Carl Jung:  CW 6  “Psychological Types”

 

The more “eternal” a truth, the more lifeless it is and worthless; it says nothing more to us because it is self-evident. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 87

 

Before [individuation] can be taken as a goal, the educational aim of adaptation to the necessary minimum of collective norms must first be attained. If a plant is to unfold its specific nature to the full, it must first be able to grow in the soil in which it is planted. ~Carl Jung; CW 6, par. 761.

 

As a rule, whenever such a falsification of type takes place . . . the individual becomes neurotic later, and can be cured only by developing the attitude consonant with his nature. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 560.

 

. . . poets . . . create from the very depths of the collective unconscious, voicing aloud what others only dream. ~Carl Jung; CW 6, Page 323.

 

The will is a psychological phenomenon that owes its existence to culture and moral education, but is largely lacking in the primitive mentality. ~Carl Jung,  CW 6, para 844.

 

We find in Gnosticism what was lacking in the centuries that followed: a belief in the efficacy of individual revelation and individual knowledge. This belief was rooted in the proud feeling of man’s affinity with the gods. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Page 242.

 

Like any archetype, the essential nature of the self is unknowable, but its manifestations are the content of myth and legend. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 790.

 

The creation of something new is not accomplished by the intellect, creative mind plays with the object it loves. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 197.

 

Before [individuation] can be taken as a goal, the educational aim of adaptation to the necessary minimum of collective norms must first be attained.  ~Carl Jung, “Definitions,” CW 6, par. 761.

 

Everyone whose attitude is introverted thinks, feels, and acts in a way that clearly demonstrates that the subject is the prime motivating factor and that the object is of secondary importance. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Par 769.

 

By psyche I understand the totality of all psychic processes, conscious as well as unconscious. By soul, on the other hand, I understand a clearly demarcated functional complex that can best be described as a “personality.” ~Carl Jung;  CW 6, par. 797

 

Intuition is not mere perception, or vision, but an active, creative process that puts into the object just as much as it takes out. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, para 610.

 

The psyche creates reality every day, the only expression I can use for this activity is fantasy. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 78.

 

Passive fantasy […] is always in need of conscious criticism […] whereas active fantasy [,,,] does not require criticism so much as understanding. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Par. 714.

 

If he is intent only on the outer reality, he must live his myth; if he is turned only towards the inner reality, he must dream his outer, so-called real life. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 280

 

The psychology of an individual can never be exhaustively explained from himself alone: a clear recognition is needed of the way it is also conditioned by historical and environmental circumstances.  ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 717

 

Again, no psychological fact can ever be exhaustively explained in terms of causality alone; as a living phenomenon, it is always indissolubly bound up with the continuity of the vital process, so that it is not only something evolved but also continually evolving and creative. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 717

 

Complexes are focal or nodal points of psychic life which we would not wish to do without; indeed, they should not be missing, for otherwise psychic activity would come to a fatal standstill. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 925

 

This function of mediation between the opposites I have termed the transcendent function, by which I mean nothing mysterious, but merely a combined function of conscious and unconscious elements, or, as in mathematics, a common function of real and imaginary qualities. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 184

 

Symbol-formation, therefore, must obviously be an extremely important biological function. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 402

 

The symbol is the middle way along which the opposites flow together in a new movement, like a watercourse bringing fertility after a long drought. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 443.

 

Childlikeness or lack of prior assumptions is of the very essence of the symbol and its function. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 442

 

If the old were not ripe for death, nothing new would appear; and if the old were not injuriously blocking the way for the new; it could not and need not be rooted out. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 446.

 

The creation of a symbol is not a rational process, for a rational process could never produce an image that represents a content which is at bottom incomprehensible.  ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 425

 

The Symbol always says; in some such form as this a new manifestation of life will become possible, a release from bondage and world-weariness. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 425.

 

The redeeming symbol is a highway, a way upon which life can move forward without torment and compulsion. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 445.

 

The vision of the symbol is a pointer to the onward course of life, beckoning with the libido towards a still distant goal—but a goal that henceforth will burn unquenchably within him, so that his life, kindled as by a flame, moves steadily towards the far-off beacon. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 202

 

For as the son of his father, he must, as if often the case with children, re-enact under unconscious compulsion the unlived lives of his parents. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 307

 

It is not the purpose of a psychological typology to classify human beings into categories—this in itself would be pretty pointless. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 986

 

Hence a man’s greater liability to total despair, while a woman can always find comfort and hope; accordingly a man is more likely to put an end to himself than a woman. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 805

 

As the individual is not just a single, separate being, but by his very existence presupposes a collective relationship, it follows that the process of individuation must lead to more intense and broader collective relationships and not to isolation. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 758

 

Christianity, like every closed system of religion, has an undoubted tendency to suppress the unconscious in the individual as much as possible, thus paralyzing his fantasy activity. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 80

 

Wherever we can observe a religion being born, we see how the doctrinal figures flow into the founder himself as revelations, in other words, as concretizations of his unconscious fantasy. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 80

 

The renewed God signifies a regenerated attitude, a renewed possibility of life, a recovery of vitality, because, psychologically speaking, God always denotes the highest value, the maximum sum of libido, the fullest intensity of life, the optimum of psychological vitality. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 301

 

We should not pretend to understand the world only by the intellect; we apprehend it just as much by feeling. Therefore the judgment of the intellect is, at best, only a half-truth, and must, if it be honest, also admit its inadequacy. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 856

 

Doubtless there are exceptional people who are able to sacrifice their entire life to a particular formula; but for most of us such exclusiveness is impossible in the long run. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 587

 

If the old were not ripe for death, nothing new would appear; and if the old were not blocking the way for the new, it could not and need not be rooted out. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 446

 

Everything old in our unconscious hints at something coming. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 630

 

The psyche creates reality every day. The only expression I can use for this activity is fantasy. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 78

 

Nothing is so apt to challenge our self-awareness and alertness as being at war with oneself. ~Carl Jung; CW 6; P. 964.

