitute for the gifts seems to have been the obolus given to Charon, which is why Rohde calls him the second Cerberus, akin to the jackal-headed Anubis of the Egyptians (fig. 258.32a) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

The dog and the underworld serpent are identical. In the Greek tragedies the Erinyes are serpents as well as dogs; the monsters Typhon and Echidna are parents of the Hydra, of the dragon of the Hesperides, and of the Gorgon (fig. 258.14b) ; they also spawned the dogs Cerberus, Orthros, and Scylla. Snakes and dogs are guardians of the treasure ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

The chthonic god was in all probability a snake that was housed in a cave and was fed with(fig. 258.57b) . In the Asclepieia of the later period the sacred snakes were hardly ever visible, so they may have existed only figuratively ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

Nothing was left but the hole in which the snake was said to dwell. There the honey cakes were placed and the obolus thrown in. The sacred cave in the temple at Cos consisted of a rectangular pit covered by a stone slab with a square hole in it ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

This arrangement served the purpose of a treasure-house: the snake-pit had become a slot for money, a “poor-box,” and the cave a “hoard.” That this development is fully in accord with the archaeological evidence is proved by a discovery in the temple of Aesculapius and Hygeia at Ptolemaïs ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 577

 

Here the serpent lies on the treasury as protector of the hoard. Fear of the deadly maternal womb has become the guardian of the treasure of life. That the snake really is a death-symbol is evident from the fact that the souls of the dead, like the chthonic gods, appear as serpents, as dwellers in the kingdom of the deadly mother ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 578

 

The hero himself appears as a being of more than human stature. He is distinguished from the very beginning by his godlike characteristics ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 612

 

Since he is psychologically an archetype of the Self, his divinity only confirms that the Self is numinous, a sort of god, or having some share in the divine nature ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 612

 

The hero is the protagonist of God’s transformation in man; he corresponds to what I call the “mana personality.” The mana personality has such an immense fascination for the conscious mind that the ego all too easily succumbs to the temptation to identify with the hero, thus bringing on a psychic inflation with all its consequences. For this reason the repugnance felt by certain ecclesiastical circles for the “inner Christ” is understandable enough, at least as a preventive measure against the danger of psychic inflation which threatens the Christian European ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 612

 

Heroes are usually wanderers, and wandering is a symbol of longing, of the restless urge which never finds its object, of nostalgia for the lost mother. The sun comparison can easily be taken in this sense: the heroes are like the wandering sun, from which it is concluded that the myth of the hero is a solar myth ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 299

 

It seems to us, rather, that he is first and foremost a self-representation of the longing of the unconscious, of its unquenched and unquenchable desire for the light of consciousness. But consciousness, continually in danger of being led astray by its own light and of becoming a rootless will o’ the wisp, longs for the healing power of nature, for the deep wells of being and for unconscious communion with life in all its countless forms ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 299

 

It is not man as such who has to be regenerated or born again as a renewed whole, but, according to the statements of mythology, it is the hero or god who rejuvenates himself. These figures are generally expressed or characterized by libido-symbols (light, fire, sun, etc.), so that it looks as if they represented psychic energy. They are, in fact, personifications of the libido ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 388

 

The hero is a hero just because he sees resistance to the forbidden goal in all life’s difficulties and yet fights that resistance with the whole-hearted yearning that strives towards the treasure hard to attain, and perhaps unattainable a yearning that paralyses and kills the ordinary man ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 510

 

The hero is an extraordinary being who is inhabited by a daemon, and it is this that makes him a hero. That is why the mythological statements about heroes are so typical and so impersonal ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 536

 

The treasure which the hero fetches from the dark cavern is life: it is himself, new-born from the dark maternal cave of the unconscious where he was stranded by the introversion or regression of libido. Hence the Hindu fire-bringer is called Matarisvan, he who swells in the mother. The hero who clings to the mother is the dragon, and when the hero is reborn from the mother he becomes the conqueror of the dragon (fig. 258.59a) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 580

 

