I have given a detailed description of a purely psychological typology in my book Psychological Types.
My investigation was based on twenty years of work as a doctor, which brought me into contact
with people of all classes from all the great nations.
When one begins as a young doctor, one’s head is still full of clinical pictures and diagnoses.
In the course of the years, impressions of quite another kind accumulate.
One is struck by the enormous diversity of human individuals, by the chaotic profusion of individual cases, the special circumstances of
whose lives and whose special characters produce clinical pictures that, even supposing one still felt any desire to do so, can
be squeezed into the straitjacket of a diagnosis only by force.
The fact that the disturbance can be given such and such a name appears completely irrelevant eside the overwhelming
impression one has that all clinical pictures are so many mimetic or histrionic demonstrations of certain definite
The pathological problem upon which everything turns has virtually nothing to do with the clinical picture, but is
essentially an expression of character. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 970
A type is a specimen or example which reproduces in a characteristic way the character of a species or class.
In the narrower sense used in this particular work, a type is a characteristic specimen of a general attitude occurring in
many individual forms.
From a great number of existing or possible attitudes I have singled out four; those, namely, that are primarily oriented by the four
basic psychological functions: thinking, feeling, sensation, intuition.
When any of these attitudes is habitual, thus setting a definite stamp on the character of an individual, I speak of a
These function-types, which one can call the thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuitive types, may be divided into two classes according
to the quality of the basic function, i.e., into the rational and the irrational.
The thinking and feeling types belong to the former class, the sensation and intuitive types to the latter.
A further division into two classes is permitted by the predominant trend of the movement of libido, namely introversion and
All the basic types can belong equally well to one or the other of these classes, according to the predominance of
the introverted or extraverted attitude. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 835
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