 

The soul gives birth to images that from the rational standpoint of consciousness are assumed to be worthless. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 426

 

To be effective, a symbol must be by its very nature unassailable. ~Carl Jung CW 6, Para 401

 

The primordial image is thus a condensation of the living process. ~Carl Jung, CW6, Para 748

 

A man’s hatred is always concentrated on the thing that makes him conscious of his bad qualities. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 453

 

A fact never exists only as it is in itself, but also as we see it. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 510

 

Not the artist alone, but every creative individual whatsoever owes all that is greatest in his life to fantasy. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 93

 

It must not be forgotten that it is just in the imagination that a man’s highest value may lie. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 93

 

Purposively interpreted, it seems like a symbol, seeking to characterize a definite goal with the help of the material at hand, or trace out a line of future psychological development. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 758

 

The idea wants changelessness and eternity. Whoever lives under the supremacy of the idea strives for permanence; hence everything that pushes towards change must be opposed to the idea. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 153

 

The demand that he should see only objectively is quite out of the question, for it is impossible.  We must be satisfied if he does not see too subjectively. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 9

 

It should not be forgotten that science is not the summa of life, that it is actually only one of the psychological attitudes, only one of the forms of human thought. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 60

 

In any age the vast majority of men are called upon to preserve and praise the status quo, thus helping to bring about the disastrous consequences which the prescience of the creative spirit had sought to avert. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 434

 

The symbol is the middle way along which the opposites flow together in a new movement, like a watercourse bringing fertility after a long drought. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 443

 

To be adapted is certainly an ideal, but adaptation is not always possible. There are situations in which the only adaptation is patient endurance. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 427

 

It is, pre-eminently, the creative activity from which the answers to all answerable questions come; it is the mother of all possibilities, where, like all psychological opposites, the inner and outer worlds are joined together in living union. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 78

 

It should be someone already has a much clouded vision or view of a very hazy distance, the human society, if he thinks that by uniform regulation of life an equal distribution of happiness could be achieved. ~Carl Jung; CW 6.

 

The concept of the unconscious is for me an exclusively psychological concept, and not a philosophical concept of a metaphysical nature. In my view the unconscious is a psychological borderline concept, which covers all psychic contents or processes that are not conscious, i.e., not related to the ego in any perceptible way. My justification for speaking of the existence of unconscious processes at all is derived simply and solely from experience. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, para 837.

 

It should not be forgotten that science is not the summa of life, that it is actually only one of the psychological attitudes, only one of the forms of human thought. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 60

 

Science must prove her value for life; it is not enough that she be the mistress, she must also be the maid. By so serving she in no way dishonors herself. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 84

 

But what great thing ever came into existence that was not first fantasy? ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para  86

 

Actually it is the parents’ lives that educate the child—what they add by word and gesture at best serves only to confuse him. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 665.

 

The consequence of increasing Mariolatry was the witch hunt, that indelible blot on the later Middle Ages. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 399

 

And just as the eye bears witness to the peculiar and spontaneous creative activity of living matter, the primordial image expresses the intrinsic and unconditioned creative power of the psyche. ~Carl Jung,  CW 6, Para 748

 

The more “eternal” a truth, the more lifeless it is and worthless; it says nothing more to us because it is self-evident. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 87

 

It is just the beam in one’s own eye that enables one to detect the mote in one’s brother’s eye. The beam in one’s own eye does not prove that one’s brother has no mote in his. But the impairment of one’s own vision might easily give rise to a general theory that all motes are beams. The recognition and taking to heart of the subjective determination of knowledge in general, and of psychological knowledge in particular, are basic conditions for the scientific and impartial evaluation of a psyche different from that of the observing subject. These conditions are fulfilled only when the observer is sufficiently informed about the nature and scope of his own personality. He can, however, be sufficiently informed only when he has in large measure freed himself from the levelling influence of collective opinions and thereby arrived at a clear conception of his own individuality. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 10

 

Reason can give a man equilibrium only if his reason is already an equilibrating organ. But for how many individuals and at what periods in history has it been that? As a rule, a man needs the opposite of his actual situation to force him to find his place in the middle. For the sake of mere reason he can never forgo life’s riches and the sensuous appeal of the immediate situation. Against the power and delight of the temporal he must set the joy of the eternal, and against the passion of the sensual the ecstasy of the spiritual. The undeniable reality of the one must be matched by the compelling power of the other. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 386

 

SOUL. [psyche, personality, persona, anima,] I have been compelled, in my investigations into the structure of the unconscious, to make a conceptual distinction between soul and psyche. By psyche I understand the totality of all psychic processes, conscious as well as unconscious. By soul, on the other hand, I understand a clearly demarcated functional complex that can best be described as a “personality.” In order to make clear what I mean by this, I must introduce some further points of view. It is, in particular, the phenomena of somnambulism, double consciousness, split personality, etc., whose investigation we owe primarily to the French school, that have enabled us to accept the possibility of a plurality of personalities in one and the same individual. ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 797

The symbol is always a product of an extremely complex nature, since data from every psychic function have gone into its making. It is, therefore, neither rational nor irrational (qq.v.). It certainly has a side that accords with reason but it has another side that does not; for it is composed not ‘only of rational but also of irrational data supplied by pure inner and outer perception. The profundity and pregnant significance of the symbol appeal just as strongly to thinking as to feeling (qq.v.), while its peculiar plastic imagery, when shaped into sensuous form, stimulates sensation as much as intuition (qq.v.). The living symbol cannot come to birth in a dull or poorly developed mind, for such a mind will be content with the already existing symbols offered by established tradition. Only the passionate yearning of a highly developed mind, for which the traditional symbol is no longer the unified expression of the rational and the irrational, of the highest and the lowest, can create a new symbol. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 825

 

The birth of a saviour is equivalent to a great catastrophe, because a new and powerful life springs up just where there had seemed to be no life and no power and no possibility of further development. It comes streaming out of the unconscious, from that unknown part of the psyche which is treated as nothing by all rationalists. From this discredited and rejected region comes the new afflux of energy, the renewal of life. But what is this discredited and rejected source of vitality? It consists of all those psychic contents that were repressed because of their incompatibility with conscious values—everything hateful, immoral, wrong, unsuitable, useless, etc., which means everything that at one time or another appeared so to the individual concerned. The danger is that when these things reappear in a new and wonderful guise, they may make such an impact on him that he will forget or repudiate all his former values. What he once despised now becomes the supreme principle, and what was once truth now becomes error. This reversal of values amounts to the destruction of the old ones and is similar to the devastation of a country by floods. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 449

 

The ways and customs of childhood, once so sublimely good, can hardly be laid aside even when their harmful-ness has long since been proved. The same, only on a gigantic scale, is true of historical changes of attitude. A collective attitude is equivalent to a religion, and changes of religion constitute one of the most painful chapters in the world’s history. In this respect our age is afflicted with a blindness that has no parallel. We think we have only to declare an accepted article of faith incorrect and invalid, and we shall be psychologically rid of all the traditional effects of Christianity or Judaism. We believe in enlightenment, as if an intellectual change somehow had a profounder influence on the emotional processes or even on the unconscious. We entirely forget that the religion of the last two thousand years is a psychological attitude, a definite form and manner of adaptation to the world without and within, that lays down a definite cultural pattern and creates an atmosphere which remains wholly uninfluenced by any intellectual denials. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 313