He [the hero] shares this paradoxical nature with the snake. According to Philo the snake is the most spiritual of all creatures; it is of a fiery nature, and its swiftness is terrible. It has a long life and sloughs off old age with its skin. In actual fact the snake is a cold-blooded creature, unconscious and unrelated. It is both toxic and prophylactic, equally a symbol of the good and bad daemon (the Agathodaimon), of Christ and the devil. Among the Gnostics it was regarded as an emblem of the brain-stem and spinal cord, as is consistent with its predominantly reflex psyche. It is an excellent symbol for the unconscious, perfectly expressing the latter’s sudden and unexpected manifestations, its painful and dangerous intervention in our affairs, and its frightening effects ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 580

 

Taken purely as a psychologem the hero represents the positive, favourable action of the unconscious, while the dragon is its negative and unfavourable action not birth, but a devouring; not a beneficial and constructive deed, but greedy retention and destruction. (cf. fig. 035) and (fig. 030) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 580

 

The hero who sets himself the task of renewing the world and conquering death personifies the world-creating power which, brooding on itself in introversion, coiled round its own egg like a snake, threatens life with its poisonous bite, so that the living may die and be born again from the darkness ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 592

 

The hero is himself the snake, himself the sacrificer and the sacrificed, which is why Christ rightly compares himself with the healing Moses-serpent (fig. 258.09b) and why the saviour of the Christian Ophites was a serpent, too. It is both Agathodaimon (fig. 037) and Cacodaimon. In German legend we are told that the heroes have snake’s eyes ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 593

 

One of my patients dreamt that a snake shot out of a cave and bit him in the genital region. The dream occurred at the moment when the patient was convinced of the truth of the analysis and was beginning to free himself from the bonds of his mother-complex ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 585

 

He felt that he was making progress and that he had more control over himself. But the moment he felt the impulse to go forward he also felt the pull of the bond of the mother ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 585

 

Being bitten in the genital region by a snake (fig. 258.61b) reminds us of Attis whose self-castration was occasioned by his mother’s jealousy ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 585

 

According to the Rig-Veda ( X, 121 ), the unknown creator of all things is Prajapati, “Lord of Creation.” His cosmogonic activity is described as follows in the various Brahmanas: ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 588

 

The term tapas is to be translated, according to Deussen, as “he heated himself with his own heat,” in the sense that “he brooded his own brooding,” brooder and brooded being conceived not as separate, but as one and the same thing ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 589

 

As Hiranyagarbha (the Golden Germ), Prajapati is the self-begotten egg, the cosmic egg from which he hatches himself (fig. 036) . He creeps into himself, becomes his own womb, makes himself pregnant with himself in order to hatch forth the world of multiplicity ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 589

 

Self-incubation, self-castigation, and introversion are closely related ideas. Immersion in oneself (introversion) is a penetration into the unconscious and at the same time asceticism. The result, for the philosophy of the Brahmanas, is the creation of the world, and for the mystic the regeneration and spiritual rebirth of the individual, who is born into a new world of the spirit. Indian philosophy also assumes that creativity as such springs from introversion ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 590

 

The hero himself appears as a being of more than human stature. He is distinguished from the very beginning by his godlike characteristics ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 612

 

Since he is psychologically an archetype of the Self, his divinity only confirms that the Self is numinous, a sort of god, or having some share in the divine nature ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 612

 

The hero is the protagonist of God’s transformation in man; he corresponds to what I call the “mana personality.” The mana personality has such an immense fascination for the conscious mind that the ego all too easily succumbs to the temptation to identify with the hero, thus bringing on a psychic inflation with all its consequences. For this reason the repugnance felt by certain ecclesiastical circles for the “inner Christ” is understandable enough, at least as a preventive measure against the danger of psychic inflation which threatens the Christian European ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 612

 

Heroes are usually wanderers, and wandering is a symbol of longing, of the restless urge which never finds its object, of nostalgia for the lost mother. The sun comparison can easily be taken in this sense: the heroes are like the wandering sun, from which it is concluded that the myth of the hero is a solar myth ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 299

 

