When I hear such questions, it always makes me think of the Rabbi who was asked how it could be that God often showed himself to people in the olden days but that nowadays one no longer saw him. The Rabbi, replied: “Nor is there anyone nowadays who could stoop so low” ~Carl Jung, CW18, Para 600

We are so captivated by and entangled in our subjective consciousness that we have simply forgotten the age-old fact that God speaks chiefly through dreams and visions. The Buddhist discards the world of unconscious fantasies as “distractions” and useless illusions; the Christian puts his Church and his Bible between himself and his unconscious; and the rationalist intellectual does not yet know that his consciousness is not his total psyche, in spite of the fact that for more than seventy years the unconscious has been a basic scientific concept that is indispensable to any serious student of psychology ~Carl Jung, CW18, Para 601

When a person dies, the feelings and emotions that bound his relatives to him lose their application to reality and sink into the unconscious, where they activate a collective content that has a deleterious effect on consciousness Carl Jung, CW 8, Para, 598

The Bataks and many other primitives therefore say that when a man dies his character deteriorates, so that he is always trying to harm the living in some way ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 598

This view is obviously based on the experience that a persistent attachment to the dead makes life seem less worth living, and may even be the cause of psychic illnesses. The harmful effect shows itself in the form of loss of libido, depression, and physical debility. There are also universal reports of these post-mortem phenomena in the form of ghost and hauntings ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 598

The psychotherapeutic endeavors of the so-called spirits are aimed at the living either directly, or indirectly through the deceased person, in order to make them more conscious ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 599

Spiritualism as a collective phenomenon thus pursues the same goals as medical psychology, and in doing so produces, the same basic ideas and images styling themselves the “teachings of the spirits” which are characteristic of the nature of the collective unconscious ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 599

The body cannot be understood as a mere heaping together of inert matter, but must be regarded as a material system ready for life and making life possible, with the proviso that for all its readiness it could not live without the addition of a “living being.” For setting aside the possible significance of “living being,” there is lacking to the body by itself something that is necessary to its life, namely a psychic factor. ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 605

We know this directly from our own experience of ourselves, and indirectly from our experience of our fellow men. We also know it through our scientific study of the higher vertebrates, and, for total lack of evidence to the contrary, we must suppose that some such factor is present in lower organisms and even in plants ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 605

Mind and body are the expression of a single entity whose essential nature is not knowable either from its outward, material manifestation or from inner, direct perception ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 619

According to an ancient belief, man arose from the coming together of a soul and a body. It would probably be more correct to speak of an unknowable living being, concerning the ultimate nature of which nothing can be said except that it vaguely expresses the quintessence of “life” ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 619

This living being appears outwardly as the material body, but inwardly as a series of images of the vital activities taking place within it. They are two sides of the same coin, and we cannot rid ourselves of the doubt that perhaps this whole separation of mind and body may finally prove to be merely a device of reason for the purpose of conscious discrimination ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 619

Spirit, in Old High German Geist, and in Anglo Saxon gast, meant a supernatural being in contradistinction to the body ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 627

According to Kluge, the fundamental meaning of the word [spirit] is not quite certain, though there seem to be connections with the Old Norse geisa, to rage,' with the Gothic us-gaisyan,to be beside oneself,’ with the Swiss-German üf-gaistä, `to fly into a passion,’ and with the English aghast ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 627

These connections are substantiated by other figures of speech. For a person “to be seized with rage” means that something falls on him, sits on him, rides him, he is ridden by the devil, he is possessed, something has got into him, etc. When we are “beside ourselves with rage” we are obviously no longer identical with ourselves, but are possessed by a daemon or spirit ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 627

The primitive atmosphere in which the word “spirit” came to birth exists in us still, though of course on a psychic level somewhere below consciousness. But as modern spiritualism shows, it needs very little to bring that bit of primitive mentality to the surface ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 628

If the etymological derivation (which in itself is quite plausible) holds good, the “spirit” in this sense would be the image of a personified affect. For instance, when a person lets himself be carried away by impudent talk, we say, his tongue has run away with him, which is the equivalent to saying that his talk has become an independent being that has snatched him up and run off with him ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 628

Psychologically we would say: every affect tends to become an autonomous complex, to break away from the hierarchy of consciousness and, if possible, to drag the ego after it ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 628

No wonder, then, that the primitive mind sees in this the activity of a strange invisible being, a spirit. Spirit in this case is the reflection of an autonomous affect, which is why the ancients, very appropriately, called the spirits imagines, `images’ ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 628

Let us now turn to other usages of the concept of the “spirit”. The phrase “he acts in the spirit of his dead father” still has a double meaning, for here the word “spirit” refers as much to the spirit of the dead as to an attitude of mind. Other idioms are “doing something in a new spirit,” or, “a new spirit is growing up,” meaning a renewal of mental attitude ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 629

The basic idea is again that of possession by a spirit, which has become, say, the “guiding spirit” of a group. A more sombre note is struck when we say: “An evil spirit reigns in that family” ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 629

Here we are dealing not with personifications of affects but with visualizations of a whole frame of mind orto put it psychologicallyan attitude. A bad attitude expressed as an evil spirit therefore has, if naïvely conceived, nearly the same psychological function as a personified affect ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 630

The concept of “spirit” goes far beyond the animistic frame of reference. Aphorisms and proverbs are as a rule the result of much experience and individual effort, a summing up of insights and conclusions in a few pregnant words. Those sayings or ideals that store up the richest experience of life and the deepest reflection constitute what we call `spirit’ in the best sense of the word ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 633

The more absolute and compelling the ruling idea, the more it has the nature of an autonomous complex that confronts the ego-consciousness as an unshakable fact ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 633

Spirit that can be translated into a definite concept is a psychic complex lying within the orbit of our ego-consciousness. It will not bring forth anything, nor will it achieve anything more than we have put into it ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 644

But spirit that demands a symbol for its expression is a psychic complex that contains the seeds of incalculable possibilities. The most obvious and best example of this is the effectiveness of the Christian symbols, whose power changed the face of history. If one looks without prejudice at the way the spirit of early Christianity worked on the mind of the average man of the second century, one can only be amazed. But then, no spirit was ever as creative as this. No wonder it was felt to be of godlike superiority ~Carl Jung, CW 8, Para 644

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