 

Between the religion of a people and its actual mode of life there is always a compensatory relation, otherwise religion would have no practical significance at all. Beginning with the highly moral religion of the Persians and the notorious dubiousness—even in antiquity—of Persian habits of life, right down to our “Christian” epoch, when the religion of love assisted at the greatest blood-bath in the world’s history—wherever we turn this rule holds true. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 229

 

In the same measure as the conscious attitude may pride itself on a certain godlikeness by reason of its lofty and absolute standpoint, an unconscious attitude develops with a godlikeness oriented downwards to an archaic god whose nature is sensual and brutal. The enantiodromia of Heraclitus ensures that the time will come when this deus ahsconditus shall rise to the surface and press the God of our ideals to the wall. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 150

 

 

Reason must always seek the solution in some rational, consistent, logical way, which is certainly justifiable enough in all normal situations but is entirely inadequate when it comes to the really great and decisive questions. It is incapable of creating the symbol because the symbol is irrational. When the rational way proves to be a cul de sac—as it always does after a time—the solution comes from the side it was least expected. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 438

 

Faced with the bewildering profusion of animated objects, we create an abstraction, an abstract universal image which conjures the welter of impressions into a fixed form. This image has the magical significance of a defence against the chaotic flux of experience. The abstracting type becomes so lost and submerged in this image that finally its abstract truth is set above the reality of life; and because life might disturb the enjoyment of abstract beauty, it gets completely suppressed. He turns himself into an abstraction, he identifies with the eternal validity of the image and petrifies in it, because for him it has become a redeeming formula. He divests himself of his real self and puts his whole life into his abstraction, in which he is, so to speak, crystallized. The empathetic type suffers a similar fate. Since his activity, his life is empathized into the object, he himself gets into the object because the empathized content is an essential part of himself. He becomes the object, he identifies with it and in this way gets outside himself. By turning himself into an object he desubjectifies himself. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 499

 

Just as the unconscious world of mythological images speaks indirectly, through the experience of external things, to the man who surrenders himself wholly to the outer world, so the real world and its demands find their way indirectly to the man who has surrendered himself wholly to the soul; for no man can escape both realities. If he is intent only on the outer reality, he must live his myth; if he is turned only towards the inner reality, he must dream his outer, so-called real life. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 280

 

The tasks of every age differ, and it is only in retrospect that we can discern with certainty what had to be and what should not have been. In the momentary present the conflict of opinions will always rage, for “war is the father of all.” History alone decides the issue. Truth is not eternal —it is a programme to be fulfilled. The more “eternal” a truth, the more lifeless it is and worthless; it says nothing more to us because it is self-evident. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 87

 

The world exists not merely in itself but also as it appears to me. Indeed, at bottom, we have absolutely no criterion that could help us to form a judgment of a world which was unassimilable by the subject. If we were to ignore the subjective factor, it would be a complete denial of the great doubt as to the possibility of absolute cognition. And this would mean a relapse into the stale and hollow positivism that marred the turn of the century—an attitude of intellectual arrogance accompanied by crudeness of feeling, a violation of life as stupid as it is presumptuous. By overvaluing our capacity for objective cognition we repress the importance of the subjective factor, which simply means a denial of the subject. But what is the subject. The subject is manhimself—we are the subject. Only a sick mind could forget that cognition must have a subject, and that there is no knowledge whatever and no world at all unless “I know” has been said, though with this statement one has already expressed the subjective limitation of all knowledge. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 621

 

Man is not a machine that can be remodeled for quite other purposes as occasion demands, in the hope that it will go on functioning as regularly as before but in a quite different way. He carries his whole history with him; in his very structure is written the history of mankind. The historical element in man represents a vital need to which a wise psychic economy must respond. Somehow the past must come alive and participate in the present. Total assimilation to the object will always arouse the protest of the suppressed minority of those elements that belong to the past and have existed from the very beginning. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 570

 

Certainly strife and misunderstanding will always be among the props of the tragi-comedy of human existence, but it is none the less undeniable that the advance of civilization has led from the law of the jungle to the establishment of courts of justice and standards of right and wrong which are above the contending parties. It is my conviction that a basis for the settlement of conflicting views would be found in the recognition of different types of attitude — a recognition not only of the existence of such types, but also of the fact that every man is so imprisoned in his type that he is simply incapable of fully understanding another standpoint. Failing a recognition of this exacting demand, a violation of the other standpoint is practically inevitable. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 847

 

Because we are still such barbarians, any trust in the laws of human nature seems to us a dangerous and unethical naturalism. Why is this? Because under the barbarian’s thin veneer of culture the wild beast lurks in readiness, amply justifying his fear. But the beast is not tamed by locking it up in a cage. There is no morality without freedom. When the barbarian lets loose the beast within him, that is not freedom but bondage. Barbarism must first be vanquished before freedom can be won. This happens, in principle, when the basic root and driving force of morality are felt by the individual as constituents of his own nature and not as external restrictions. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 357

 

Science as an end in itself is assuredly a high ideal, yet its consistent fulfilment brings about as many “ends in themselves” as there are sciences and arts. Naturally this leads to a high differentiation and specialization of the particular functions concerned, but also to their detachment from the world and from life, as well as to a multiplication of specialized fields which gradually lose all connection with one another. The result is an impoverishment and desiccation not merely in the specialized fields but also in the psyche of every man who has differentiated himself up or sunk down to the specialist level. Science must prove her value for life; it is not enough that she be the mistress, she must also be the maid. By so serving she in no way dishonors herself. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 84

 

If psychology remains for us only a science, we do not penetrate into life—we merely serve the absolute aim of science. It leads us, certainly, to a knowledge of the objective situation, but it always opposes every other aim but its own. The intellect remains imprisoned in itself just so long as it does not willingly sacrifice its supremacy by acknowledging the value of other aims. It shrinks from the step which takes it out of itself and which denies its universal validity, since from the standpoint of the intellect everything else is nothing but fantasy. But what great thing ever came into existence that was not first fantasy? ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para  86

 

We know that every good idea and all creative work are the offspring of the imagination, and have their source in what one is pleased to call infantile fantasy. Not the artist alone but every creative individual whatsoever owes all that is greatest in his life to fantasy. The dynamic principle of fantasy is play, a characteristic also of the child, and as such it appears inconsistent with the principle of serious work. But without this playing with fantasy no creative work has ever yet come to birth. The debt we owe to the play of imagination is incalculable. It is therefore shortsighted to treat fantasy, on account of its daring or objectionable nature, as a thing of little worth. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 93

 