It seems to us, rather, that he is first and foremost a self-representation of the longing of the unconscious, of its unquenched and unquenchable desire for the light of consciousness. But consciousness, continually in danger of being led astray by its own light and of becoming a rootless will o’ the wisp, longs for the healing power of nature, for the deep wells of being and for unconscious communion with life in all its countless forms ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 299

 

It is not man as such who has to be regenerated or born again as a renewed whole, but, according to the statements of mythology, it is the hero or god who rejuvenates himself. These figures are generally expressed or characterized by libido-symbols (light, fire, sun, etc.), so that it looks as if they represented psychic energy. They are, in fact, personifications of the libido ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 388

 

The hero is a hero just because he sees resistance to the forbidden goal in all life’s difficulties and yet fights that resistance with the whole-hearted yearning that strives towards the treasure hard to attain, and perhaps unattainable a yearning that paralyses and kills the ordinary man ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 510

 

The hero is an extraordinary being who is inhabited by a daemon, and it is this that makes him a hero. That is why the mythological statements about heroes are so typical and so impersonal ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 536

 

The treasure which the hero fetches from the dark cavern is life: it is himself, new-born from the dark maternal cave of the unconscious where he was stranded by the introversion or regression of libido. Hence the Hindu fire-bringer is called Matarisvan, he who swells in the mother. The hero who clings to the mother is the dragon, and when the hero is reborn from the mother he becomes the conqueror of the dragon (fig. 258.59a) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 580

 

He [the hero] shares this paradoxical nature with the snake. According to Philo the snake is the most spiritual of all creatures; it is of a fiery nature, and its swiftness is terrible. It has a long life and sloughs off old age with its skin. In actual fact the snake is a cold-blooded creature, unconscious and unrelated. It is both toxic and prophylactic, equally a symbol of the good and bad daemon (the Agathodaimon), of Christ and the devil. Among the Gnostics it was regarded as an emblem of the brain-stem and spinal cord, as is consistent with its predominantly reflex psyche. It is an excellent symbol for the unconscious, perfectly expressing the latter’s sudden and unexpected manifestations, its painful and dangerous intervention in our affairs, and its frightening effects ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 580

 

Taken purely as a psychologem the hero represents the positive, favourable action of the unconscious, while the dragon is its negative and unfavourable action not birth, but a devouring; not a beneficial and constructive deed, but greedy retention and destruction. (cf. fig. 035) and (fig. 030) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 580

 

The hero who sets himself the task of renewing the world and conquering death personifies the world-creating power which, brooding on itself in introversion, coiled round its own egg like a snake, threatens life with its poisonous bite, so that the living may die and be born again from the darkness ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 592

 

The hero is himself the snake, himself the sacrificer and the sacrificed, which is why Christ rightly compares himself with the healing Moses-serpent (fig. 258.09b) and why the saviour of the Christian Ophites was a serpent, too. It is both Agathodaimon (fig. 037) and Cacodaimon. In German legend we are told that the heroes have snake’s eyes ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 593

 

Cecrops was half snake, half man. In primitive times he was probably the snake of the Athenian citadel itself. As a buried god he was, like Erechtheus, a chthonic snake-deity ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 594

 

Above his subterranean dwelling rose the Parthenon, the temple of the virgin goddess ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 594

 

The flaying of the god, which we have already touched on in connection with the flaying-ceremonies of the Aztecs, is intimately bound up with the snake-like nature of the hero ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 594

 

It is reported of Mani, the founder of Manichaeism, that he was killed, flayed, stuffed, and hung up. The hanging up of the god has an unmistakable symbolic value, since suspension is the symbol of unfulfilled longing or tense expectation (“suspense”). Christ, Odin, Attis, and others all hung upon trees ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 594

 

We can in fact discover the same multiplicity of meanings and the same apparently limitless inter changeability of figures in dreams. On the other hand we are now in a position to establish certain laws, or at any rate rules, which make dream interpretation rather more certain. Thus we know that dreams generally compensate the conscious situation or supply what is lacking to it. This very important principle of dream interpretation also applies to myths ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 611

 

Furthermore, investigation of the products of the unconscious yields recognizable traces of archetypal structures which coincide with the myth-motifs among them certain types which deserve the name of dominants ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 611

 

These are archetypes like the anima, animus, wise old man, witch, shadow, earth-mother, etc. ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 611

 

The organizing dominants include the Self, the circle, and the quaternity, i.e., the four functions or aspects of the Self or of consciousness (cf. fig. 258.56) and (fig. 258.60) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 611

 

The reason for this lies in the fact that no part of the hero-myth is single in meaning, and that, at a pinch, all the figures are interchangeable ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 611

 

The only certain and reliable thing is that the myth exists and shows unmistakable analogies with other myths ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 611

 

Myth-interpretation is a tricky business and there is some justification for looking at it askance. Hitherto the myth-interpreter has found himself in a somewhat unenviable position, because he only had exceedingly doubtful points for orientation at his disposal, such as astronomical and meteorological data ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 611

 

Snake dreams always indicate a discrepancy between the attitude of the conscious mind and instinct, the snake being a personification of the threatening aspect of that conflict 615

 

The appearance of the green viper therefore means: “Look out! Danger ahead!” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 615

 

t devoured all human beings (devouring-mother = death) until only one pregnant woman remained. She dug a ditch, covered it with a stone, and there gave birth to twins who afterwards became dragon-killers ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 620

 

The mating in the mother also occurs in the following West African legend: “In the beginning, Obatala the Sky and Odudua the Earth, his wife, lay pressed close together in a calabash” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 620

 

Being “guarded in modest bud” is an image that is found in Plutarch, where it is said that the sun is born at dawn from a flower bud ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 620

 

Brahma, too, comes out of a bud (fig. 258.46a) , and in Assam a bud gave birth to the first human pair ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 620

 

Separation and differentiation from the mother, “individuation,” produces that confrontation of subject and object which is the foundation of consciousness ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 624

 

Before this, man was one with the mother; that is to say, he was merged with the world as a whole. He did not yet know the sun was his brother; only after the separation did he begin to realize his affinity with the stars ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 624

 

This is a not uncommon occurrence in psychosis. For instance, in the case of a young labouring-man who developed schizophrenia, the first symptoms of his illness consisted in the feeling that he had a special relation to the sun and the stars ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 624

 

The stars became full of meaning for him, he thought they had something to do with him personally, and the sun gave him all sorts of strange ideas. One finds this apparently quite novel feeling for Nature very often in this disease ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 624

 

Another patient began to understand the language of the birds, who brought him messages from his sweetheart ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 624

 

The separation from youth has even taken away the golden glamour of Nature, and the future appears hopeless and empty. But what robs Nature of its glamour, and life of its joy, is the habit of looking back for something that used to be outside, instead of looking inside, into the depths of the depressive state ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 625

 

This looking back leads to regression and is the first step along that path. Regression is also an involuntary introversion in so far as the past is an object of memory and therefore a psychic content, an endopsychic factor. It is a relapse into the past caused by a depression in the present ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 625

 

Depression should therefore be regraded as an unconscious compensation whose content must be made conscious if it is to be fully effective ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 625

 

This can only be done by consciously regressing along with the depressive tendency and integrating the memories so activated into the conscious mind which was what the depression was aiming at in the first place ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 625

 

Depression is a condition resulting from a blocking of libido where life ceases to flow ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 250

 

A person sinks into his childhood memories and vanishes from the existing world. He finds himself apparently in deepest darkness [inside the whale], but then has unexpected visions of a world beyond ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 631

 

The “mystery” he beholds represents the stock of primordial images which everybody brings with him as his human birthright, the sum total of inborn forms peculiar to the instincts. I have called this “potential” psyche the collective unconscious. If this layer is activated by the regressive libido, there is a possibility of life being renewed, and also of its being destroyed ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 631

 

Regression carried to its logical conclusion means a linking back with the world of natural instincts, which in its formal or ideal aspect is a kind of prima materia. If the prima materia can be assimilated by the conscious mind it will bring about a reactivation and reorganization of its contents ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 631

 

If the conscious mind proves incapable of assimilating the new contents pouring in from the unconscious, then a dangerous situation arises in which they keep their original, chaotic, and archaic form and consequently disrupt the unity of consciousness ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 631