 

A child certainly allows himself to be impressed by the grand talk of his parents, but do they really imagine he is educated by it? Actually it is the parents’ lives that educate the child—what they add by word and gesture at best serves only to confuse him. The same holds good for the teacher. But we have such a belief in method that, if only the method be good, the practice of it seems to sanctify the teacher. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 665

 

An inferior man is never a good teacher. But he can conceal his pernicious inferiority, which secretly poisons the pupil, behind an excellent method or an equally brilliant gift of gab. Naturally the pupil of riper years desires nothing better than the knowledge of useful methods, because he is already defeated by the general attitude, which believes in the all-conquering method. He has learnt that the emptiest head, correctly echoing a method, is the best pupil. His whole environment is an optical demonstration that all success and all happiness are outside, and that only the right method is needed to attain the haven of one’s desires. Or does, perchance, the life of his religious instructor demonstrate the happiness which radiates from the treasure of the inner vision? ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 665

 

Aestheticism is not fitted to solve the exceedingly serious and difficult task of educating man, for it always presupposes the very thing it should create—the capacity to love beauty. It actually hinders a deeper investigation of the problem, because it always averts its face from anything evil, ugly, and difficult, and aims at pleasure, even though it be of an edifying kind. Aestheticism therefore lacks all moral force, because au fond it is still only a refined hedonism. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 194

 

Both these necessities exist in ourselves nature and culture. We cannot only be ourselves, we must also be related to others. Hence a way must be found that is not a mere rational compromise; it must be a state or process that is wholly consonant with the living being, “a highway and a holy way,” as the prophet says, “a straight way, so that fools shall not err therein” (Isaiah 35:8). ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 135

 

Conscious capacity for one-sidedness is a sign of the highest culture, but involuntary one-sidedness, i.e., inability to be anything but one-sided, is a sign of barbarism. Hence the most one-sided differentiations are found among semi-barbarians—for instance, certain aspects of Christian asceticism that are an affront to good taste, and parallel phenomena among the yogis and Tibetan Buddhists. For the barbarian, this tendency to fall a victim to one-sidedness in one way or another, thus losing sight of his total personality, is a great and constant danger. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 346

 

No culture is ever really complete, for it always swings more towards one side or the other. Sometimes the cultural idea is extraverted, and then the chief value lies with the object and man’s relation to it; sometimes it is introverted, and then the chief value lies with the subject and his relation to the idea. In the former case, culture takes on a collective character, in the latter an individual one. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 110

 

We obviously need both civilization and culture. . . . We cannot create one without the other, and we must admit, unfortunately, that modern humanity lacks both. Where there is too much of the one there is too little of the other, if we want to put it more cautiously. The continual harping on progress has by now become rather suspect. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 477

 

The ideal and aim of science do not consist in giving the most exact possible description of the facts—science cannot compete as a recording instrument with the camera and the gramophone—but in establishing certain laws, which are merely abbreviated expressions for many diverse processes that are yet conceived to be somehow correlated.  This aim goes beyond the purely empirical realm by means of the concept, which, though it may have general and proved validity, will always be a product of the subjective psychological constellation of the investigator. In the making of scientific theories and concepts many personal and accidental factors are involved. There is also a personal equation that is psychological and not merely psychophysical. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 9

 

Since [in the Middle Ages] the psychic relation to woman was expressed in the collective worship of Mary, the image of woman lost a value to which human beings had a natural right. This value could find its natural expression only through individual choice, and it sank into the unconscious when the individual form of expression was replaced by a collective one. In the unconscious the image of woman received an energy charge that activated the archaic and infantile dominants. And since all unconscious contents, when activated by dissociated libido, are projected upon the external object, the devaluation of the real woman was compensated by daemonic features. She no longer appeared as an object of love, but as a persecutor or witch. The consequence of increasing Mariolatry was the witch hunt, that indelible blot on the later Middle Ages. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 399

 

Whereas logic and objectivity are usually the predominant features of a man’s outer attitude, or are at least regarded as ideals, in the case of a woman it is feeling. But in the soul it is the other way round inwardly it is the man who feels, and the woman who reflects. Hence a man’s greater liability to total despair, while a woman can always find comfort and hope; accordingly a man is more likely to put an end to himself than a woman. However much a victim of social circumstances a woman may be, as a prostitute for instance, a man is no less a victim of impulses from the unconscious, taking the form of alcoholism and other vices. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 805

 

 

Again, no psychological fact can ever be exhaustively explained in terms of causality alone; as a living phenomenon, it is always indissolubly bound up with the continuity of the vital process, so that it is not only something evolved but also continually evolving and creative. Anything psychic is Janus-faced it looks both backwards and forwards. Because it is evolving, it is also preparing the future. Were this not so, intentions, aims, plans, calculations, predictions, and premonitions would be psychological impossibilities. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 718

 

The psychological investigator is always finding himself obliged to make extensive use of an indirect method of description in order to present the reality he has observed. Only in so far as elementary facts are communicated which are amenable to quantitative measurement can there be any question of a direct presentation. But how much of the actual psychology of man can be experienced and observed as quantitatively measurable facts? ~Carl Jung, CW 6; Para 672

 

Reverence for the great mysteries of nature, which the language of religion seeks to express in symbols hallowed by their antiquity, profound significance, and beauty, will not suffer from the extension of psychology to this domain, to which science has hitherto found no access. We only shift the symbols back a little, shedding a little light on their darker reaches, but without succumbing to the erroneous notion that we have created more than merely a new symbol for the same enigma that perplexed all ages before us. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 428

 

A symbol loses its magical or, if you prefer, its redeeming power as soon as its liability to dissolve is recognized. To be effective, a symbol must be by its very nature unassailable. It must be the best possible expression of the prevailing worldview, an unsurpassed container of meaning; it must also be sufficiently remote from comprehension to resist all attempts of the critical intellect to break it down; and finally, its aesthetic form must appeal so convincingly to our feelings that no arguments can be raised against it on that score. ~Carl Jung CW 6, Para 401

 

Do we ever understand what we think? We only understand that kind of thinking which is a mere equation, from which nothing comes out but what we have put in. That is the working of the intellect. But besides that there is a thinking in primordial images, in symbols which are older than the historical man, which are inborn in him from the earliest times, and, eternally living, outlasting all generations, still make up the groundwork of the human psyche.  As we can see from the example of Faust, the vision of the symbol is a pointer to the onward course of life, beckoning the libido towards a still distant goal—but a goal that henceforth will burn unquenchably within him, so that his life, kindled as by a flame, moves steadily towards the far off beacon. This is the specific life-promoting significance of the symbol, and such, too, is the meaning and value of religious symbols. I am speaking, of course, not of symbols that are dead and stiffened by dogma, but of living symbols that rise up from the creative unconscious of the living man. The immense significance of such symbols can be denied only by those for whom the history of the world begins with the present day. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 202