 

All the libido that was tied up in family bonds must be withdrawn from the narrower circle into the larger one, because the psychic health of the adult individual, who in childhood was a mere particle revolving in a rotary system, demands that he should himself become the center of a new system ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 644

 

That such a step includes the solution, or at least some consideration, of the sexual problem is obvious enough, for unless this is done the unemployed libido will inevitably remain fixed in the unconscious endogamous relationship to the parents and will seriously hamper the individual’s freedom ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 644

 

We must remember that Christ’s teaching means ruthlessly separating a man from his family, and we saw in the Nicodemus dialogue how he took especial pains to give regression a symbolic meaning. Both tendencies serve the same goal, namely that of freeing man from his family fixations, from his weakness and uncontrolled infantile feelings ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 644

 

For if he allows his libido to get stuck in a childish milieu, and does not free it for higher purposes, he falls under the spell of unconscious compulsion. Wherever he may be, the unconscious will then recreate the infantile milieu by projecting his complexes, thus reproducing all over again, and in defiance of his vital interests, the same dependence and lack of freedom which formerly characterized his relations with his parents ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 644

 

His destiny no longer lies in his own hands: his(fortunes and fates) fall from the stars. The Stoics called this condition Heimarmene, compulsion by the stars, to which every “unredeemed” soul is subject ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 644

 

When the libido thus remains fixed in its most primitive form it keeps men on a correspondingly low level where they have no control over themselves and are at the mercy of their affects ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 644

 

That was the psychological situation of late antiquity, and the saviour and physician of that time was he who sought to free humanity from bondage to Heimarmene ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 644

 

For him who looks backwards the whole world, even the starry sky, becomes the mother who bends over him and enfolds him on all sides, and from the renunciation of this image, and of the longing for it, arises the picture of the world as we know it today ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 646

 

This simple thought is what constitutes the meaning of the cosmic sacrifice, a good example being the slaying of Tiamat (fig. 041) , the Babylonian mother-dragon, from whose body heaven and earth were made ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 646

 

But he only discovers it when he sacrifices his containment in the primal mother, the original state of unconsciousness. What drives him towards this discovery is conceived by Freud as the “incest barrier.” The incest prohibition blocks the infantile longing for the mother and forces the libido along the path of life’s biological aim ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 652

 

The libido, driven back from the mother by the incest prohibition, seeks a sexual object in place of the forbidden mother. The fact that the infant finds pleasure in sucking does not prove that it is a sexual pleasure, for pleasure can have many different sources ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 652

 

Presumably, the caterpillar finds quite as much pleasure in eating, even though caterpillars possess no sexual function whatever and the food instinct is something quite different from the sex instinct, quite unconcerned about what a later sexual stage may make of these activities ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 652

 

Kissing, for instance, derives far more from the act of nutrition than from sexuality. Moreover the so-called “incest barrier” is an exceedingly doubtful hypothesis (admirable as it is for describing certain neurotic conditions), because it is a product of culture which nobody invented and which grew up naturally on the basis of complex biological necessities connected with the development of “marriage classes” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 652

 

The main purpose of marriage classes is not to prevent incest but to meet the social danger of endogamy by instituting the “cross-cousin marriage.” The typical marriage with the daughter of the maternal uncle is actually implemented by the same libido which could equally well possess the mother or the sister ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 652

 

So it is not a question of avoiding incest, for which incidentally there are plenty of opportunities in the frequent fits of promiscuity to which primitives are prone, but of the social necessity of spreading the family organization throughout the whole tribe ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 652

 

Therefore it cannot have been the incest-taboo that forced mankind out of the original psychic state of non-differentiation. On the contrary, it was the evolutionary instinct peculiar to man, which distinguishes him so radically from all other animals and forced upon him countless taboos, among them the incest-taboo ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 653

 

Against this “other urge” the animal in us fights with all his instinctive conservatism and misoneism hatred of novelty which are the two outstanding features of the primitive and feebly conscious individual. Our mania for progress represents the inevitable morbid compensation ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 653

 