 

There is a deep gulf between what a man is and what he represents, between what he is as an individual and what he is as a collective being. His function is developed at the expense of the individuality. Should he excel, he is merely identical with his collective function; but should he not, then, though he may be highly esteemed as a function in society, his individuality is wholly on the level of his inferior, undeveloped functions, and he is simply a barbarian, while in the former case he has happily deceived himself as to his actual barbarism. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 111

 

No social legislation will ever be able to overcome the psychological differences between men, this most necessary factor for generating the vital energy of a human society. It may serve a useful purpose, therefore, to speak of the heterogeneity of men. These differences involve such different requirements for happiness that no legislation, however perfect, could afford them even approximate satisfaction. No outward form of life could be devised, however equitable and just it might appear, that would not involve injustice for one or the other human type. That, in spite of this, every kind of enthusiast—political, social, philosophical, and religious—is busily endeavouring to find those uniform external conditions which would bring with them greater opportunities for the happiness of all seems to me connected with a general attitude to life too exclusively. Although it is certainly a fine thing that every man should stand equal before the law, that every man should have his political vote, and that no man, through hereditary social position and privilege, should have unjust advantage over his brother, it is distinctly less fine when the idea of equality is extended to other walks of life. A man must have a very clouded vision, or view human society from a very misty distance, to cherish the notion that the uniform regulation of life would automatically ensure a uniform distribution of happiness. He must be pretty far gone in delusion if he imagines that equality of income, or equal opportunities for all, would have approximately the same value for everyone. But, if he were a legislator, what would he do about all those people whose greatest opportunities lie not without, but within? If he were just, he would have to give at least twice as much money to the one as to the other, since to the one it means much, to the other little. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, CW 845

 

When a problem that is at bottom personal, and therefore apparently subjective, coincides with external events that contain the same psychological elements as the personal conflict, it is suddenly transformed into a general question embracing the whole of society. In this way the personal problem acquires a dignity it lacked hitherto, since a state of inner discord always has something humiliating and degrading about it, so that one sinks into an ignominious condition both without and within, like a state dishonoured by civil war. It is this that makes one shrink from displaying before the public a purely personal conflict, provided of course that one does not suffer from an overdose of self-esteem. But if the connection between the personal problem and the larger contemporary events is discerned and understood, it brings release from the loneliness of the purely personal, and the subjective problem is magnified into a general question of our society. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 119

 

To establish a really mature attitude, he has to see the subjective value of all these images which seem to create trouble for him. He has to assimilate them into his own psychology; he has to find out in what way they are part of himself; how he attributes for instance a positive value to an object, when as a matter of fact it is he who could and should develop this value. And in the same way, when he projects negative qualities and therefore hates and loathes the object, he has to discover that he is projecting his own inferior side, his shadow, as it were, because he prefers to have an optimistic and one-sided image of himself. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 813.

 

Abstraction is an activity pertaining to the psychological functions in general. There is an abstract thinking, just as there is abstract feeling, sensation, and intuition. Abstract thinking singles out the rational, logical qualities of a given content from its intellectually irrelevant components. Abstract feeling does the same with a content characterized by its feeling-values . . . . Abstract sensation would be aesthetic as opposed to sensuous sensation, and abstract intuition would be symbolic as opposed to fantastic intuition. ~Carl Jung; CW 6, par. 678.

 

Opposites can be united only in the form of compromise, or irrationally, some new thing arising between them which, though different from both, yet has the power to take up their energies in equal measure as an expression of both and of neither. Such an expression cannot be contrived by reason, it can only be created through living. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 169

 

Out of a playful movement of elements whose interrelations are not immediately apparent, patterns arise which an observant and critical intellect can only evaluate afterwards. The creation of something new is not accomplished by the intellect but by the play instinct acting from inner necessity. The creative mind plays with the objects it loves. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 197

 

The accumulated libido activates images lying dormant in the collective unconscious, among them the God-image, that engram or imprint which from the beginning of time has been the collective expression of the most overwhelmingly powerful influences exerted on the conscious mind by unconscious concentrations of libido. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 412

 

As we can see from the example of Faust, the vision of the symbol is a pointer to the onward course of life, beckoning the libido towards a still distant goal—but a goal that henceforth will burn unquenchably within him, so that his life, kindled as by a flame, moves steadily towards the far off beacon. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 202

 

Reverence for the great mysteries of nature, which the language of religion seeks to express in symbols hallowed by their antiquity, profound significance, and beauty, will not suffer from the extension of psychology to this domain, to which science has hitherto found no access. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 428

 

Again, no psychological fact can ever be exhaustively explained in terms of causality alone; as a living phenomenon, it is always indissolubly bound up with the continuity of the vital process, so that it is not only something evolved but also continually evolving and creative. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 718

 

The dammed-up instinctual forces in civilized man are immensely destructive and far more dangerous than the instincts of the primitive, who in a modest degree is constantly living out his negative instincts.  Consequently no war of the historical past can rival in grandiose horror the wars of civilized nations. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 230

 

Man is constantly inclined to forget that what was once good does not remain good eternally. He follows the old ways that once were good long after they have become bad and only with the greatest sacrifices and untold suffering can he rid himself of this delusion and see that what was once good is now perhaps grown old and is good no longer. This is so in great things as in small.  ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 313

 

Just as the unconscious world of mythological images speaks indirectly, through the experience of external things, to the man who surrenders himself wholly to the outer world, so the real world and its demands find their way indirectly to the man who has surrendered himself wholly to the soul; for no man can escape both realities. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 280

 

Apotropaic: Descriptive of “magical thinking,” based on the desire to depotentiate the influence of an object or person. Apotropaic actions are characteristic of introversion as a mode of psychological orientation. I have seen an introverted child who made his first attempts to walk only after he had learned the names of all the objects in the room he might touch. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, par. 897.

 

Sensation must be strictly differentiated from feeling, since the latter is an entirely different process, although it may associate itself with sensation as “feeling-tone.” Sensation is related not only to external stimuli but to inner ones, i.e., to changes in the internal organic processes. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para  792.

 

The dynamic principle of fantasy is play, a characteristic also of the child, and as such it appears inconsistent with the principle of serious work. But without this playing with fantasy any creative work has ever yet come to birth. The debt we owe to the play of imagination is incalculable. It is therefore short-sighted to treat fantasy, on account of its risky or unacceptable nature, as a thing of little worth. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Page 82.

 

I have been compelled, in my investigations into the structure of the unconscious, to make a conceptual distinction between soul and psyche. By psyche I understand the totality of all psychic processes, conscious as well as unconscious. By soul, on the other hand, I understand a clearly demarcated functional complex that can best be described as a “personality.” ~Carl Jung, CW 6, para 797.

 

Nothing is so apt to challenge our self-awareness and alertness as being at war with oneself. One can hardly think of any other or more effective means of waking humanity out of the irresponsible and innocent half-sleep of the primitive mentality and bringing it to a state of conscious responsibility. ~Carl Jung; CW 6; Page 964.

 

He seizes on new objects or situations with great intensity, sometimes with extraordinary enthusiasm, only to abandon them cold -bloodedly, without any compunction and apparently without remembering them, as soon as their range is known and no further developments can be divined. So long as a new possibility is in the offing, the intuitive is bound to it with the shackles of fate. (CW 6, par. 613)

 

The intuitive is never to be found in the world of accepted reality values, but he has a keen nose for anything new and in the making. Because he is always seeking out new possibilities, stable conditions suffocate him. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, para 613

 

If only he could stay put, he would reap the fruits of his labours; but always he must be running after a new possibility, quitting his newly planted fields while others gather in the harvest. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, para 615.

 

No matter how reasonable and suitable it may be, and although every conceivable argument speaks for its stability, a day will come when nothing will deter him from regarding as a prison the very situation that seemed to promise him freedom and deliverance, and from acting accordingly. Neither reason nor feeling can restrain him or frighten him away from a new possibility, even though it goes against all his previous convictions. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, para 613

 

Since his intuition is concerned with externals and with ferreting out their possibilities, he readily turns to professions in which he can exploit these capacities to the full. Many business tycoons, entrepreneurs, speculators, stockbrokers, politicians, etc., belong to this type. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, para 613.

 

It goes without saying that such a type is uncommonly important both economically and culturally. If his intentions are good, i.e., if his attitude is not too egocentric, he can render exceptional service as the initiator or promoter of new enterprises. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, para 614

 

…the extraverted intuitive is continually scenting out new possibilities, which he pursues with equal unconcern for his own welfare and for that of others, pressing on quite heedless of human considerations and tearing down what has just been built in his everlasting search for change… ~Carl Jung, CW 6, para 658.

 

The intuitive’s morality is governed neither by thinking nor by feeling; he has his own characteristic morality, which consists in a loyalty to his vision and in voluntary submission to its authority. `Carl Jung, CW 6, para 613

 

His capacity to inspire courage or to kindle enthusiasm for anything new is unrivaled… He brings his vision to life, he presents it convincingly and with dramatic fire, he embodies it, so to speak. But this is not playacting; it is a kind of fate. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, para 614

 

He is the natural champion of all minorities with a future. Because he is able, when oriented more to people than things, to make an intuitive diagnosis of their abilities and potentialities, he can also “make” men. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, para 614

 

Naturally this attitude holds great dangers, for all too easily the intuitive may fritter away his life on things and people, spreading about him an abundance of life which others live and not he himself. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, para 615

 

The organism confronts light with a new structure, the eye, and the psyche confronts the natural process with a symbolic image, which apprehends it in the same way as the eye catches the light.  ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 748

 

Conformity is one side of a man, uniqueness is another. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Par 895.

 

 

God is a datum formulated as the “highest good” signifying the supreme psychic value, i.e., a concept endowed with the highest and most general significance in determining our thoughts and actions ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 67.

 

The God-concept coincides with the particular ideational complex which concentrates in itself the maximum amount of libido, or psychic energy ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 67

 

An idea psychologically different in different people e.g., God is the belly, or money, science, power, sex, etc. a concept varying according to the localization of the highest good ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 67

 

The organism confronts light with a new structure, the eye, and the psyche confronts the natural process with a symbolic image, which apprehends it in the same way as the eye catches the light. And just as the eye bears witness to the peculiar and spontaneous creative activity of living matter, the primordial image expresses the intrinsic and unconditioned creative power of the psyche. The primordial image is thus a condensation of the living process. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 748

 

The idea of a middle way between the opposites is to be found also in China, in the form of tao.

 

The concept of tao is usually associated with the name of the philosopher Lao-tzu, born 604 B.C.

 

But this concept is older than the philosophy of Lao-tzu.

 

It is bound up with the ancient folk religion of Taoism, the “way of Heaven,” a concept corresponding to the Vedic rta.

 

The meanings of tao are as follows: way, method, principle, natural force or life force, the regulated processes of nature, the idea of the world, the prime cause of all phenomena, the right, the good, the moral order.

 

Some translators even translate it as God, not without some justification, it seems to me, since tao, like rta, has a tinge of substantiality.

 

I will first give a number of passages from the Tao Te Ching, Lao-tzu’s classic:

 

Was Tao the child of something else? We cannot tell.

But as a substanceless image it existed before the Ancestor.

There was something formless yet complete,

That existed before heaven and earth;

Without sound, without substance,

Dependent on nothing, unchanging,

All pervading, unfailing,

One may think of it as the mother of all things under heaven.

Its true name we do not know;

“Way” is the name that we give it.

 

36 In order to characterize its essential quality, Lao-tzu likens it to water:

 

The highest good is like that of water. The goodness of water

is that it benefits the ten thousand creatures; yet itself does not

scramble, but is content with the [low] places that all men disdain.

It is this that makes water so near to the Way.

 

The idea of a “potential” could not be better expressed.

 

He that is without desire sees its essence,

He that clings to desire sees only its outward form.

 

The affinity with the fundamental Brahmanic ideas is unmistakable, though this does not necessarily imply direct contact.

 

Lao-tzu was an entirely original thinker, and the primordial image underlying rta-brahman-atman and tao is as universal as man, appearing in every age and among all peoples as a primitive conception of energy, or “soul force,” or however else it may be called.

 

He who knows the Always-so has room in him for everything;

He who has room in him for everything is without prejudice.

To be without prejudice is to be kingly;

To be kingly is to be of heaven;

To be of heaven is to be in Tao.

Tao is forever, and he that possesses it,

Though his body ceases, is not destroyed.

 

Knowledge of tao therefore has the same redeeming and uplifting effect as the knowledge of brahman.

 

Man becomes one with tao, with the unending duree creatrice (if we may compare this concept of Bergson’s with its older congener), for tao is also the stream of time.

 

It is irrational, inconceivable:

 

Tao is a thing impalpable, incommensurable.

For though all creatures under heaven are the products

of [Tao as] Being,

Being itself is the product of [Tao as] Not-Being.