Even as the world is created by sacrifice, by renouncing the personal tie to childhood, so, according to the teaching of the Upanishads, will be created the new state of man, which can be described as immortal ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 657

 

This new state beyond the human one is again attained through a sacrifice, the horse-sacrifice, which has cosmic significance ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 657

 

The horse-sacrifice signifies a renunciation of the world. When the horse is sacrificed the world is sacrificed and destroyed ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 658

 

Pentheus climbed up into a pine-tree, curious to see the orgies of the Maenads, but was spotted by his mother ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 662

 

The Maenads cut down the tree, and Pentheus, taken for a wild animal, was torn to pieces by them in their frenzy, his own mother being the first to hurl herself upon him ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 662

 

The felling of the tree has the phallic meaning of castration, along with its maternal significance of “bearing” Pentheusthemes all present in the Attis-Cybele myth ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 662

 

The myth of Gayomart repeats in modified form the primitive “closed circle” of a self-reproducing masculine and feminine divinity ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 662

 

Gayomart was created together with his ox, and the two lived in a state of bliss for six thousand years. But when the world entered the aeon of Libra (the seventh zodiacal sign), the evil principle broke loose ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 662

 

In astrology, Libra is known as the “Positive House” of Venus, so the evil principle came under the dominion of the goddess of love, who personifies the erotic aspect of the mother. Since this aspect, as we have seen, is psychologically extremely dangerous, the classical catastrophe threatened to overtake the son ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 662

 

As a result of this constellation, Gayomart and his ox died only thirty years later. (The trials of Zarathustra also lasted for thirty years) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 662

 

Fifty-five species of grain and twelve kinds of healing plants came from the dead ox. His seed entered into the moon for purification, but the seed of Gayomart entered into the sun ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 662

 

The hearth spirit is called Chi. He is dressed in bright red, resembling fire, and in appearance is like a lovely, attractive maiden” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 663

 

The Book of Rites says: “Wood is burnt in the flames for the Au spirit. This sacrifice to Au is a sacrifice to the old women who are dead” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 663

 

These hearth and fire spirits are the souls of departed cooks and are therefore referred to as “old women” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 663

 

The god of kitchens grew out of this pre-Buddhistic tradition and later, as a man, became the ruler of the family and the link between it and heaven. In this way the original female fire-spirit became a sort of Logos and mediator ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 66

 

The annual sacrifice of a maiden to the dragon is perhaps the ideal sacrifice on a mythological level. In order to mollify the wrath of the Terrible Mother the most beautiful girl was sacrificed as a symbol of man’s concupiscence ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 671

 

Milder forms were the sacrifice of the first-born and of various domestic animals ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 671

 

The alternative ideal is self-castration, of which a milder form is circumcision. Here at least only a modicum is sacrificed, which amounts to replacing the sacrifice by a symbolical act ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 671

 

By sacrificing these valued objects of desire and possession, the instinctive desire, or libido is given up in order that it may be regained in new form. Through sacrifice, man ransoms himself from the fear of death and is reconciled to the demands of Hades ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 671

 

In the late cults in olden times the hero conquered evil and death through his labors, thus becoming the divine protagonist, the priestly self-sacrificer and renewer of life. Since he is now a divine figure and his sacrifice is a transcendental mystery whose meaning far exceeds the value of an ordinary sacrificial gift, this deepening of the sacrificial symbolism is a reversion to the old idea of human sacrifice, because a stronger and more total expression is needed to portray the idea of self-sacrifice ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 671

 

The relation of Mithras to his bull comes very close to this idea of self-sacrifice. In Christianity it is the hero himself who dies of his own free will ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 671

 

On the Mithraic monuments we often come across a strange symbol: a krater (mixing-bowl) with a snake coiled round it, and a lion facing the snake like an antagonist (fig. 258.63b) . It looks as if they were fighting for the krater. The krater symbolizes the maternal vessel of rebirth, the snake fear and resistance, and the lion raging desire ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 671

 

The snake almost always assists at the bull-sacrifice by gliding towards the blood flowing from the wound. It seems to follow from this that the bull’s lifeits blood is offered to the snake, that it is a sacrificial offering to the powers of the underworld, like the blood drunk by the shades in the nekyia of Odysseus ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 671