Tao is hidden and nameless.

It is obviously an irrational union of opposites, a symbol of

what is and is not.

The Valley Spirit never dies;

It is named the mysterious Female.

And the door of the mysterious Female

Is the base from which heaven and earth sprang.

363 Tao is the creative process, begetting as the father and

bringing forth as the mother. It is the beginning and end of all

creatures.

 

He whose actions are in harmony with Tao becomes one with Tao.

 

Therefore the perfected sage liberates himself from the opposites, having seen through their connection with one another and their alternation.

 

Therefore it is said:

 

When your work is done, then withdraw.

Such is heaven’s way.

He [the perfected sage] cannot either be drawn into

friendship or repelled,

Cannot be benefited, cannot be harmed,

Cannot be either raised or humbled.

 

Being one with tao resembles the state of infancy:

 

Can you keep the unquiet physical soul from straying, hold fast

to the Unity, and never quit it?

Can you, when concentrating your breath, make it soft like that

of a little child?

He who knows the male, yet cleaves to what is female,

Becomes like a ravine, receiving all things under heaven;

And being such a ravine,

He knows all the time a power that he never calls upon in vain.

This is returning to the state of infancy.

The impunity of that which is fraught with this power

May be likened to that of an infant.

 

This psychological attitude is, as we know, an essential condition for obtaining the kingdom of heaven, and this in its turn—all rational interpretations notwithstanding—is the central,

irrational symbol whence the redeeming effect comes.

 

The Christian symbol merely has a more social character than the related conceptions of the East.

 

These are directly connected with age-old dynamistic ideas of a magical power emanating from people and things or—at a higher level of development

from gods or a divine principle.

 

According to the central concepts of Taoism, tao is divided into a fundamental pair of opposites, yang and yin.

 

Yang signifies warmth, light, maleness; yin is cold, darkness, femaleness.

 

Yang is also heaven, yin earth. From the yang force

 

arises shen, the celestial portion of the human soul, and from the yin force comes kwei, the earthly part.

 

As a microcosm, man is a reconciler of the opposites.

 

Heaven, man, and earth form the three chief elements of the world, the san-tsai.

 

The picture thus presented is an altogether primitive idea which we find in similar forms elsewhere, as for instance in the West African myth where Obatala and Odudua, the first parents (heaven and earth), lie together in a calabash until a son, man, arises between them.

 

Hence man as a microcosm uniting the world opposites is the equivalent of an irrational symbol that unites the psychological opposites.

 

This primordial image of man is in keeping with Schiller’s definition of the symbol as “living form.”

 

The division of the psyche into a shen (or hwan) soul and a kwei (or p’o) soul is a great psychological truth.

 

This Chinese conception is echoed in the well-known passage from Faust:

 

Two souls, alas, are housed within my breast,

And each will wrestle for the mastery there.

The one has passion’s craving crude for love,

And hugs a world where sweet the senses rage;

The other longs for pastures fair above,

Leaving the murk for lofty heritage.

 

The existence of two mutually antagonistic tendencies, both striving to drag man into extreme attitudes and entangle him in the world, whether on the material or spiritual level, sets him at variance with himself and accordingly demands the existence of a counterweight. This is the “irrational third,” tao.

 

Hence the sage’s anxious endeavour to live in harmony with tao, lest he fall into the conflict of opposites.

 

Since tao is irrational, it is not something that can be got by the will, as Lao-tzu repeatedly emphasizes.

 

This lends particular significance to another specifically Chinese concept, wu-wei. Wuwei means “not-doing” (which is not to be confused with “doing nothing”). Our rationalistic “doing,” which is the greatness as well as the evil of our time, does not lead to tao.

 

The aim of Taoist ethics, then, is to find deliverance from the cosmic tension of opposites by a return to tao.

 

In this connection we must also remember the “sage of Omi,” Nakae

 

Toju, an outstanding Japanese philosopher of the seventeenth century.

 

Basing himself on the teaching of the Chu-hi school, which had migrated from China, he established two principles, ri and ki. Ri is the world soul, ki is the world stuff.

 

Ri and ki are, however, the same because they are both attributes of God and therefore exist only in him and through him.

 

God is their union.

 

Equally, the soul embraces both ri and ki.

 

Toju says of God:

 

“As the essence of the world, God embraces the world, but at the same time he is in our midst and even in our bodies.”

 

For him God is a universal self, while the individual self is the “heaven” within us, something supra-sensible and divine called ryochi. Ryochi is “God within us” and dwells in every individual.

 

It is the true self.

 

Toju distinguishes a true from a false self. The false self is an acquired personality compounded of perverted beliefs.

 

We might define this false self as the persona, that general idea of ourselves which we have built up from experiencing our effect upon the world around us and its effect upon us.

 

The persona is, in Schopenhauer’s words, how one appears to oneself and the world, but not what one is.

 

What one is, is one’s individual self, Toju’s “true self” or ryochi. Ryochi is also called “being alone” or “knowing alone,” clearly because it is a condition related to the essence of the self, beyond all personal judgments conditioned by external experience.

 

Toju conceives ryochi as the summum bonum, as “bliss” (brahman is bliss, ananda).

 

It is the light which pervades the world—a further parallel with brahman, according to Inouye.

 

It is love for mankind, immortal, all-knowing, good.

 

Evil comes from the will (shades of Schopenhauer!).

Ryochi is the self-regulating function, the mediator and uniter of the opposites, ri and ki; it is in fullest accord with the Indian idea of the “wise old man who dwells in the heart.”

 

Or as Wang Yang-ming, the Chinese father of Japanese philosophy, says: “In every heart there dwells a sejin (sage). Only, we do not believe it firmly enough, and therefore the whole has remained buried.” ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 214-218

 

Just as conscious as well as unconscious phenomena are to be met with in practice, the self as psychic totality also has a conscious as well as an unconscious aspect. Empirically, the self appears in dreams, myths, and fairytales in the figure of the “supraordinate personality” (v. ego), such as a king, hero, prophet, saviour, etc., or in the form of a totality symbol, such as the circle, square, quadratura circuli, cross, etc. When it represents a complexio oppositorum, a union of opposites, it can also appear as a united duality, in the form, for instance, of tao as the interplay of yang and yin, or of the hostile brothers, or of the hero and his adversary (arch-enemy, dragon), Faust and Mephistopheles, etc. Empirically, therefore, the self appears as a play of light and shadow, although conceived as a totality and unity in which the opposites are united. Since such a concept is irrepresentable — tertium non datnr—it is      transcendental on this account also. It would, logically considered, be a vain speculation were it not for the fact that it designates symbols of unity that are found to occur empirically. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 790

 

The brahman concept also contains the concept of rta, right order, the orderly course of t ered, be a vain speculation were it not for the fact that it designates symbols of unity that are found to occur empirically in the world. In brahman, the creative universal essence and universal Ground, all things come upon the right way, for in it they are eternally dissolved and recreated; all development in an orderly way proceeds from brahman. The concept of rta is a stepping-stone to the concept of tao in Lao-tzu.

Tao is the right way, the reign of law, the middle road between the opposites, freed from them and yet uniting them in itself.

The purpose of life is to travel this middle road and never to deviate towards the opposites. The ecstatic element is entirely absent in Lao-tzu; its place is taken by sublime philosophic lucidity, an intellectual and intuitive wisdom obscured by no mystical haze—a wisdom that represents what is probably the highest attainable degree of spiritual superiority, as far removed from chaos as the stars from the disorder of the actual world. It tames all that is wild, without denaturing it and turning it into something higher. ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 192

 

Tao contains no ecstatic element, its place being taken by a sublime philosophic lucidity, an intellectual and intuitive wisdom obscured by no mystical haze. ~Carl Jung,  CW 6, Para 192

 

According to the central concepts of Taoism, tao is divided into a fundamental pair of opposites, yang and yin. Yang signifies warmth, light, maleness; yin is cold, darkness, femaleness. Yang is also heaven, yin earth. From the yang force arises shen, the celestial portion of the human soul, and from the yin force comes kwei, the earthly part. ~Carl Jung,  CW 6, Para 366

 

Attributes of Tao:

 

The way

The middle way between the opposites

Method

Principle

The natural force or life force

The regulated processes of nature

The idea of the world

The prime cause of all phenomena

The right

The right

The good

Moral order

God ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 358

 

 

Intuition is in the main an unconscious process, its nature is very difficult to grasp. Intuition is not mere perception, or vision, but an active, creative process that puts into the object just as much as it takes out. Since it does this unconsciously, it also has an unconscious effect on the object ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 610

 

Intuition, like sensation, is an irrational function of perception. As with sensation, its contents have the character of being “given,” in contrast to the “derived” or “produced” character of thinking and feeling contents ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 770

 

Intuition is the function that mediates perceptions in an unconscious way. Everything, whether outer or inner objects or their relationships, can be the focus of this perception ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 770

 

The primary function of intuition is simply to transmit images, or perceptions of relations between things, which could not be transmitted by the other functions or only in a very roundabout way ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 611

 

Intuition may be seen as the perception of one’s own unconscious processes, withdrawing one from the object. It mounts above it, ever seeking to rule its material, to shape it, even violently, in accordance with one’s own subjective viewpoint, though without being aware of doing so ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 219

 

The peculiarity of intuition is that it is neither sense perception, nor feeling, nor intellectual inference, although it may also appear in these forms ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para  770

 

In intuition a content presents itself whole and complete, without our being able to explain or discover how this content came into existence. Intuition is a kind of instinctive apprehension, no matter of what contents ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 770

 

Intuition tries to apprehend the widest range of possibilities, since only through envisioning possibilities is intuition fully satisfied ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 612

 

In Schiller we have to reckon with a predominance of intellect, not at the expense of his poetic intuition but at the cost of feeling. To Schiller himself it seemed as though there were a perpetual conflict in him between imagination and abstraction, that is, between intuition and thinking.“Even now it happens often enough that the power of imagination disturbs my abstraction, and cold reasoning my poetry” ( Goethe, ed. Beutler, XX, p. 20 ) ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 117

 

Intuition is constantly seeking fresh outlets and new possibilities in external life. In a very short time every existing situation becomes a prison for the intuitive, a chain that has to be broken ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 612

 

The intuitive does have sensations, of course, but is not guided by them as such; he uses them merely as starting-points for his perceptions. He selects them by unconscious predilections ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 611

 

For a time objects appear to have an exaggerated value, if they should serve to bring about a solution, a deliverance, or lead to the discovery of a new possibility. Yet not sooner have they served their purpose as stepping-stones or bridges than they lose their value altogether and are discarded as burdensome appendages. Facts are acknowledged only if they open new possibilities of advancing beyond them and delivering the individual from their power. Nascent possibilities are compelling motives from which intuition cannot escape and to which all else must be sacrificed ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 612

 

Brahman requires that external opposites, such as heat and cold, first be denied participation in the psyche, and then extreme fluctuations of emotion, such as love and hate ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 329

 

Fluctuations of emotion are, of course, the constant concomitants of all psychic opposites, and hence of all conflicts of ideas, whether moral or otherwise. We know from experience that the emotions thus aroused increase in proportion as the exciting factor affects the individual as a whole ~Carl Jung, CW 6. Para 329

 

The Indian purpose is therefore clear: it wants to free the individual altogether from the opposites inherent in human nature, so that he can attain a new life in Brahman, which is the state of redemption and at the same time God. It is an irrational union of opposites, their final overcoming. Although Brahman, the world-ground and world-creator, created the opposites, they must nevertheless be cancelled out in it again, for otherwise it would not amount to a state of redemption ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 329

 

Brahman is the union and dissolution of all opposites, and at the same time stands outside them as an irrational factor. It is therefore wholly beyond cognition and comprehension. It is a divine entity, at once the Self (though to a lesser degree than the analogous Atman concept) and a definite psychological state characterized by isolation from the flux of affects ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 330

 

Since suffering is an affect, release from affects means deliverance. Deliverance from the flux of affects, from the tension of opposites, is synonymous with the way of redemption that gradually leads to Brahman ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 330

 

Brahman is not only the producer but the produced, the ever-becoming. The epithet “Gracious One” (vena), here bestowed on the sun, is elsewhere applied to the seer who is endowed with the divine light, for, like the Brahman sun, the mind of the seer traverses “earth and heaven contemplating Brahman.” The intimate connection, indeed identity, between the divine being and the Self (Atman) of the man is generally known ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 332

 

Brahman is also prana, the breath of life and the cosmic principle; it is vayu, wind, which is described in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (3.7) as “the thread by which this world and the other world and all things are tied together, the Self, the inner controller, the immortal” ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 334

 

Brahman is conceived in the Atharva Veda as the vitalistic-principle, the life force, which fashions all the organs and their respective instincts ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 335

 

Even man’s strength comes from Brahman. The Brahman concept, by virtue of all its attributes and symbols, coincides with that of a dynamic or creative principle which I have termed libido ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 336

 

The word Brahman means prayer, incantation, sacred speech, sacred knowledge (veda), holy life, the sacred caste (the Brahmans), the Absolute ~Carl Jung, CW 6, Para 336