 

We have already seen pointed out the reciprocal relationship between bull and snake, and we saw that the bull symbolizes the living hero, whereas the snake symbolizes the dead, buried, chthonic hero. But as the dead hero is back in the mother, the snake also stands for the devouring mother. The combination of the bull’s blood and the snake therefore looks like a union of opposites, and the lion and snake fighting for the krater may mean the same thing. This is probably the cause of the miraculous fertility that results from the sacrifice of the bull ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 671

 

Even on the primitive level, among the Australian blackfellows, we meet with the idea that the life-force wears out, turns “bad” or gets lost, and must therefore be renewed at regular intervals. Whenever such an abaissement occurs the rites of renewal must be performed ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 671

 

There is an infinite number of these rites, but even on a much higher level they retain their original meaning. Thus the Mithraic killing of the bull is a sacrifice to the Terrible Mother, to the unconscious, which spontaneously attracts energy from the conscious mind because it has strayed too far from its roots, forgetting the power of the gods, without whom all life withers or ends catastrophically in a welter of perversity ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 671

 

In the act of sacrifice the consciousness gives up its power and possessions in the interests of the unconscious. This makes possible a union of opposites resulting in a release of energy ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 671

 

At the same time the act of sacrifice is a fertilization of the mother: the chthonic serpent-demon drinks the blood, i.e., the soul, of the hero. In this way life becomes immortal, for, like the sun, the hero regenerates himself by his self-sacrifice and re-entry into the mother ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 671

 

After all this we should have no difficulty in recognizing the son’s sacrifice to the mother in the Christian mystery. Just as Attis unmans himself for the sake of his mother and his effigy was hung on the pine-tree in memory of this deed, so Christ hangs on the tree of life, on the wood of martyrdom, the and mother (fig. 258.36) , and ransoms creation from death ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 671

 

By entering again into the womb of the mother, he pays in death for the sin which the Protanthropos Adam committed in life, and by that deed he regenerates on a spiritual level the life which was corrupted by original sin ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 671

 

St. Augustine as we have already remarked, actually interprets Christ’s death as a hierosgamos with the mother, similar to the feast of Adonis, where Venus and Adonis were laid upon the bridal couch ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 671

 

In another version his chains were drawn through a pillar. He suffered as a punishment the fate that Christ took upon himself willingly ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 671

 

The fate of Prometheus is therefore reminiscent of the misfortune that befell Theseus and Peirithous, who grew fast to the rocks, the chthonic mother ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 671

 

According to Athenaeus, Jupiter, on setting Prometheus free again, commanded him to wear a willow crown and an iron ring, thus symbolizing his captivity and bondage ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 671

 

Robertson ( Christ and Krishna p. 397 ) compares the crown of Prometheus to Christ’s crown of thorns. The devout wear crowns in honor of Prometheus, in order to represent his bondage. In this connection, therefore, the crown has the same meaning as the betrothal ring: the worshippers are captives of the god’ ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 671

 

Dogma must be a physical impossibility, for it has nothing whatever to say about the physical world but is a symbol of “transcendental” or unconscious processes which, so far as psychology can understand them at all, seem to be bound up with the unavoidable development of consciousness ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 674

 

The snake symbolizes the numen of the transformative act as well as the transformative substance itself, as is particularly clear in alchemy ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 676

 

As the chthonic dweller in the cave she [the snake] lives in the womb of mother earth, like the Kundalini serpent who lies coiled in the abdominal cavity, at the base of the spine ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 676

 

Alchemy has the legend of Gabricus and Beya, the royal brother-sister pair. During the hierosgamos, Gabricus gets right inside the body of his sister and disappears completely; he is buried in her womb, where, dissolved into atoms, he changes into the soul-snake, the serpens mercurialis (fig. 006) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 676

 

Such fantasies are not uncommon among patients. Thus one patient of mine had the fantasy that she was a snake which wound itself round her mother and finally crawled right into her ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 676

 

The snake that killed the hero [Hiawatha] is green. So was the snake of another patient, who said: “Then a little green snake came up to my mouth, it had the finest, loveliest feeling as if it had human reason and wanted to tell me something just as if it wanted to kiss me.” The significance of the snake as an instrument of regeneration is unmistakable (fig. 037) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 677

 

yth, says a Church Father, is “what is believed always, everywhere, by everybody;” hence the man who thinks he can live without myth, or outside it, is an exception. He is like one uprooted, having no true link either with the past, or with the ancestral life which continues within him, or yet with contemporary human society ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 0

 

He does not live in a house like other men, does not eat and drink like other men, but lives a life of his own, sunk in a subjective mania of his own devising, which he believes to be the newly discovered truth ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 0

 

This plaything of his reason never grips his vitals. It may occasionally lie heavy on his stomach, for that organ is apt to reject the products of reason as indigestible ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 0

 

The psyche is not of today; its ancestry goes back many millions of years. Individual consciousness is only the flower and the fruit of a season, sprung from the perennial rhizome beneath the earth; and it would find itself in better accord with the truth if it took the existence of the rhizome into its calculations. For the root matter is the mother of all things ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 0

 

So I suspected that myth had a meaning which I was sure to miss if I lived outside it in the haze of my own speculations. I was driven to ask myself in all seriousness: “What is the myth you are living?” ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 0

 

I found no answer to this question, and had to admit that I was not living with a myth, or even in a myth, but rather in an uncertain cloud of theoretical possibilities which I was beginning to regard with increasing distrust. I did not know that I was living a myth, and even if I had known it, I would not have known what sort of myth was ordering my life without my knowledge ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 0

 

So, in the most natural way, I took it upon myself to get to know “my” myth, and I regarded this as the task of tasks, for so I told myself how could I, when treating my patients, make due allowance for the personal factor, for my personal equation, which is yet so necessary for a knowledge of the other person, if I was unconscious of it? I simply had to know what unconscious or preconscious myth was forming me, from what rhizome I sprang ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 0

 

But, on the other hand, “love” is an extreme example of anthropomorphism and, together with hunger, the immemorial psychic driving-force of humanity ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 97

 

Love is, psychologically considered, a function of relationship on the one hand and a feeling-toned psychic condition on the other, which, as we have seen, practically coincides with the God-image ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 97

 

There can be no doubt that love has an instinctual determinant; it is an activity peculiar to mankind, and, if the language of religion defines God as “love,” there is always the great danger of confusing the love which works in man with the workings of God ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 97

 

This is an obvious instance of the above-mentioned fact that the archetype is inextricably interwoven with the individual psyche, so that the greatest care is needed to differentiate the collective type, at least conceptually, from the personal psyche ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 97

 

In practice, however, this differentiation is not without danger if human “love” is thought of as the prerequisite for the divine presence ( I John 4 : 12 ) ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 97

 

“Love,” in the experience of psychology, proves to be the power of fate par excellence, whether it manifests itself as base concupiscentia or as the most spiritual affection. It is one of the mightiest movers of humanity ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 98

 

If it is conceived as “divine,” this designation falls to it with absolute right, since the mightiest force in the psyche has always been described as “God.” Whether we believe in God or not, whether we marvel or curse, the word “God” is always on our lips ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 98

 

Anything psychically powerful is invariably called “God.” At the same time “God” is set over against man and expressly set apart from him ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 98

 

This means, psychologically, that the libido, regarded as the force of desire and aspiration, as psychic energy in the widest sense, stands in part at the disposal of the ego, and in part confronts the ego autonomously, sometimes influencing it so powerfully that it is either put in a position of unwilling constraint, or else discovers in the libido itself a new and unexpected source of strength ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 98

 

Dreams seem to remain spontaneously in the memory for just so long as they correctly sum up the psychological situation of the individual ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 78

 

Nietzsche says [paraphrase]: Dreams carry us back to remote conditions of human culture and give us a ready means of understanding them better. They come to us now so easily because of having been drilled into man for immense periods of time and now serve as a recreation for the brain which by day has to satisfy the stern demands of thought imposed by a higher culture ~Carl Jung, CW 5, Para 27